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within were in many places stuccoed rouse's voyage which is published, and
Friendly illinds, and several of the
a little on two, which, from the proISLANDS RENDERED UNINHABITABLE
digious abundance of their fires, and BY VOLCANOES-THE HOT SPRINGS
the fingularity of the phenomena atOF ICELAND.
tending them, must attract the obser« THERE are iNands of a moderate vation of those who are interested by size, which the almost constant work this part of natural history: I mean ing of their volcanoes renders anin- the island of Iceland, and Kamtchatka. habitable, such as that of Amsterdam, 6 Next to the illands that are rele of which we have already spoken, on dered uninhabitable, there is not, peraccount of the exhausted state of its haps, one more agitated by its fires volcano. That island is only seven than Iceland. Befides Hocla, M.Valmont kagues round. The fire appears to de Bomare reckons there are, five act throughout it with inconceive other volcanoes emitting fire, namely, able violence. We hare before seen Æcraife, Krafle, Portland-boukt, Werwhat Mr. Eneas Anderson reports of teriækel, and Kotlegau. Æcraife, or the excellive heat of its springs. It is Oraife, as it is called by Horrehow in in truth nothing more than a defert his Natural History of Iceland, chap.7, mountain, burning by itself, in the vomited flares in 1724. According middle of the ocean.
to the fime author Kraic had eruptions The Portuguese have made feve- almost constantly from 1726 to 17.,7, ral attempts to form establishments in and Kotlegau had a violent one in the island of Fuego, one of the Cape 1521. de Verd islands; but the frequency " In June 1987, it was feared that and violence of the eruptions of its this illand would fall to pieces; and it volcano, and of its earthquakes, have was even reportut for some days that always compelled them to leave it. it had been swallowed up, so dreadful
“ The island of Sorca, one of the and multiplied were the convulsions Moluccas, has a volcano in the middle produced by its volcanoes and internal of it. The island was formerly well fires. A th ck fulphureous smoke reicultivated. A prodigious ejection of dered the island absolutely invisible to lava from the top of the mountain, mariners at fea, while the people on flowing all round, took place towards shore were all in danger of being suffo. the end of the seventeenth century, cated by it: and in fact a number of 1693, which covered the whcie island. men and beasts died in confequence All the inhabitants were destroyed; of it. The fox which about that time and Sorca has been ever since an enor- fpread all over Europe, was confidered mous barren rock, from ten to twelve an etfeet of those exhalations. leagues round, an immenfe Pharos in Frightful hollow roarings proceeded that part of the ocean.
from the bowels of the earth, and " Among the Ladrone, or Marian- from the bottom of the ka From pas, the islands of St., Antonio, St. Mount Shaptan Gluver, a seventh volFrancis, the great Volcano, St. Denis, cano in the island, there poured a terand Affumption (I name them accord- rific torrent of fire, which flowed for ing to their proximity to the line), are fix weeks. It ran a distance of fixty all rendered nearly barrei by the dif- miles to the fea: its breadth was nearly ferent overflowings of their voicanoes. twelve miles; and in its course it dried That in the inand of Afumption is up the river Shaptaga, which in fome very remarkable in one respect, as ob- places is thirty, and in others fix-andferved in the part of M. de la Pey- thirty feet deep. These particulars
were published at the time, and they cent ground is violently shaken, and a have been confirmed by Mr. Stanley, dead noise, resembling a brisk canin his excellent Memoirs. This gentle- nonade, heard at a diftance, strikes man has visited Iceland twice fince the those that are not accustomed to it. year 1789, for the express purpose of “ The inhabitants frequently dress making himself acquainted with that their meat and all their victuals in the interesting island.
water of the Giezer, and in many “ It is of confiderable extent, form- other springs of the island; which are ing a parallelogram of about 264 miles almoft all warmed by the fires of the in length, and 150 in breadth, con- volcanoes.” P. 82. taining a surface of 13,200 miles. Had it been smaller, it would, in all probability, have been no longer in existence,
THE GIANTS' CAUSEWAY. but would have been swallowed up by
" IT has been discussed, but never the ocean; whence Vontroil, in his yet decided, whether there have been Letters on Iceland, supposes it to have volcanoes in Ireland. There does not risen. Almoft in every part of it sul- seem to be any other grounds for the phur is collected on the surface of the affirmative than the existence of the ground, and is inexhaustible, especi- Giants’ Causeway. The common peoally in the north-east' of the isand, ple, ftruck with the regularity of that where Mount Krafle is situated. Hor. immense object, judged it to be the rebow, who spent several years in Ice. work of men; and on account of the - land, assures us, that at many places extraordinary strength it must have reeighty horfes may be loaded with it quired, they supposed those men to in the course of an hour, each horse have been giants. But why should we carrying two hundred and fifty pounds. be astonished to find nature regular in He agrees with Anderson, that, not- great as well as in small objects? Conwithstanding the great number of sequently, in this Causeway, as well as burning volcanoes, there are twenty in the grains of the various falts, and more in Iceland which are extinguished. in all the other smaller crystals? Allow A great part besides of its level ground this, and there is no farther occafion ftands over abyfles of fire. According to have recourse, on this subject, either to the last-mentioned authors, the lit to the skill of man, or to å race fupetle town of Myconfu and its environs rior to the present ipecies. were swallowed up in 1729. These “ This famous Causeway is in the fiery abyfles run out under the fur. county of Antrim. It is a collection rounding fea, and there keep up a sub- of columns regularly difposed, each marine volcano, as we shall see, by adapted to those that are found it
, so and by, when we come to treat of that as to leave no vacancy in the whole
. kind of volcano. It was that volcano It extends visibly without interruption which, in 1783, produced, amidst the about fourteen English miles, part on boiling waters of the ocean on the land and part in the sea, where the fouth of the isand, a number of small end of it is by no means afcertained, cinder ifands, which have fince, one for it sinks by degrees the farther it is after the other, disappeared.
traced under the water. “ On no part of the earth are hot “ The regularity is not confined to springs at present found in more abun. the composition of the general pile, but dance than in Iceland. In a space of defcends to the formation of each ca. two miles round, Mr. Stanley reckoned lumn. The substance is throughout more than two hundred boiling springs, of the fame nature; and is a species keveral of which were very large. Moft of marble of an iron-gray colour, with of them fpring twenty, thirty, and which the ancients were acquainted forty feet into the air. That of the under the name of basaltes. This fubnew Giezer throws itself up even a stance in its weight, durability, and hundred and thirty feet, with incon- colour, is very much like lava dug ceivable rapidity. Several of them in- from the bottom of a 'quarry; which termit, and among others the laft-men- has induced many men to give the tioned. The time of intermission is name of basaltes to the currents of from five to twenty minutes, rarely lava : a denomination I am not inclined more. Every time that an eruption of to adopt, because, not only the basaltes
, the new
Giezer takes place, the adja- especially that of the Giants' Caufe
way, it-fo compact, that the eye per- interesting; but I have confined myceives no vacuity in its substance, self to what seems to me sufficient to whereas lava is evidently porous; but give an idea of it. Two fine prints there is ftill a much more eflential dif. were published by Mr. Drury, presentference between that and lava; for ing different views of the Giants' Caufebafaltes has no mixture of any metal, way. Productions of a fimilar kind and lava, on the contrary, particularly are found in Merionethshire, and in that at the bottom, is always amalgam- some of the Hebrides or Western Ines. ated. The denomination, neverthe- Sir Joseph Banks conje&ures that the less, seems generally admitted, with a small iland of Staffa, one of the Hedistinction that has been introduced, of brides, thirty leagues north of the jointed, crystallized, or prismatic ba- Giants' Cautéway, is a mass of basaltic saltes, and of not jointed or common prisms. They are to be found in many basaltes. Of course the lava must be other places, but no where on fo large of the latter kind.
a scale as in the county of Antrim.". “ The Giants' Causeway is all of P. 189. jointed basaltes; that "is to say, ist, That each column in it presents separately a regular solid body of three, four, five, and even so many as nine XLII. A Dialogue on the distindi Cha. faces; but the figures most usual are, ratters of the Picturesque and she the pentagonal, hexagonal, and hepta Beautiful; in answer to the Objecgonal. The common height of the co tions of Mr. Knight. Prefaced by an lumns is forty feet above the ground; introductory Efray on Beauty; with the depth below has not been inquired Remarks on the Ideas of Sir Joshua into, and the diameters are from a
Reynolds and Mr. Burke upon foot to two feet and a half. 2dly, That each column is composed of dis
that Subject. By UVEDALE PRICE, tinct pieces, the shape and dimensions
Erg. 8vo. pp. 229. of which are always equal, and exactly
Hereford printed; Robson, London. fit the hollow, in the pieces adapted to receive the lengthened and rounded
EXTRACT FROM THE PREFACE, extremity of the piece which joins into it. Each of these pieces is nearly a “ THE following Dialogue is written foot; so that in general the height may
in answer to a Note, which my be known from the number of pieces. friend Mr. Knight has inserted in the zdy, That immediately next to a pil- fecond edition of The Landscape. In lar in which the convex part is above that Note he has stated it as his opi. the concave, one is frequently found nion, that the distinction which I have that has all its joints directly the re- endeavoured to utablish between the verse; that is to say, the concave parts Beautiful and the Picturesque, is an are on the contrary above the convex. imaginary one; and has given his reaThese particulars are given in a dif- fons for thinking fo. Now, as that course on crystallization, by Dr. Alex. distinction forms a principal part of arder Eaton, in the Memoirs of the my Efsay, I have, perhaps, too long Literary and Philosophical Society of neglected to answer such an antagonist. Manchester.
« Great part of what I have now “ The regularity of this admirable ' printed, was written immediately after structure goes even farther. There is the publication of the Note; but bea point where, in a finking of the ing at that time very much occupied height, fifty of these columns appear in preparing a fecond edition of my disposed in such a manner, that the first volume, and in finishing my few highest, which is forty feet high, and cond, I laid the Dialogue by, till they has forty-four joints, stands in the cen were both completed: and having left tre, and the reft, to the right and left what I had written in its unfinished of it, llope off gradually till they meet state, I inould never have resumed it, the line on each fide. From which if a person, on whose judgment I have appearance, that part has been called the greatest reliance, had not been of the Organ-pipes.
opinion, that it placed the whole of “ There are other peculiarities in my distinction in a new, and, in some this Causeway, which fome may think reípects, in a more striking point af
view, than any of my former publica- to speak: 'I have often heard,' said tions.
he, of the beauty and inagnificence ** I have thrown my defence into its of this building, the grandest, I beprefent form, in hopes that, after fo « lieve, of any modern temple, or permuch difcuffion upon the subject, fome 'haps of any that ever exifted : I have thing lighter, and mcre like amuse- ofien longed to see the original, and ment, might be furnished by this me- just before the French gut poflefTion thod. Lalso thought, that many perions of Italy, I had determined to go to who were not affected or convinced • Rome. This picture makes me feel by reafoning only, might poflbly be still greater regret at the disappointftruck with it when mixed with ima ment; and at the same time, in fome gery; when the different objects were degree, confules me for it: tut ! placed before them, and succellively 'cannot help reflecting with pain, that examined and canvafled by the dif a building, which requires such conferent fpeckers in the Dialogue; and • ftant attention and expenfe to keep it when the doubts and questions, which in repair, may now perhaps, by demay naturally occur to an unpractised grces, become a mere ruin: all that mind, were stated by a character of delightful symmetry, that correspondthat description, and thereby more fa ence of all the parts, that profuhon miliarly difcufied and explained, than of gilding and of precious marbles, can be done in a regular eflay:
may, id a few years, be broken and “ For this purpose, I have fuppofed defaced, and covered with dirty stains two of the characters to be very con and incrustations; in fhort, all its versant in all that relates to nature high-finished ornaments totally deand painting: that one of thein, wbom stroyed: and then, perhaps, this picfor distinction I have called by the ture, a frail memorial of such a work, name of Iloward, is a partisan of Mr. may be the only one existing of its Knight's; that the other, whom I have • former fplendour and magnificence.' called Hamilton, is attached to my « • I wish your fears may not be too opinions; and that the third, of the well founded,' faid Mr. Hamilton; name of Seymour, lias little acquaint and I own I feel just as you do. Now, ance with the art of painting, or with .it Howard were here, he could comthe application of its principles to that fort you, though I cannot; for, acof gardening, or to natural scenery, cording to his system, it will become
á By means of the supposed partisan ' ftill more beautiful, when it is in the of Mr. Knight's opinions, I have in • ftate that you have just been descritrouuecd almost the whole of the Note bing with fo much horror.' into the boly of the Dialogue: bui -18 “ * You cannot mean this serionfy;" it appears there in detached parts, just said the other ; • you cannot mean tbat as the arguments micht be corceived • Howard would 'allert, tbat when all to occur in the course of the difcuffion, • the circumstances which now give I thought it right to print it altoge. beauty to this building are destroyed, ther; for it would be very infair to it will then become more beautiful!' Mr. Knight, if the reader were not “ 'No,' replied Mr. Hamilton, .not enabled io view the whole chain of . in those terms; he is not a man to his reatoniny as he had arranged it him • give such a hold to his adversary; but felf, and likewise to refer to it when it is a conclufion fairly to be drawn ever he had occafion.” P. 79. "from what he has aflcited: he muit
• acknowledge (for nothing is more leEXTRACT. .
perally acknowledged), that a build« MR. Howard returned to the fur ing when in ruins, is more picturesque ther part of the gallery, while the two. .than it was in its entire ftate; thereother friends entered the faloon tege • fore, according to him, it must be ther; on the opposite side of which, • more leantiful, for he says, there is and quite alone, hung the picture of no liftinction between the two terms: the inside of St. Peter's.
* in other words, that they are, in re; “ As they advanced towards it, Mr. fpect to visible objects, fynonymous. Hamilton observed, with great plea ".. You have, indeed,'made good sure, the admiration of his friend, who use of this intide of St. Peter's,' said stopped before it a long while, without Mr. Seymour; and I must own, it faying a word. When at ladt he began baas betiended you extremely in this
difcufion. Nothing has so much that roof, with' all its brilliant orna. tended to convince me of the want ments, fhall be rerit and broken; of a distinction; for though have when the gilding, the inarbles, the gever paid much attention to the • rich frizes, and cornices, become "frâ use of the word, I have perpe
• stained with moisture, and are moul. 'tually heard it observed, that ruins, dering away, the paintor will admire *are more picturesque than entire 6thon more than when in perfe&t prebuildings: now, when I look at that • fervation, or think them more fuited
building, there feems to be something 'to his art? But why do I ask : is not "lo very contradictory in the idea of this a picture? and does it not de* its becoming more beautiful by de • light you and Howard, as much as it fruction, that I must either deny that • docs ine, and such untutored eyes ás it will become more picturesque, or
mine? But I fee Howard is just come "give a very different sense to those in; ard i thall not be ferry to hear words
. But is it poslible that in you discuss this poirit together.' "such a cafe Howard can really think “Well, Seymour,' fid Mr. How. there is no diftinction?
ard, when he came up to them, “are * 'I am so thoroughly convinced not these three admirable pictures ? that there is one myself,' said Mr. “I hardly know so beautiful a head as Hamilton, and the whole appears to
that of the St. John, in the Parmeg'me so clear, that I can scarcely be giano * ; and the Virgin and Child in "liere him to be quite in earnest.' No the upper part, have a fine mixture * one has a more quick and accurate of grace and dignity: as to the two "perception of distinctions than our • Paninis, I can scarcely tell which I 'friend; and I once hoped he would prefer; for that amazing assemblage have employed his talents in throw- of columns in the opposite picture, ing new lights on this distinction: the felva di colonne, as the Italians but
, unfortunately, he has exercised call them, is no less beautiful in its all his ingenuity in trying to prove,
style, than this richly ornamented inthat youth and age, freness and de- fide of St. Peter's.'
cay, what is rough, bręken, and “ « To say the truth,' said Mr. Seyrudely irregular, and what has that mour, we have as yet only looked at fymmetry, continuity of parts, and this one pi&ture.' * Lf finithing polish, which the artist “ “ How, Seymour,' fall the other, (shether divine or human) manifestly all this time at one picture! The 'intended, are all to be considered as .. love of painting has made a surprising
belonging to one general class. There progress with you! but I fancy I 'fore, for instance, not only this build 'prophesied very justly when you left Sing, in its present state, or in ruins,
o me.' but this building, and the inside of a « • You did, indeed,', said Mr. Seya 'broken hovel, would be indifferently mour;
• Hamilton has made good use ather beautiful or picturesque; and
of his time, and of this picture; and, either of these terms would not only "I can tell you, it is as dangerous to 'fuit a Paris or a Belifarius, but a Paris •quit a disciple, as a mistress: your ' and a common okl beggar.'
• rival has been very presling; and I "'I can allow a great deal,' said • wish I may not have given him too
< for the manner in much encouragement. I am glad, ' which painters view objects, and con • however, you are come, as I had just 'fider them with respect to their art, begun to question him on a point and consequently apply terms to them "which I wish to hear discussed with "wtich-thers would hardly use; ex .you: it is, whether painters, or cona 'cept those, perhaps, who, without • noilleurs like yourselves, would conbeing artits, may have acquired their tinue to admire fuch a building as ideas and language. But tell me,
• this, if all that I admire were broken "liamilto:, is it poflible that when and defaced, as much, or even more,
S." The Parmeggiano, and the two Paninis, are it the collection of the you of Ahcrcorn, and each of them fingly occupies a side of the saloon
the Priury. The Parmezciano is, I believe, the most capital picture of at rare and eminent mater. The Paninis are not less cxcellent in their VOL. V.-No. XLVI. H h