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provifions. Snow being on the ground, in a manner, demolished by those he was fagacious-enough to pull the 'finkings, amounted toeighteen,among heels off his shoes, and set them on which was Mr. Littledale's elegant inverted at the toes, to prevent beiog 'manfion; and between fixty and traced. Since that time, a poor wo eighty families deserted that part of man, big with child, travelling alone the town.- The furniture was saved through this inhospitable vale, to Dent out of all the houses, except two. dale, was taken in labour, and found 'The pavement in George Street was dead in this cave." P. 208.
'rent in many places.
"• Skilful coal-viewers were imme
diately employed to inspect all the COAL-WORKS AT WHITEHAVEN.
old workings which were acceflible; “ THE coal-works, being near the "and their report, that no further sea, are very convenient for the ship · danger was to be apprehended, quiet. ping; some of these mines are worked ed the minds of the inhabitants, and many hundred yards under the sea, * brought them back to those deserted and others beneath the town. This * dwellings which were not thook by latter circumstance, in its consequence, the alarming accident. No further occafioned great alarm to the inhabita . calamity has ensued.' ants fome years ago, which is thus re • Coal, it is supposed, was first corded in the History of Cumberland, raised here about one hundred and fifty taken from the provincial newspaper or one hundred and fixty years ago; of this town.
and since which time the workings * * About two o'clock, on Monday, have increased rapidly. It is conjec. the 31st of January 1791, in the after tured that, at prelent, about eighty • noon, the ground suddenly shrunk in thousand waggons of coals are annual. ' the garden of H. Littledale, Efq. be- ly raised in these collieries; cach waghind his house in Duke Street, and gon being equal to a chaldron and one the noise of fubterranean waters was quarter, London measure ; containing heard on the spot, by a servant there twenty-four Cumberland bushels, or at work. Near the same time, the seventy-two Winchester bushels, and 'ground funk in a garden behind the weighing, in general, from forty-two "house once occupied for the Difpen- to forty-four hundred weight. Here • fary, in Scotch Street, and in the are coal-pits three hundred and twenty • burial-ground behind the Anabaptists' yards deep, which are supposed to be meeting-house, in Charles Street, all the deepest coal-mines in the world. on the north side of the town. As they extend to a great distance
« « This event created much alarm, under the sea, ships of large burden . as it was evident it proceeded from fail over where the miners are at work,
the falling in of some of the old coal- Some very powerful fire-engines have 'works; and it afterwards appeared, been erected to draw off the water;
that a great discharge of water had one of which has two boilers, of fifteen • flowed in upon the working pits, and feet diameter each, a leventy inch cy"two men and a woman, with five linder, and eleven and half inches horses, were drowned in the works. working barrel. Its maximum in work
“On Wednesday evening, another ing is fifteen strokes, each fix and a half plot of ground funk, within a few feet long, in a minute: twenty-seven yards of the former settling in Mr. gallons water are drawn by each stroke, • Littledale's garden; and other finkwhich is four hundred and five gallons ings, though much more trivial, were per minute, or nine thousand two observed in different places. This hundred and forty' hogfheads in twentyaccident was attributed to a work- four hours.
man in a new drift unfortunately “ The coals are brought to the har. striking into a drowned waste, or old bour in waggons, along a railed way ' working. Several workmen and horses of an easy defcent, and are carried by
were saved from the fate of the others, their own weight, with about two tons • by remaining in their working3 till of coals in each. They are thus con
the water ran off, which was in about reyed, on the same declining level, till two hours after its old lodgment had they are brought above the vessels, and been pierced.
then at once projected down hurries "«The nunber of houses which were, into the fhips. The coal-ftaith is on
the welt fide of the town, adjoining the same grave'; the foil being instantly the harbour, where five veifels of three thrown in upon them. hundred tons burden are frequently “ Thus was the whole of this fertile loaden from the hurries at the same country (the fingle fortress of Matilda tipe," P. 463.
excepted) restored to the power of France, and placed under the domina.
tion of a revengeful and remorseless XXVI. Edieards's Hi fory of the Briz commanded the Matilda fort, fuftain
democracy. General Prescott, who rith Ildt Indies. Vol. III. (Con- ed a long and most haralling fiege, cluded troni p. 124.)
from the 14th of October to the roth of December. His conduct through
out, as well as that of the officers and IS HUMAN BARBARITY OF VICTOR
men under his command, was above HUGUES TO THE ROYALISTS.
all praise. He maintained his pofition « TOWARDS the British, the terms until the fort was no longer tenable,
granted by the enemy were suf- and having no other means of saving ficiently liberal, but the condition de his reduced and exhaufted garrison manded for the French royalists, that from the sword, he was obliged at they should he treated as British sub- length to abandon it by filent evacua. jects, was declared inadmissible; all the tion. Three line of battle fhips had favour that could be obtained for them, indeed arrived in the interim from Kas the fanction of a covered boat, in Great Britain, but they came only to which twenty-five of their officers behold the triumph of the enemy. escaped to the Boyne. The rest of With this adverse troke of fortune the miferable royalists, upwards of closed the campaign of 1794 : its career three hundred in number, were left a for a while was glorious beyond exfacrifice to the vengeance of their re. ample; and if the very unhappy ineapublican enemies. Finding themtelves fure ofreducing the number ofthe trooss excluded from the capitulation, they at the outset, had not taken effect, or if, fohcited permillion to endeavour to cut as soon as the news of the capture of their way through the enemy, an at. Martinico had reached England, a tempt which must have ended only in strong reinforcement had been fent lo the deftruction both of themselves and the scene of action, it cannot he doubtthe British. There was a faint hope ed that Guadaloupe would have ftill catertained, however, that Victor continued in posledion of the English, Hugues (whose character was not at and the page of history remained undethat time sufficiently developed) would filed with thofe dreadful recitals of rerelent on their surrender. In this ex- volt, devanation, and mallacre, which pectation, however, these unfortunate I shall soon have the paintul talk of people were cruelly disappointed, and recording, to the Thame and everlasting their fad fate cannot be recorded with. dishonour of the French charactergud out indignation and horror. The re- the disgrace of human nature. Our pablicans erected a guillotine, with gallant commanders were fortunate, in which they struck off the heads of fifty being allowed to withdraw in tirrefrom of them in the short space of an hour. an atmosphere polluted by duch enor. This mode of proceeding, however, mities. Worn down by confiant exer: proving too tedious for their impatient tion both of body and mind, affailed by revenge; the remainder of these un- an unprincipled faction with the baieft happy men were tettered to each other, calumnies, and opprefled by the meand placed on the brink of one of the lancholy and daily prospect of a gabant trenches which they had sa gallantly army perifhing of diseafe, they were defended : the republicans then drew happily relieved from infinite anxiety up fome of their undisciplined recruits by the appearance of the reinforcein front, who firing an irregular volley ment before mentioned, in which arat their miserable victims, killed fome rived General Sir John Vaughan and and wounded others; leaving many, Vice-admiral Caldwell; to the former in all probability, untouched: the of whom Sir Charles Grey, and to the weight however of the former dragged latter Sir John Jervis, surrendered their the reft into the ditch, where the liv- respective commands, and on the 27th ing, the wounded, and the dead, shared of November failed for Great Britain,"
CRUELTIES TO THE BRITISH pital, and among them it is said many PRISONERS.
women and some children,' to be is“ THE first measure of the French discriminately murdered by the bayncommitioner, on taking possession of net: a proceeding so enormously Fort Matilda, displayed in the strongest wicked, is, I believe, without a premanner the baseness and ferocity of his cedent in the annals of human depracharacter. The body of Major-gene- vity to ral Dundas had been buried within
á After such corduct towards men the walls of that fortress, and a
who were incapable of making either fone placed over it with a suitable in- resistance or escape, it may well be latiption This humble memorial, supposed that revenge was not tardy which a generous enemy, in every in the pursuit of its victims among the civilized part of the earth, would inhabitants of the country. To be have held sacred, was immediately de- accused of actions, or lulpected of troyed by orders of this favage despot, principles, hoftile towards the new.goand the remains of the deceased herý vernment, was to be convicted of treadug up and thrown into the river Gal- son. Accordingly, perfons of all conliun. This mean and cowardly display ditions, without respect to fex or age, of ineffe&ual vengeance, was made
were sent daily to the guillotine by this the subje&t of boasting and triumph in inexorable tyrant, and their cxecution a public proclamation, worthy only of was commonly performed in light of its author *.
the British prisoners. * The miseries of war seem, indeed,
“ Victor Hugues, having taken these to have been wantonly aggravated by and other meafures for securing the this man, to an extent never known quiet poression of Guadaloupe, deteramong the rudest and most barbarous mined in the next place (his force be. nations. In the village of Petit Bourg ing, inadequate to a reguiar aitempt lay, many fick and wounded British against any of the other isands) 10 folders, who had been taken prisoners adopt a lyftem of hoftility against fome with Colonel Druinmont at Point of thein, which, though well suited to Bao hus. These urhappy men made his character and disposition, was not an humble application to Vietor less outrageous and fanguinary than Hugues for medical aflistance and freth unprecedented among civilized states. provisions. Their petition was an
To this end he directed his first attenfwered by a death-warrant. The vin. tion towards Grenada and St. Vincent's, dictive conqueror, instead of confidere expecting to find in each of those ing them as objects of mercy and relief, inands, adherents fit for the project caused the whole number in the hos which he meditated. ***
* 1." * “ So much has been heard of Victor Hugues, that it may be agreeable to the reader to be informed of his origin and early pursuits. He was born of mean parents in some part of old France, and was placed out when a boy, as an apprentice to a hairdreffer. In that occupation he went originally to Cuadaloupe, where he was afterwards known as a petty innkeeper a: Pafie Terre. Failing in that pursuit, he became master of a small trading vefiel, and at length was promoted to a lieutenancy in the French navy. Being diftinguished for his activity in the French revolution, he was afterwards deputed, through the influence of Robespierre, to whose party he was strongly attached, to the National Assembly. In 1794, he obtained the appointment of commissioner ac Guadaloupe, with controlling powers over the commanders of the army and nary; and proved himself in every respect worthy of his great patron andere emplar, being nearly as savage, remorseless, and bloody, as Robespierie himself."
" I am unwilling to give this anecdote to the public without quoting my authority. I relate it on the testimony of the Rev. Cooper Williams, chaplain of the Boyne, who quotes Colonel Drummond himself; and it is confirined by a declaration drawn up by General Vaughan and Vice-admiral Caldwell. Colonel Drummond himself was confined to a prifon-fhip, and, by particular orders from Victor Hugues, to swab the decks like the meaneat feamen.”
I“ N. B. At this interesting period the history closes. Death abruptly terminates the author's labours."
" P. 441.
LIST OF MAPS,
XXVII. The Hiftory of Mauritius, or Inand threatened by Admiral Bof
the Ifle of France, and the neigh- cawen.--XII. Madagascar-Curious bouring Islands; from their first History of a Princess of Ruffia. Discovery to the present Tinie: XIII. Instructions for failing to India composed principally from the by the Isles of France and Bourbon. : Papers and' Memoirs of Baron --XIV. Surveys on the Coast of Grant, wlid refided twenty Years Madagascar.–XV. Course to India in the Island. By his Son, Charles during the Monsoons.---XVI. ExGRANT, VISCOUNT DE Vaux. tracts from the Registers of the Royal Illustrated with Maps from the best Academy of Marine.-VII. Extract Authorities. 4to. Il. 16s. Nicolof the Life of M. d'Afirès de Man
nevillette.----XVIII. Details on the Isle of France by De la Caille, &c.
XIX. Astronomical Observations by THE Isle of France, or Mauricius.
De la Caille, &c.-XX. Extract of Plan of Port Louis.
the Life of M. l'Abbé de la Caille. Chart of the great Ethiopian Archi- XXI. Obfervations of M. Gentil. repelago
specting the Southern Flemisphere, &c.-XXII. Observations on India,
Pondicherry, &c.--XXIII. Extract CHAP. I. Observations on the of the Life of Hyder Aly Khan, &c. Harbours of the Illand Climate --XXIV. Correspoidence of Baron Geograplıy-The first Settlements by Grant, from 1755 to 1759-General the Portuguese--List of the Go- Lally's Instructions---India during veroors.- I 1. Natural Productions the Seven Years War.-XXV. Sumo Agriculture --Marine Prroductions. mary of the Life of Count LallyIII. Manners of the Inhabitants Expeditions in India under his cémAccount of the Blacks---Caverns- mand-Siege and Conquest of PonM. le Gentil's' Observations-Lumic dicherry in 1760—-Execution of nous Globes--Iron Mines.--IV. Count Lally -XXVI. Admiral INand of Rodriguez, Extract from Kempenfelt's Observations on the the Voyage of Le Guat and his Com- Ife of France.-XXVII. Mes and panions, relative to this-Island--The Sand-banks between the Maldive' Bird called Dodo' or Dronte.V. INands and the Isles of France and Historical Description of the Ine of Bourbon-Description of the Comora Botirbon-Extracts from the Voyages liles.--XXVIII. Excursion of M. de of Rennefort and De la Have- &c. St. Pierre in the Isle of France-Ac, counts by Raynal, St. Pierre, Ro counts by the Abbé Raynal and Capcbon, Poivre, Adnviral Kempenfelt, tain Munro.--XXIX. Observations and De la Caille-Hurricanes - Vol.
on the Ille of France by M. le Corcanos-- Igriculture.--VI. Letters of figny.---XXX. Conclufio-- Aladt of Paron Grant respecting the Isle of Events 10 1800—Proceedings of France Life of Bourdonnais the Tippon Sultauu's Ambassadors in Governor.---VII. The Interior of their Voyage to Mauritius-Letters the Inand-Narrative of the Ship from Bonaparte at Cairo to Tippoo wreck of the St.-Geran and of Vir. -Capture of Seringapatam--Death ginia, according to St. Pierre--In- of Tippoo-Population and military teresting Circumstances relative to
Force of the ines of France and Colonel Grenville.- VIII. Leiters Bourbon in 1799–State of Agriculof Baron Grant, &c.--Operations of ture, colonial Commodities, &c. Bourdonnais, &c.--IX. Continua. tion-Siege of Madras.--X. Opera • EXTRACT FROM THE PREFACE. tions of Bourdonnais to his Death.
" THE general plan of this volume, XI. Animals in the Isle of France which is more detailed in the table of Naroon Negroes, Slaves, &c.—The contents, is as follows:
a It begins by instructing the voy- litician and the philofopher, if I could åger in the mode of approaching the have had recourse to the books and Harbours of the INe of France, which authentic papers, which are to be found is accompanied with a general defcrip- in the libraries and public offices of tion of the place, the nature of the air, Paris; but still, I am rather fanguine in water, and foil, and the geographical the hope of its being generally acknowpositions. But before I enter upon a ledged, that I have enlarged the acdetail of these circumstances, and the quaintance of Great Britain, and of the Branches of natural history which arise public in general, with a very important out of thein, I give a succinct and part of the eafterti World.” P. xviii. chronological account of those persons who hate been appointed to the government and superintendence of the
EXTRACTS: ifand, from its first colonial establish MANNERS OF THE INHABÍTANTS. ment to the present moment. I then proceed to give a particular history of * THE Ile of France was an absothe animal, vegetable, and mineral-lute désert when Mascaregnas discos kingdoms: Tome account of the inha- vered it. The French who first eftabitants both white and black, fuc-blished themselves there, were certain teeds, with their manners and cul- planters from the Isle of Bourbon, who toms; and is followed by a descrip. brought with them fimplicity of mantion of the Beautiful scenery with which ners, good faith, an hospitable dispothe island is adorned.
fition, and an indifference for riches. "I náturally introduce the reader, M. de la Bourdonnais, who may, in in the firft place, to the Isle of France, fome degree, be considered as the which is the appropriate object of my founder of this colony, brought some Hiftory; but I suspend its historical workmen along with him. When, narrative, in order to describe the however, he had rendered this isand archipelago, with its various ifiands, interesting by his labours, and it was that surrounds it: such as those of thought convenient as a staple for their Bourbon, Rodriguet, &c. all of which tommerce of the Indies, persons of alt is lo necessary to be known, to facilia conditions settled in its tate the navigation of those feas. i “ The agents of the Company, who then return to the Ine of France, to pofleffed all the principal employments describe its agricultural, maritime, and in the island, exercised too much of çivil establittiments, as formed by M. de that financial difpofition, which is difla Bourdonnaiš. 1 display all the vad couraging to those who are employed rious operations of that diftinguished in cultivating the earth. The whole character, and his fucceffors; with the of the public establishment was at their astronomical, geographical, and mari: dispofal; they, at the fame time, cons time observations of the learned pro trolled the police, the civil adminiftrafeffors and eminent navigators, whom tion, and magazines of the island; some my father fuccefively knew during of them cleared the land and built their official visits to the island. I then houses, all of which they disposed of, proceed to state and explain the cons at a very high price, to those who had nexion of Ihdia with the Ife of France, ventured hither, in hope of advancing in all its different epochas, which con their fortune. There was consequentiy duets me through a long succeffion of a great outcry against thein; but the eurious and interesting events, to the power was in their hands; and come death of Tippoo Saib, which rendered plaint was of no avail
. Engia.d the iniftress of Indostan, “ Several persons in the marine fera
" Such is the nature of my work: vice of the Company settled here. Thef nor shall I endeavour to deprecate cri- had long complained, that while they tícism, by ftating the difficulties with encountered dangers and suffered fa. which I have struggled, in bringing tigues in support of the East Indian this yolume into the form which it commerce, others acquired the honours now bears. It would indeed have been and emoluments of it. As this settle less liable to the cenfure of the critic, ment was so neat to India, a fatiguine if I had written under more auspicious hope of advantage from fixing in it circumstances; and it would have been animated their mind, and they became . more deserving the attention of the pos its inhabitants.. Vol. V-No. XLV.