« PreviousContinue »
cart. I must repeat, my opinion till ably, the pifé method of building remains the fame, of the necessity and would merit universal adoption among the profit of feeding the labouring oxus, for cottages and inferior farm-build. with corn; nor does the expectation ings, and also for garden and part of finding them otherwise equal to walls. Will walls of earth be fufficient. horses appear to me consonant with ly dry, and equally durable, in our common sense. Here we have obviously humid climate, as in the more favourthe cause of the alleged neceflity of able one of fouthern France? The keeping three or more oxen to do the memoir proceeding from so able a labour of two horses, a circumftance judge as Mr. Holland, is a presumption which must invariably occur with that no objection of the kind alluded horses themselves differently, fed, to is probable to exist. However it namely, one team with hay and corn, may turn out, nothing can be more the other with hay only; but allowing easy than the experiment. Something fuch necesfity, it ought not to be for- similar to this method of building, gotten, that the fuperfluous oxen would being an improvement on the old Eng. be all of the productive class, very un lish mud wall, is successfully practised like horses, and that thence would ac at Charlestown, Cornwall, the property crue neither national norindividual loss, of Charles Rashleigh, Efq. The exhut even profit, so long as beef should pense in Cornwall is about one third of pay for keep. The saving of corn in that of brick-work. Concerning pile the use of oxen, is not, or ought not, buildings, I have only room for a few to be the object, as by some erroneously general hints, and part of the details, supposed,
referring the reader as above. The « The conclusions I am disposed to French author hints at the probability draw from the above premises are, that of success in this method of building, in process of time nearly all the flow for even houses and large manufactories draught-work of Britain might be per- of several ttories height; I must ownl
, formed by the excellent breeds of cat- however, it seems strange to me that a tle just described; and to my own con- practice so ancient (for an account of viction, with very few exceptions, it may be found in Pliny's Natural equally in point of expedition as at History), and so well known in Italy, present; but even allowing some dif- Barbary, and Spain, thould be conadvantage in that respect, it must be fined in France to the Lyonese only, conliderable indeed, not to be over and remain unpractifed and even unbalanced by the confideration of em known in every other part of that ploying cattle, which, after their las country. bour shall be over, may be converted “ The earth proper for this bufiness into the finest food for man. In fine, is such as poffetres fufficient tenacity, .a mighty difficulty it is truly, for a without too much moisture; good gentleman farmer to send into Here- binding loam, or good brick earth, or fordshire, Sulsex, or Devonshire, to clay tempered with lime and gritty purchase a yoke or two of oxen for his fand. Of this earth, walls of any size or own conviction, whether a pair of height are constructed, fimply by ramthem, proportionally well corn-fed, ming and compreiling it in wooden will not equal, at plough or cart, a moulds or cafes. No chopped straw, pair of his beft horses.” P. 101. or hair, or any foreign substance, is
ever admitted in pise, which might tend
to render the earth hollow and crumPISE' BUILDINGS.
bling, the defideratum being the closest “A MOST expeditious and durable poflible union of particles, as in the method has been for ages in use in the natural process of the formation of province of Lyons, in France, of build. ftone. ing the walls of houses of rammed and “ In the preparation of the earth, dig comprelied carth, provincially styled with a pick-axe, break it fine, and pisé, of which a minute and interesting make a heap. Use rakes, with an inaccount may be found in vol. i. Board terval of an inch and a quarter between Communications, p. 387, presented by the teeth, that pebbles of the fize of a Henry Holland, Ely. architect. walnut may escape, and only the large
“On this subject a material question stones be drawn off. Little more earth arises; if it can be antivered favour. must be prepared than can be worked
up in one day, and it is proper to “ In Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Camwork it under a shelter, if posible, at bridgeshire (Eflex), and in other places, leaft to cover it in case of rain, which many hundred thousands of acres have would make it mere puddle, and use- been gained by embanking. In Hol-, les for the purpose; being too dry, it land, the whole country has in a great may be moistened with watering-pots, measure been gained in this way. Near er, as I should conceive, with fresh Chester, the River Dee Company have tenacious earth: lastly, every foreign also gained foine thousands of acres article fufceptible of changé, conie- from the fea, which are now divided quently liable to rot, must be carefully into several beautiful farms, one of picked out. On beating a small pors which pays a rent of 500l. per annum. tion of earth, and weighing it imme- The others are smaller, but the whole diately afterwards, it was found to together amounts to 200cl. per annum; contain thirty-nine pounds and an half; forming a very pretty estate, neatly enfiteen days after, it had lost four clofed, and subdivided by: thriving pounds and a quarter; in another fif- hedges into square or rectangular fields. teen days, it loft one pound; in fifteen “ Large sums have been expended nore, its weight was diminished only by individuals, with a view of guarding half a pound. In the space of forty- againt. inundations; but owing to the five days, the moisture was completely embankments they have made being evaporated, and its weight diminished injudiciously placed, and as badly conby about one eighth; consequently only structed, the defired effect has not alone eighth of the whole was occupied ways been produced; particularly in b; moisture. This experiment de- the northern parts of Cheshire, on the Bufftrates the di iference between pifé banks of the Mersey, where embankand mud walls, the materials of the ments have been thrown up at a great furmer being originally dry, becomes expense, which, from the manner they impervious and folid, and capable of are placed, may in some cases, by con(apporting a heavy fuperstructure, even fining the course of the river, do more for a century or two, that of the lat. harm than good. ter being worked up with water, and “The above embankments are reared Tired with heterogeneous perishable fo close upon the hides of the river, that articles, when those decay, the walls in many places it is confined to a space become full of chinks and cavities, not more than twenty yards over. wich render it weak, brittle, and of Owing to this, and to an aqueduct art duration.” P. 190.
across the river, with only one arch instead of two, which it ought, at leait, to have had, the water, sometimes in
great foods, rises to the height of about " THERE are many parts of the twenty feet above the ordinary level, kingdom where wonderful improve. and overflows the enbankments, almients may be made by embankments. though now, by frequent addition, Ismerje tracks of valuable land may they are abcut that heights be gained, not only from the fea, but « Instead of twenty,' had these emfrom large rivers and lakes; and the bankments been eighty or one hundred doantages that would accrue, even by yards distant from each other, and the preventing many of those rivets froń river widened in the narrowest places, perlowing their banks, and in great one third, or one fourth of their prei sods inundating the wh »łe adjacent sent height would have been quite level country, are too manifest to re
sufficient. The space of ground beguire ilustration.
tween the embankments and the river, " In one places, a bank of only need by no means be kept in a waste or tree or four feet in height, might, at useless state; it would produce the a very small expense, prevent thousands richest pafture, or meadow hay, by its of acres being overflown, whole crops frequent manurings with the fertilizing
as carried off, and an immense deal particles left upon it, when flooded by other damage being done. In other the river; and those spots, if any, unfit $2.73, very trifling banks might be the for such production, might be profito. PLEANS of gaining very large tracks of abiy planted with aquatics. Cuatry, which, in their present state, “ A proposal has been made for the *** perhaps of little or no value. embankment of Lancaster Sands, that Vol. V.-No. XLVI.
is to exclude the sea entirely, from a By the ABøE ORDINAIRE, forbay exposed to a south-wefterly wind, merly Canon of St. Amable at more than ten miles across, containing a surface of nearly forty thousand acres,
Riom in Auvergne. Translated where the tide rises about fourteen to
from the original - French Manueighteen feet perpendicular height.
script, by R. C. DALLAS, Erg. Ulverstone and Duddon Sands, on the
8vo. pp. 328. 75. Cadell and fame coaft, are also proposed to be em
Davies. banked; and, according to the opinion
CONTENTS. of Major Gilpin, about nine hundred acres of very good land might be there CHAP.1. Mountains in general congained at an expense not much exceed tain large Chasms—-They differ ing 20,000l.
from one another in their internal “ Banks against the sea. The first Structure-The fame Mountain conconfideration is, what is the greatest fifts of various Substances—In some, depth of water at the highest spring- Pyrites are found in large Quantities tide. About two feet higher than that, should be the summit of the bank? -The Burning of a Mountain may be this is much more fafe than one spare caused by thole Minerals --Emery's foot only, fince the damage of a single Experiment.-II. OftheCrater - The overflow may exceed the expense of an Intrepidity of certain Observers.--III. additional foot. If in exposed places, At its Commencement a Volcano has the bank were to be at first constructed but one Mouth-- Many Vents Mhow to the height of even three additional the exhausted State of a volcanic feet, it would not be an improvident Mountain-A Description of the De. expense, more particularly considering, vil's Mouth, and of some other Volcathat new works of this kind always noes in similar Situation - The State of fubfide. «. The banks being large, it is a ne
that in the land of inafterdam: the cessary precaution, frequently to take prodigious Heat of its Waters, The the levels for some time after they are Difference between Fahrenheit's Ther. completed, left they should subfide too mometer and that of Réamur.-IV. much.
There are no Volcanoes in Plains--“ If the embankment be intended to Of Fires in Mines--Of the Fires exclude the fea from a low marshy piece called Firedamps (Moffettes) --Of of ground, over which it flows only at spring tides, the operation is easy, and permanent Fires on the Surface of the to be effected at a small expense. 'If to Earth-The State of Mount Kar. reclaim a piece of land that is covered gousch-Kougisch.--V. Of internal every tide, either in some bay or creek, permanent Fires, commonly called or on the sides or windings of some central Fires—. These Fires the most large river, in which the tide ebbs and common Cause of Earthquakesflows, the work will be somewhat more Central Fires may cause the Burning difficult, in proportion to the depth of of a Mountain, To them is owing the the water and rapidity of the current.
Phenomenon of the Phlegræi Campi. “ To exclude the sea from some ex
--VI, Are all Mountains produced posed situation, either at the mouth of a river, or in a bay or inlet uncovered by subterranean Fires— Proofs of the every tide, the work will be the moft Couflagration being posterior to the difficult and most expensive of all, in Formation of the Mountain.— VII. proportion to its exposure to prevailing Are all Volcanoes formed under the winds, and to the depth of water to be Sea- The Characteristics that diftinrefifted. Each of thete situations re- guith Volcanoes from the general quires a different mode of manage. fubterranean Fires.-VIII. All Volment.'
canoes above the Sea occupy lofty Heights----Of the Fires formed at the
Foot of a Volcano--The Cause of XLI. The Natural Hiftory of Volcances: the Elevation of Volcanoes on Land.
including submarine l'olcanoes, ----IX. The Volcanoes of the Moon and other analogous Thenomena. have Eruptions equal to those of the
Volcanoes of our Globe-That Planet Number of Volcanoes.---XXIV. abounds with very high Mountains. The Giants' Causeway-Its wonder-X. The striking Contrast between ful Formation--Various Opinions the great Elevation of the Volcanoes refpe&ting its Origin.--XXV. The on Land, and the Lowness of the sub. Volcanoes known to be burning on marine Volcanoes.--XI. INands ren- the Globe--The Volcanoes on the dered uninhabitable by their Volca- Continent and in the Islands of noes-The fingular State of Iceland, Europe.-XXVI. Volcanoes on the ia respect to its Fires, and the Heat of Continent and in the Islands of Asia. its Waters.—XII. Volcanoes are not --XXVII. Volcanoes on the ConVents for a grand Reservoir of Fire tinent and in the INands of Africa in the Centre of the Globe--The XXVIII. The Volcanoes of America. astonishing Quantity of the Fires of -XXIX.Observations on the general Kamtchatka.—XIÍ. Volcanoes ren- Proximity of Volcanoes to the Sea. der the Places around them fertile and -XXX. An extinguished Volcano healthy, The Danger of their Vicini. may be rekindlecim-Vesuvius, after ty:-XIV. What are the Causes of lying apparently extinguished for sethe Convulsions of a Volcano -- veral Centuries, took fire again in Their Effects upon the Mountain, the Reign of the Emperor Titusupon the adjacent Places, and often at The Death of Pliny the Naturalift a very great Distance. --XV. The Vesuvius, after burning about a thouSea, when near, partakes the Mc- fand Years, was again apparently tions of the Earth- Prodigious Oscil. suppressed.--XXXI. The great Anlation of the Sea at Awatcha---The tiquity of Vesuvius and Etna as Vol. Eruption of a Volcano puts an end to
-Grounds for thinking that the great Conflict of Nature.--XVI. Etna has been formerly extinguished. The Eruption of a Volcano one of -XXXII. Of the Mud. Volcano the grande ft Sights a Man can behold at Maccalouba --Its extraordinary -The Fall of the ejected Substances Eruptions.--XXXIII. Discovery of -The prodigious Distance to which a phenomenon of a similar Kind they are sometimes carried. --XVII. made by M. Pallas-Its Eruption in Of the dry Fog in 1783_-It did not 1794.---XXXIV. The Hydropyric proceed either from the Convulsions Volcanoes of England-Reflections in Calabria, or from those in Iceland on those Phenomena.--XXXV. In - The Opinion of the Abbé Bertho- what Cases, and where, it is to be lon of the Cause of that Phenomenon. feared that Volcanoes may again break -XVIII. Of the Nature of the Sub. out. -XXXVI. Of submarine Volftances ejected at the Time of an -Volcano of Santorin-Pe. Eruption.---.XIX. The incredible riods of its first eight Eruptions in the Quantity of Lava that issues from a Course of more than two thousand Volcano--The principal fiery Pits Years, and what they produced ---of Volcanoes must have horizoutal Particulars of the nin:h Eruption in Branches.--XX. The Crater of a 1767--Production of Black INand. Volcano fometimes vomits boiling --XXXVII. The maritime Volca, Water-Of the Water Volcano of St. noes of the Azores.--XXXVIII. SubJago de Guatimala.---XXI. Nature marine volcanic Mountains not the proceeds uniformly in the Discharge Productions of central Fires--Buffon's from Volcanoes-Wherever the Lava Opinion respecting their Origio.--Hows, it creates a Sterility of an in. - XXXIX. Why does not the Sea indefinite Duration.-XXII. Volcanoes undate a submarine Volcano when it becoine extinct, from the Mines be- Opens.-XL. Where was the ancient ing exhausted; from the Falling of Atlantic Territory situated-Of what the Summit, '&c. --XXIII. The Extent was it-Íts Destruction, and Earth has been desolated by a great the Consequences that must have folo
OF THE CRATER-THE INTREPIDITY
OF CERTAIN OBSERVERS.
lowed–The reasons for which it are so overloaded as to fall by their has been presumed that its Ruin was own weight, at others they are thrown caused by its volcanic Fires.
down by a violent quaking of the mountain; and in some cafes a sudden
eruption of the volcano has shivered EXTRACTS.
them to pieces, part falling into the abyss, part on the sides, and even beyond the base of the mountain: and
indeed nothing is more variable than “ THE opening at the summit of a the external aspect of a volcano: a viomountain through which a volcano, lent eruption is enough to produce when raging, vomitsits fires, and from such a change as renders it hardly to which smoke continually it'ues, is called be known again. Ten thousand men, the crater, or mouth. This in some says Sir William Hamilton, working volcanoes is more than a league in cir- for a century, could not effcat such an cumference, and in others not fo much. alteration on the surface of Vesuvius, The crater of Vetuvius is upwards of as was produced by the hand of Nature two English miles, that of Etna con in a few hours, by the eruption of fiderably more. The crater of the 1794. same volcano is not always of the same « There have been men, and there dimension. It is larger atter a violent are many now, bold enough to venture eruption, because the eruption throws to the very extremities, to expose themoff from the top, or precipitates to 'selves upon the brittle lips of these the bottom, the substances with which formidable mouths for fire, in order to the continuance of a thick smoke, in found the mysterious depths with the the course of the years of reft, gradu- eye. The Emperor Adrian visited the ally contracts very considerably, and crater of Etna twice, although a tedisometimes entirely chokes up the head ous and very laborious undertaking. of the volcanic shaft.
The first time he saw it, it was in a “ This contraction has some remark- state of rest; but some years after he able peculiarities. From the burning happened to be in Sicily when an erupbottom of the abyss there are con tion took place. · On a fimilar cccahon ftantly rising very greaty fuligirous filb- Caligula, as we are told by Suetonius, stances, which, lowly at first, contract fed in a cowardly manner from the the upper circle of the gulf
. As the illand. Adrian, on the contrary, eagerly mouth diminthes, the tos are the embraced such an opportunity, and greasy vapours, ailes, and pumice again ascended Etna, the better to en. itone's which rife, dispersed; fo that by the grand phenomenon it offered in time the work increases prodigiously to view. There are perfons who have hy them, always contracting the head even endeavoured to fcale the burning cf the thafi. The action of the fire and crackeri cones of which we have being thus more and more concen been speaking: and several have loft trated, this excrcieence neceffarily af- their lives in attempting to gratify this suines the form of a racune whole dangerous curiosity. Some, holder fill, base adheres to and reíts on ic crater, have been known to have themselves but on the inside, fo that10 coine at it lowered into the abyss, fufpended to one muft descend fome vray from the long ropes fixed to the cinder brinks brink of the crater: in adini made of the crater. This was done in 17.0, *fome years ago into that oi Vefuvius, by Soufflot, the celebrated architeu. the depth was from cighty to ninety At out thirty years ago, or a little more, feet. A very aceuratc idea of this
an Englith bishop caused himself to be state of that volcano was given by a louered to a rock which projected in painting of it, exhibited at No. 160, Veluvius, whence he contemplated as in Oxford Street. liowever, when the much as he could of the vast inade of -anouirain remains long at reft, this that volcano. Its bottom, which he wid slli, the base of the cone beconies judged to be very low, appeared to more folid, and it increases its own hiin to be a lake of fire, at the top of heigl:1, which adds to that of the moun- which ran bluish flames. By the gloomy tan. There have been cones formed light they gave, which was rendered on Etna, which had risen a mile above mil.mcre feeble by the finoke that trofe its immeäle crater. Someiimes they from them, he observed that the tides