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YOUNG WRENS.

ANCIENT SIMPLICITY. “Short time had pafs’d, when suddenly “ FOLK be too fond of mounting For. The thuider crack'd, the lightning

Grim Boreas 'gan howl;
tune's wheel;
And though she humbleth thousands

fiat'd,
in the muck,

And frighted man and fowl. Ambition's flame their brenning bosoms.

“ While thus the dredefull thunder feel,

crack'd, Pardie! they must crawl up, and try

And lightning broad did flash; their luck.

The limb whereon the Crows were

perch'd “ But when aloft--themselves they Did give a sudden crash.'·

scarcely know, Despisefull squinting on the world be

“ Down came the limb, and with it

down low: But when they tremble, none lament Some broke their legs, and some their

Did tumble eche young Crow; their thrall, But grin, and point their finger to their

wings, fall.

And doleful look'd below.

'Twas now the time for Wrens to “ To Thew that I am not now uttering jeer; lies,

So forth did fly the train, I'll tell a little tale in Æfop guise. And, twittering, saw with smiles the

Crows

All sprawling on the plain.
THE YOUNG CROWS AND THE

“ Then taunting an arch Wren began :

Sir Crows, of high renowne,
A Tale.

• Yeume, by this your dirty trim, " A CROW upon a lofty tree

• An in a hurry down. Did build her sticky nest;

66 And by the looke of all your limbs, And younglings did the bring to light, • And feathers fous'd with rain, In number five at least.

It will be fome small time before “One morning, on a summer's day,

“Your Graces mount again. Did peep eche youngling Crow, «« Proud fooles, how felie ye defcend And spied upon a brambling bush

• From skies to dirty fens! Some youngling Wrens below.

• Thank Heaven, with hedges we're * These fimple Wrens in happy glee

content, Did spread their little wing;

• And happy to be Wrens'.P.145. And, lightsome, hopp'd from bush to

bush,
And merrily did fing.

XL. The Modern Land Steward; in

which the Duties and Functions of «« Poor humble creatures,' cry'd the

Steward Mhip are considered and exCrows, * Eche is a beggar wight;

plained. With their several Rela. Look up to us, and see our state,

tions to the Interests of the LandOur hoyfes lofty hight.

lord, Tenant, and the Public. In.

cluding various and appropriate We look upon the beamy skies, Information on rural and economie 'While you through hedges wade;

cal Affairs. By the AUTHOR of 'We gaze upon the morning fun,

" the New Farmer's Calendar," . While ye are lost in shade.

&c. &c. 8vo. pp. 415. ** Poor imps departe, nor here offend; Symonds, Il right

• Take off eche felie face ; * This hill was only made for crows, - Then do not us disgrace.

CONTENTS. w. If you do not this region quit,

PRELIMINARY Observations on “We'll dung upon you foon.'

the great leading Topics of poliThe smiling Wrens made answer none, tical Economy-On the various ChaBut trill'd their little tupe

raeters of Stewardship-- A Category Ff 2

of

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of the Duties, general and particular, the work of his predecessor as a model, of the Steward---The first Acts of making large and useful additions, eviStewardship-On letting and leasing dently the refult of much practice and Farnıs–On the home or official Du. experience: in my turn, I have availed ties within the Demesne, including to be derived from them both, and

myself of all the aslistance which was Hints on the improved Culture of from every other source of information, the Demesne Lands-- The Office of within my reach, which, combined Accounts---General Hinis on rural with the portion I had already acquired Affairs ---Detached Articles of In- by my own observation, I hope will formation - On Division of Lands, not be altogether too trifling for use, and on Farm Buildings---Enumera- or too mean to deferve correction, tion of the various Fences-- Pisé, or

“ In addition to the precise duties of building in Mould--Building Efti- the steward, I have selected such leadmates —-The leading Principles of ing articles of economical and agriculTillage on the various Soils- Drain- be most conducive to a general and

tural information, as I judged would age of Bog, Morass, and Fen-Drain. comprehensive knowledge of those iming, Embankment, Irrigation --Roads portant subjects ; but I have totally and Iron Rail-ways--Pit-pump--

-Pit-pump-- omitted those tables of mensuration Brick-inaking, Tiles, Slate--Ochre, and of interest, and those law inftru. Kelp, Wells---Fish-ponds, &c. ments, of which Mordant's books are Timber-planting, wiih its Relations fo full, having no room to fpare for --Various Forest Trees and Shrubs that, which will doubtless be fought -- Furze, Broom, and Heath--Woocs in its more proper place. In the ad

meafurement of land and timber, the and Plantations--Felling Timber Barking---Charcoal--Fuel-Sea- of Davis or Culluyer, and he is farther

practitioner may make use of the tables soning and Preservation of Timber, promised the valuable allistance of ProRemedies, &c.

fessor Hutton on the same subjects." P. vi.

The generous advocates of humanity to brute animals will be gratified

by the following intelligence. Lord “ GRANTING a work of this kind Carrington, prelident of the Board of to be at all useful, a new one seemed Agriculture, in the true spirit of pracabsolutely necessary, fince the only two tical humanity, some time fince rein our language, of any reputation, quested Messrs. Mellish to make trial have been long since out of print, and at the Victualling Office, of the faugh. the latest of them become extremely tering-knife for laying oxen. Those scarce; to this may be added, the con gentlemen complied, and with a comsideration of those charges and in- mendable zcal and perseverance, total. provements, which have taken place ly overcame the obftinate prejudices in our agricultural fyftein, fince their of their servants, in confequence of times.

which, the method of losing oxen with “ The works to which I allude, are the knife, inftead of the old cruel, lathose of Laurence and Mordant. Ed- borious, and troublesome method, has ward Laurence, author of « The Duty met the most complete success. The .and Office of a Land Steward,' bro- animal falls senseless in an instant, and ther to the Rev. Mr. Laurence, the not only the head and neck, but the celebrated horticultural writer, was an carcase in general, is found to be in eminent land-surveyor, in the reigns of a much fuperior condition, to that, Anne and George the First. John in which it had used to be, after the Mordant published his “ Complete numerous and uncertain blows, bruifes, • Steward,' in two volumes, dedicated and frights, too commonly attendant to Sir Wi Wake, Baronet, in 1761. on the old method. It was faid, that Lawrence was truly an original writer on trial, the ox seemed sensible of pain on this subject, which he tells us in his ten minutes after he had fallen, which, preface, making great complaints of if possible, cannot come in the form of the general unfaithfulness of stewards, an objection, fince all that can be dewas wholly dew.? Mordant has taken fred, is to bring thonimal easily and

EXTRACTS FROM THE INTRO

DUCTION

THE

LAWS AGAINST
AND REGRATING.

quiet to the ground. In the same way, reason and analogy, and the invariable We are affured by the Rev. Mr. Mar- experience, throughout all times, and fhall, eels and fish of all kinds may be in all countries, of the benumbing instantaneously killed, an incifion being effect of restraints on human commade with a sharp-pointed penknife, merce, there seems to be no remedy or punctures with a bodkin, longitu- worthy of adoption, Mort of absolute dinally, into the brain, about half an freedom. Nor can I discover any legiinch or an inch above the eyes, accord- timate reason for those exceffive difing to the size of the filh: a method tresles of the labouring poor of this which will be remembered by those, country, during a scarcity, by which who generously wish to leffen the une certain ranks above them, even profit, neceffary fufferings of animal nature.” and for which there exifts an obvious, P. xi.

juft, and easy remedy.

“ The advocates for an accumulation EXTRACTS.

of legal restraints upon commerce, with

their everlafting failures before their OBSERVATIONS ON

STATUTE

eyes, with the constant experience that FORESTALLING in every succeeding period of time, man

kind feelthe absolute neceflity of loofen« PREVIOUSLY to the present ing themselves from these impolitic and century, and indeed until within the fruitless shackles, will yet be eternally last thirty or forty years, the portion dabbling. They cannot, or will not of land under culture, for the produc- distinguish thote dilemmas, in which tion of bread corn, seems to have been the uncontrollable nature of things fully adequate to the subsistence of the alone, from the infinite complexity of number of people, at a reasonable rate, the case, can adminifter the proper with an occasional surplus for exporta- remedy: they are not aware, that n.2tion. This being granted, it may seem ture herself would operate all at which strange, that so great inconvenience to they aim, granting them even a prethe public, and distress to the poor, on mium for their forbearance, whereas account of the dearness of corn, should their own gratuitous industry is ever have recurred at such frequent periods. at a discount, which falls cruelly heavy It evidently proves the existence of an upon the rights, interests, and conveerror somewhere ; and as we have none nience of their unfortunate clients, the to charge to the account of nature, in people. They are misled by the analogy any sense, no doubt can remain that of uncommon and extreme cases, which the blame attaches exclusively to our it is acknowledged mày, and someselves. After this discovery, our next times do require the temporary interinquiry will naturally be, in what par- vention of control; the perpetuation ticulars have we erred, and what are of which, would constitute the very the proper remedies ? On this head I effence of absurdity, in fact, would fhall speak almost without reserve, and render the remedy a thousand degreer certainly without apology, which worse than the disease. ought not to be required from him, who “ The traditional and statute laws making a sincere use of such informa- against certain branches of industry, tion as he has been able to obtain, has styled Forestalling and Regrating, and no other object or view than the public all permanent laws against the exportagood. I apprehend then, that all the tion of the produce of a country, are inconveniences and public losses, from of the above impolitic description. All a scarcity of the first neceflaries, which commerce in corn, excepting that be. have been, at various periods, sustain- tween the grower and consumer, was ed by this country, are to be attributed actually made a punishable offence by purely to the injudicious restraints up a statute of Edward VI. and there are on agriculture and commerce, both the kind of laws, the repeal of which domestic and foreign, arising from that is now-a-days so much regretted! It notable branch of legislative supersti- would be difficult for the most acute tion, fashionably styled the police of resti aint-inonger to devise one better corn; and from certain other errors, calculated for the promotion of famine ftill more prominent, the particulari- in a country, than the aforesaid ftazation of which I must beg leave to tute of Edward. It is vain to expect, decline: for the evil, judging from that the grower of any article will, or

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can produce more than amounts to his transactions, is inconsistent with the own consumption, unless he shall be protection which all men have a right asured of a certain market. Equally to require from a just government. vain it is to expect that convenience, Not only individuals, but even whole but from an open trade; or plenty bodies of men, farmers, millers, and from any other source than from unre- cattle-jobbers particularly, are held up strained growth, and unrestrained dif- to public contempt and detcftation, in posal. All those who employ their a manner to endanger their lives and property in jobbing any article, in properties, and to the stirring up of a other words, foreitalling, or regrating lavage and ferocious, yet lurking spirit it, or speculating upon it (for mono of revenge, in the minds of the lower poly, in this case, is a term absurd and classes, against which the most innocent inapplicable, seeing the market is open man cannot guard. Nobody can be igto all), are indiredly and virtually fur- norant, that the fires and the manyenornishing a capital for the growth of that mities which have happened, in every article, and the oftener in a day, or an time of scarcity, are to be attributed to bour, they buy, and fell, and job the the violent and inflammatory harangues said article, the greater proofs they and newspaper declamations against exhibit of a laudable industry; and the forestalling. "This year, pending a trial more they profit, the greater capital for regrating, chancing to be amongft they accumulate, ultimately admini- fome labouring bricklayers, when the ftering to plenty, and the public bene- subject of the trial was discussed, ora of fit. Common sense, and never-failing them remarked to me, that in Queen experience throughout all ages, have Anne's reign there was a scarcity of evinced the absolute neceflity of these corn, but that on the mob riling, and middle men, in times of plenty; in hanging up a farmer, corn instantly times of dearth, they render a material fell in price; and that, had he the opservice to the public, by checking ex- portunity, he would hang one up in portation, and regulating the confump- every county, the only method, in his tion and price in a meature proper to opinion (and in this they all concurred) the crisis. Let the advocates for con to make bread cheap. I overheard in trol over men's private commercial the street an elderly devout-looking transactions answer the following qucho person instructing a young man, that tion. After a fecond, or third produc those who held back corn in times of tive year, what consequences would scarcity deserved to be precipitated result, if at that grand depot of corn, from the highest story of their houses, Mark Lane, London, no jobbers or' and that their bluod, like that of Jezespeculators were permitted to engross bel, ought to be licked up by dogs! the surplus ? Thcte advocates are pro- Another person related to me, that a bably yet to be taught, that such an man had faid, he knew a farmer whose event would be attended with the cer barn and granary were full of wheat, tain confequence of total ruin to the that the rascal ought to be masTacred inferior farniers, and most of the coun- for it, and that if he could get the optry merchants; the sail of rents, the portunity, he would set his whole predecrease of culture, and lastly, of fa mises alight. . There are no doubt mine, or the necelñty of a constant fome perfons, who give themselves creinport of foreign corn.

dit for extraordinary fagacity, in foi * It is curious, although such an tering this madness in the minds of the anomaly is by no means uncommon, vulgar, and in goading them to action that certain of the most violent de with their vehcment orations, their claimers against this pretended fpecies paragraphs, and their popular ballads. of monopoly, are of the stauncher They are cunningly turning out a tub supporters of the real, and muil grieve to the whale, without reflecting, that ous, suffered by the labouring clalles after bufying itfelf a while with their of this country. The liberty tog which tub, the huge irrational brute may reis allumed by thefe calumniators, of turn, and swallow up theinfulves: that, defaming honest and fair-dealing men, to be fure, would be a thing to be lafor making the most of their own pro- menteri, but it is not less lamentable, perty, in the true and genuine spirit of that sincere and honest men should lie trade, the same fpirit precisely, in thus at the mercy of addle-pated blockwhich themselves act, in all collateral heads, or defyring knaves, who are

playing

playing upon the cullibility of the horses, I have too often known them. people.” P. 9.

fail in practice. "There calculations always fuppofe the horses advantage

ously bought, in the first instance, quite DRAUGHT OXEN.

suitable, and well fold in the conclu* So much controverfial ink has fion; as a novel always ends in a marbeen already shed on the subject of riage and a fortune. The truth is, the draught oxens that i confefs myself not fpeculation is not without its risks and only heartily weary of it, but not a difficulties, always encouraging a man little apprehensive of disgusting the to keep too many horses, under the reader by a repetition; yet, viewing it idea, that, being for sale, they therefore as a national question, particularly in- must be fed high, with little work; teresting in these times of warning or and frequently, the price is but a trifle of aétual scarcity, I am yet emulous of more, with all the risk of change, than a farther endeavour to place it in a that of a good useful horfe, much ftrong, if not in a new light. I re wanted at home. I have known fivemember to have read in fome old and-twenty guineas given for a yearFrench book, that the reafon, why we ling, to be kept in the style of a racea of this country so often failed in our horfe, until five or fix years old, on the enterprifes, was, because we took such fpeculation of then selling him at about a length of time to deliberate; and I thirty-five or forty pounds. Without cannot help thinking, that, instead of denying the possibility of individual wrangling for forty years, on the quef- protit, by this plan of felling labouring tion of which we ought to prefer, oxen cattle in their prime, it surely might be or horses in agriculture, it would have done to equal advantage and far less been much more for the national pro- rijk, with cxen as with horses. fit, to have decided the dispute in one “ There are, moreover, in this quesquarter of the time, by actual experi. 'tion, various common aflumptions on mental practice. The same reasoning very insufficient grounds; the moft applies equally to the home growth of prominent of thefe are, the irremediable Spanish ecol; let us set heartily about flowness of oxen, and their inferiority breeding the meep, referring farther of performance to horses, as to quandispute to the wool-itaplers, when the tity of labour; but tuch objections do samples fhall have arrived at market.

not, in the Nightest degree, affect the “ As to the draught-ox question, it general question, provided credit be ought, in the first place, to be viewed really due to the accounts we have of as a national one, and not, as it has the qualifications (not of individuals), frequently been, merely in reference but of four several species of our oxen, to individual profit. Could the major from which resource the whole counpart of our draught cattle be converted try might be supplied, at least, as into food, the national profit thereby, quickly as the cattie are probable to be would be fo immense and striking, as to demanded, during the existence of preexceed all calculation: befide bringing judice, and according to the gradual such an ample additional supply of the pace of improvement. Nor is there beft Aeth provision to :narket, it would the smallest reason to diftrust the often go to take from our general agricultural repeated testimonies of the high qualiaccount, 'one very heavy funk charge, fications of those famous breeds alludthat of worn-out borfes.

ed to, the reporters being practical " It has been urged, that farmers men, and of the utmost respectability. may indemnify themselves froin any The species are those of Herefordshire, loss on horfes, by breeding, or pur- Suflex, Devonshire, and part of Wales. chasing them young, and disposing of Thefe oxen; the Devons being the most them to advantage, in their prime; speedy, and those of Herefordshire the granting this, the national disadvan- ftrongeit, are equal to horses, both at tage in the end is the fame, and would plough and cart, and by some held be obviated in the use of oxen. But I even superior. One of the Turners of am not disposed to grant even this, Herefordshire a family well known in without reftriction; for although I have that county, as farmers and pigfeen plenty of calculations, in round dealers, has aisured me, that their numbers, of the certain profits to be oxen are superior to horses, in all remade in this mode, by the sale of spects, in their long journics, at chalk

cart.

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