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'VOL. II.

CONTENTS,

of Ethelred the Unready-Norway. XIII. A View of the laft Scene of

Northern Piracy.---XIV. Ethelred INTRODUCTION.Book III. the Unready.---XV. Reign of Ed

Chap. I. The political State of mund Trotside.XVI. Reign of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, in Canute the Great.-XVII. Reign of the eighth and ninth Centuries. Harold the First, furnamed Harefoot. II. The Sea Kings and Vikingr of – XVIII. Reign of Hardicanute.the North.-111. The first Aggres. XIX. Reign of Edward the Confesfor of the Northmen on the Anglo- for.---XX. Reign of Harold the Se. Sazons.--IV.The Reign of Ethelwulf, cond, the Son of Godwin, and the and the Invasions of the Northmen lait of the Anglo-Saxon Kings to the Birth of Alfred in 849.-V. Bayeux Tapestry. The Birth of Alfred-Northmen Invasions--Alfred's Travels, and the Deposition of Ethelwulf.–VI. The

EXTRACTS FROM THE PREFACE. Reign of Etheibald.VII. The “ THE publication of the first part Reign of Ethelbert, and Alfred's of this Hiftory iinposed an obligation Education. - VIII. The Expeditions on its author to complete the design of Ragnar Lodbrog, and his Death announced in its preface. This design in Northumbria.- 1X. The Reign

was mentioned to consist of a second of Etheired, and the Actions of the part, which was to carry on the history Sons of Ragnar Lodbrog in England. Egbert to the Norman Conqueft

, where

of the Anglo-Saxons from the death of – Kook 1V. Chap. 1. The Reign of the civil history of this people ends, Allred, from his Accession to his because, by that event, their dynasty Retiremeat.-11. Alfred becomes a was closed. A third part was also anFugitive.--I11. His Conduct during nounced, in which it was proposed to bis Seclufion—IV. His Restoration. state the language, laws, literature, -". The Actions of Hastings, and religion, and manners

, which prevailed his Invasions of England. -VI. Al- among this branch of our ancient an.. fred's Victories-Hastings quits the ceftryna Illand-Alfred's Death. ---Book V.

“The present publication exhibits Chap

. 1. Alfred's intellectual Cha: the execution of the second part, which ratter.—II. Alfred's moral Charac- of materials compelled the author to

had been promised. The abundance *T-III. Alfred's inoral Conduct.

extend it to two volumes.

“ It is now eleven years since the

idea of this History was conceived, and Book VI. Chap. I. The Reign of its execution begun. It was frit suggested Edward the Elder.-11. The Reign by the striking fa&, that, with the exof Athelstan.--III. Sketch of the ception of one or two flight references, ancient. History of Bretagne, and the northern literature has never been

consulted by the English historiograAthelian's Reception of its Chiefs. phers. The criticism of Dr. Blair imTV. Athelstan's Connexion with pretsed upon the attention of the preFrance

, Germany, Norway, and Nor- fent author the death-long of Ragnar ready; and a previous View of their Lodbrog. The genius of this heroic Size in his Reign. V. Athelstan poem could not fail to intereft, and its improves Exeter--His Laws--His subject, being his depredations on the Person--The Death of Edwin.- British ifands, and his death in NorthVI. Reign of Edward the Elder.

umbria, excited a strong curiosity to VII

. Reign of Edred.–VIII. The know something of bis history. On Life of Dunstan, to the Accession of the author found that they had taken

referring to our cfte med hiftorians, Edwy.-IX. Reign of Edwin.-X. no notice of this important and Nriking Reign of Edgar - XI. Edward the character. The curious fubje&t of the

or Edward the Second of northern piracy had been as little the Aoglo-Saxoo Kings -XII. Reigri studied. The author was therefore

led

VOL. III.

Martyr,

THE NORTH.

led to defire an acquaintance with the other documents, exift on every genes literature of the North, because with. ration, besides numerous writers who out that, he perceived that the history followed close upon the periods which of his own countrymen could be but they describe. The monkish custom imperfectly apprehended.

of compofing in their cloisters histori. “ The notes of Stephanius, on Saxo cal chronicles, has conveyed to us so Grammaticus, increased bis with to inany authentic documents, that those know more of the history and remains only, whose ftudies have led to their of the nations on the Baltic. On com- examination, can conceive justly of paring their documents with our own, their number and importance. In some he was struck with the resulting fact, few circumstances a little chasm and a that the great Danish invafion, by which momentary obfcurity may be noticed Alfred and his brother were fo amicted, but thefe defects are to be found in the was not a casual depredation, but a most recent histories. On the whole deliberate attack to revenge the death it may be said, that the Anglo-Saxon of the celebrated Ragnar Lodbrog. history may fail to please from the ina This circumstance, which gave fyftem adequate abilities of the writer who and meaning to what appeared before narrates it: but his subject muft not to be incoherent and unconnected, oc- be confounded with his compofition: casioned further researches, and it at The Anglo-Saxons were a people whom laft became apparent, that ine inatten. philosophy may contempiete with intion of our writers to the northern Itruction and pleasure, whateve: may documents, had filled their histories be the fate of the present effort to with obfcurity and mistake. The more pourtray thein.” P: xiii: he investigated the fubject, the more important it seemed that this deficiency Mould be supplied. The connexion

EXTRACTS. between our history and that of the t'i štá KINGS AND VIKINGR OF northern nations was to intimate and incelant, that it appcared imposible to srudy the English annals from Egbert “ WHEN we review these kings to William the Conqueror with any and sub-kings of the North, we behold precision or intelligence, unless the only a part of its political situation: northern literature was consulted and A phenomenon of the most difastrous applied.

mature, at the fame time appeared in “ To combine the history of the the Baltic, which has no parallel in Baltic with our own, whenever they the history of man. had been in circumstance. connected, « This was the prevalence of soves was the purpose for which this work reigns who possessed neither countrị was originally undertaken. In pursue 'nor subjects, and yet filled every region ing this object, it was perceived that adjacent with blood and misery. The the Anglo-Saxon history, during the fa kings of the North were a-race of ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries, beings whom Europe beheld with hor. had been very superficially narrated, ror. Without a yard of territorial proj because it had been unjusly under- perty, without any towns, or visible valued. It became therefore an addie nation, with no wealth but their ships tional feature of the present undertak- no force but their crews, and no hope ing, to make a careful research into but from their swords, the fea kings the authentic documents of our eariy swarıned upon the boisterous ocean, history, to supply the facts which had visited like the fiends of vengeance been omitted, and to correct the in- every diftrict they could approach, and advertencies which had hitherto pre- maintained a fearful empire on that vailed.” P. v.

element, whofe impartial terrors seemi “ The era of the Anglo-Saxons has to mock the attempt of converting it been clasied by some among the le. into kingdoms. Never to sleep under gendary periods of fabulous history; a smoky roof, nor to indulge in the but in answer to this erroneous idea, cheerful cup over a hearth, were the it may be aflerted, that from Egbert boasts of these watery fovereigns, who to the Conqueft, there is a clear stream not only flourished in the plunder of of unquestionable history. Many con. the sea and its shores, but who fome. temporary annals, records, lives, and times amassed fo much booty, and en

litted

2

Lifted so many followers, as to be able honour, but they were only a portion to assault provinces for permanent con- of thoté pirates or vikingr, who in the queft. Thus Haki and Hagbard were ninth century were covering the ocean. fea kings; their reputation induced Not only the children of the chiefs, many bands of rovers to join their for- but every man of importance, equiptunes. They attacked the King of ped ships, and roamed the seas to ac. Upsal, whom Haki defeated and fuc- quire property by force. At the age ceeded. Some years afterwards, the of twelve the ions of the great were in fons of Yngvi, who had become lea action under military tutors. Piracy kings, and lived who in their war

was not only the most honourable ocships, roamed the ocean in search of cupation, and the best harvest of wealth, adventures. They encountered the King it was not only confecrated to public of Haley-ia, and hanged him. They emulation by the illustrious who pur, also assaulted Haki, and overpowered sued it, but no one was esteemned him. Solvi was a lea king, and infested noble, no one was respected, who did the eastern regions of the Baltic with his not return in the winter to his home depredations. He suddenly landed in with thips laden with booty. The Sweden in the night, furrounded the spoil confifted of every neceflary of house where the King of Upsal was seep- life, clothes, domestic utensils, cattle, ing, and applying firebrands, reduced all which they killed and prepared on the who were in it to alhes. Such was the shores they ravaged, Naves, and other generous warfare of these royal pirates. property. It is not surprising, that,

" It was a law of custom in the while this spirit prevailed, every coun. North, that one of the male children try abounded in deferts. hould be felected to remain at home “ So reputable was the pursuit, that to inherit the government. The rest parents were even anxious to compel were exiled to the ocean, to, wield their children into the dangerous and their fceptres amid the turbulent wa malevolent occupation. By an extraters. The consent of the northern ordinary enthutiatin for it, they would societies entitled all men of royal do not fuffer their children to inherit the scent, who-asiumed piracy as a profef- wealth which they had gained by it. Gon, to enjoy the name of kings, It was their practice to coinmand their though they posiefled no territory. gold, silver, and other property to be Hence the sea kings were the kinimen buried with them, that their offspring of the land sovereigns; while the eldest might be driven by necellity to engage son afcended the paternal throne, the in the conflicts and to participate the reft of the family hastened like petty glory of maritime piracy. Inherited Neptunes to establish their kingdom's property was defpifcit. 'That afluence in the waves; and if any of the fylkio only was esteemed which danger had kongr, or thiod-konur were expelled endeared. It was therefore well faid their inheritance by others, they also of the Northmen by one of their confought a continuance of their dignity temporaries, ihat they fought their upon the ocean. When the younger food by their fàils, and inhabited the branches of a reigning dynasty were

fea. about to become lea kings, the thips “ In our happy time monarchs acand their requisite equipments were quire celebrity by the literary talunis always furniihed as à patrimonial of their subjects; by patronizing the right.

arts; by encouraging the diffusion of " When we recolleet the numerous the sciences, and by favouring agricul, potentates of Scandinavia, and their ture and commerce. The nobleft fame general fecundity, we may expect that of the tovereign ariles now from the the ocean swarmed with sea kings. improved intellect and general profpeSuch was their number, that one rity of his people. In the ditaftrous Danish sovereign is mentioned to have æra of the Northmen, piracy was the destroyed seventy of the honourable only glory and the only pursuit which but dişeful race.' Their rank and fuc- kings of energy elieemed. It was the ceffes always secured to them abundant general amusement of their summer forces, and the mischief they perpe. months : hence almost every king comfrated must have been immenie. Thite memorated by Snorre is displayed as fea kings were also called Her-kongr. allaulting other provinces, or as fuffer

“. The sea kings had the name of ing invasions in his own. With strange VOL. V.-No. XLV.

Y

infatuat vel,

infatuation, the population of the day them were revered. These were the welcomed the successful vikingr with Berserkir, whom many authors de: the loudest acclamations; although, fcribe. These men, when a conflict from the prevalence of the practice, impended, or a great undertaking was misery the most unsparing became the to be commenced, abandoned all rageneral lot. The vi&ors of one day tionality upon fyftem; they ftudied to were the victims in the next; and he resemble wolves or maddening dogs; who was configning without pity the they bit their . fhields, they howled women and children of other families like tremendous beasts; they threw off to the grave or to famine, must have covering ; they excited themselves to a often found on his return but the ashes strength which has been compared to of his paternal habitation, and the that of bears, and then rushed to every corpses of those he loved.

crime and horror which the most fran. " The name by which the pirates tic enthusiasm could perpetrate. This were at first distinguished was Viking, fury was an artifice of battle like the wrich perhaps originally meant kings Indian warwhoop. Its object was to of the bays. It was in bays that they intimidate the enemy. It is attefted ambushed, to dart upon the passing that the unnatural excitation was, as voyager. The recesses of the shores might be expected, always followed afforded them a station of safety as to by a complete debility. It was origin. the perils of ocean, and of advantage ally practifed by Odin. They who as to their pursuit. Our bolder navi. ufed it often joined in companies. The gation, which selects in preference the furor Berserkius, as mind and morals middle of the ocean, if such a course improved, was at length felt to be horbe the shortest, was then unusual. rible. It changed from a distinction to 'The ancient merchants coafted where a reproach, and was prohibited by ever they could, and therefore natu- penal laws. The name at laft became rally frequented bays in the progress execrable. of their voyage. In hopes of prey, “ When we consider the calamities the bays were also full of pirates, ever which the course of nature every where ready to dart upon their object. mixes with the happiness of man, we

“ 'These fierce bands of robbers ap- should from theory expect a general pear to have been kept in amity with union of sentiment and wisdom to mieach other by studied equality. It was tigate the evils which none can avoid. a law, that the drinking-vetfel should Experience, however, shows our species pass round the whole crew, as they fat to have been engaged at all times, with with undistinguished regularity. Their activity the most fanatical, in exafpemethod of fighting was the offspring rating every natural affliction, by the of their fearless courage; they lashed addition of those which human agency their ships together, and from the can create. History incessantly displays prows rushed to mutual battle.

mankind separating themselves into “ The ferocity and useless cruelty hoftile nations, and wielding every of this race of beings almost transcend weapon of death to massacre each belief. The piracy of the vikingr, other, without the provocation of any who were also called hernadi, was an personal injury. If civilization, science, exhibition of every species of barba- and christianity, have not allayed the rity. Besides the most favage food, to spirit of political ambition, nor subtear the harmless infant from the mo. dued the love of warlike glory, we ther's breast, and to tofs it on their cannot be surprised that the untaught lances from one ruffian to another, is Northmen delighted in the depredastated in several books to have been the tions to which they were educated and custom of many of these pirates, from by which they fubfifted. Pity, and which, though at a late period, their ci. benevolence are the children of our vilizing chiets at last alienated them. It disciplined reason and augmented feliwas a consistency of character in such city. They are little known to our men to abominate tears and mourning fpecies in those ages, when general so much, that they would never weep misery licenses and produces the most for their deceafed relations.

tyrannical lelithners. Hence the ber. “ One branch of the vikingr is said férkir, the vikingr or the sea king apto have cultivated paroxysms of brutal pear even to have been gratified by insanity, and they who experienced the fight of human wretchedness. Fa

miliar with misery from their infancy, Sner of samplers in worsted, and of a taught to value peaceful society but as • style not unlike what we see upon a rich harveft cafier to be pillaged, China and Japan ware; those of the knowing no glory but from the destruc- 'men more particularly being without tion of their fellow-creatures, all their the least symmetry or proportion *.' habits, all their feelings, all their rea. It is in one piece; it is annually hung fonings were ferocious; they failed up and exposed to view in the nave of from country to country to defolate the church from the eve of Midsum. its agriculture, and not merely to mer-day, and continues there for eight plunder, but to murder or enslave its days: at all other times it is carefully inhabitants. Thus they landed in Go- locked up. thia. The natives endeavoured to “ This tapestry is called, by the tra. escape; the invaders pursued with the dition of the country, * La toilette du relentless flame and the insatiablesword. •Duc Guillaume. The fame popular Thus, in Sweden, part of the inhabit. account afcribes it to his Queen Ma. ants they mallacre, and part they inake tilda and her workwomen. It has been captive; but the fields were ravaged engraved, and may be feen among the far and wide with fire. The faine plates of the Academie des Inscripmiseries proclaimed their triumphs in tions, and in Ducarel's Anglo-Norman Wendila. The flame and sword were Antiquities. un paring assailants, and villages were “ It represents the transactions beconverted into uninhabited deferts. tween Harold and William. The first Thus at Paris, they impaled one hun. figures are, a king with a fceptre fitting dred and eleven of their captives, cru- upon his throne; his right hand is cified many others on houses and trees, pointed towards two men, as if giving and flew numbers in the villages and them orders. Above is an inscription fields. In war they seem to have rec- of two words, · Edward. Rex:' This koned cruelty an ornament of their has been fairly thought to pourtray triumph, for the sea king and the vi- Edward directing Harold to go to Norkingr even hung the chiefs of their own mandy. It therefore illustrates the order on their defeat. Vol. ii.p. 38. Norman account, that Harold was sent

by Edward to William.

“ The next figures are, five men on THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY.

horseback preceded by a cavalier with

a bird in his left hand, and with five " THERE is one important relic of dogs running before him. The infcrip.. thefe times which has survived to us, tion to this is, • Ubi Harold dux Anand which is peculiarly interesting, be- 'glorum et sui milites equitant ad cause it illuftrates and confirms the "Bosham.'. The dogs and the bird history of this period. The celebrated mark the cavalier to he a nobleman, tapestry of Bayeux yet remains to and of course to be Harold, who is amuse the traveller, to instruct the proceeding with his train to Botham. antiquary, and to guide the historian. “ A church follows, before which

“ In the cathedral church of Bayeux are two men with bending knees. in Normandy, this ancient monument Above is the word • Ecclefia. After has been preserved: • The ground of this is an apartment where men are

this piece of work is a white linen drinking, one from a horn, another cloth or canvass, one foot eleven from a goblet. inches in depth, and two hundred “ Two men are descending from and twelve feet in length. The fi- this place of refreshment, one of them gures of men, horfes, &c. are in their with an oar. A perion with an oar is proper colours, worked in the man- ftanding next. Another holds a dog

* “ Ducarel's Anglo-Norman Antiquities, p. 79. . M. Lancelot has written two memoirs on this tapeftry, in the Álemoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions, t. ix. p. 535-561; and t. xii. p. 369-469. M. Lancelot's description is thus : Ce'it un piece de toile de lin de dix neuf pouces de haut, sur deux cens

dix pieds onze pouces de long, sur la quelle on a tracé des figures avec de la i laine couchée et croisée à peu pres conme que hace une premiere penisée au crayon,' p. 370."

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