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'fuch like, are stained, or else they Explanatory Observations on the are feeled with oak of our own, or Map. 'wainscot brought out of the eait 'countries.' This relates, of course,

EXTRACT FROM THE PREFACE. to the houses of the wealthy, which he IT has long been considered as a allo represents as abounding in plate matter of not only pleafant and cuand pewter. In earlier times, wooden rious, but even of useful inquiry, to platters

, bowls, and drinking veilels determine the roads and stations of the were univerially used, excepting in the Romans, while they held the dominion houses of the noble. If Trance, if we of this island. Many of them have may believe M. de Paumy (Vie privée been ascertained with inditutable predes François), sices of bread, called cifion; some have been conjectured, Pains Tranchoirs,' were used as a subject to much doubt and controverfubftitute for plates, till the reign of fy; and many more remain ftill entirely Louis XII.” Vol.i. p. 312.

undiscovered, to excite the diligence (To be concluded in our next.) of the antiquary. Southwell certainly,

Newark with great probability, presents

a most exuberant field for examination. XLIV. Antiquities, hiftorical, nrchi. This field it has been my amusement

to explore with fome labour and atte feral, chorographical, and itinerary,

tention, and to cultivate with the in Vattinghamshire and the adjacent laudable prospect of reaping a crop not Counties; comprising the Hiitories altogether unworthy the attention of of Southwell (the Ad Pontem) and the learned. Should it appear that of Newark (the Sidnaceilar of the several roads of considerable confeRomans) : intersperfed with biogra- quence, and te veral itations tituated on phical Sketches, and protulely em or near them, belonging to the Romans, belli fred with Engravings. To four respecting which history has been fiParts. By WILLIAM DICKINSON,

lent, have been atcertained; that the Esq. Part I. Vol. I. PP. 115.

lines and limits of many more, which

were herctofore dubious, have been 14. Large Paper 11. is. Newark,

fixed; and that, on the whole, such a printed by Holi and Hage, for Ca

plain itinerary has been laid down, as dell and Davies, London,

will materially allift future explorers, not only of Roman but of Saxon and

Norman antiquities, in this part of the LIST OF PLATES,

country, one of my principal purpofes Engraved by Cooke and Birrell.

will have been accompliihed. It was PORTRAIT of the Author.

next to imposible for any one, investiN. E. Vietu of Southwell Church. gating the origin and fortune of the The met End of ditro.

town of Southwell, not to contemplate, Arches of the An:i.choir.

with a considerable degree of admiraon the north Side.

tion, its most extraordinary and ftu

peudous church; to me it was by no S.2th End of the cross Aijie.

means even a subordinate object. The 4.605 of the Choir.

diftinguitting characteristics of Romar, The Screen which encloses the Choir. Sixon, Danish, Norman, and Gothic Tu Caterhouse

architecture, have long been very faEtrance into the Chapter-house. vourite objects of solicitous inquiry. (sat:of Armi, &c.

This stately though unequal pile prce k-tains of a Roman Fofs on Burridge

fents alimost every of thefe different Hill, Sauthoell.

fpecies, in perfect condition, difcispot the Roman Roads, Stations, c.

minated with most obvious precision,

and bearing ample testimony to cach Lear Southacell.

gradual and minute fucceffive improvement in architectural science; from the rude and clumsy pier of Harold's,

or of Canute's days, io the light fanPREFACEIntrodu&tion, on Ar tastic Gothic Thaft, uid in the reigns chitecture--The Church of South of the latter Picnrys. With ruch an well--The Town of Southwell agglomeration, as it wire, of fpeciVol. V.-No. XLVII.


The Pach,


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mens always before me, I formed the pied the designs, and followed the in. arduous attempt of extracting from itructions of their illustrious predecefthem a sort of architectural index, or fors. The Romans arrived at their nomenclature of columns, arches, and acme in every species of science during ornaments; by means of which the the reign of Augustus. It is no wonorigin of every ancient building might, der that architecture should accom. almost on a first view, be dated. How pany her fifter arts at the time of their far these endeavours have been succefla maturity, as well as in their decline. ful will be determined by the perufal . Thus, by the fingle exception of Traof the following pages." P. vii. jan *, we do not read a fiogle reign,

after that of Auguftus, in which any

building of great beauty or magnifiEXTRACTS.

cence was erected by the Romans. ORIGIN OF ARCHITECTURE.

The proudest monuments of this art, “IT may be difficult, perhaps, to it is true, were involved in the gea ascertain the precise period of the neral devastation of the weftern em. world when architecture may be first pire ; but the fame of some of them dignified by the appellation of a science: would have survived the downfal of when convenience for habitation ceased the imperial grandeur, if they had been to be the fole object of the builder; either numerous or magnificent. Un. when use gave place to ornament, and der the last twenty-eight emperors, in. when men no longer followed their deed, there was no leisure for the own inclinations in the erection of their cultivation of science, or for the exer. dwellings; but measured their exer- cife of the arts. If we except Alexan. tions by the rules of proportion, and der Severus, few of them united the the limitations of order. It seems on talents, with the inclination neceffary all hands, however, to be agreed, that for undertaking works of grandeur; the Tyrians were the first, of whole but even the best of them were so con. perfection in the art of building history tinually harassed by foreign enemies

, gives any authentic testimony. or by domestic broils, that it became

“ That the 'Tyrians had arrived to imposible to cultivate the arts of peace. a very great degree of celebrity in the Even Vitruvius would scarcely have science of architecture, we may con been an architect under the reigns of a clude from the prophecy of Isaiah, Maximin or a Gordian. when foretelling the downfal of their “ The fifth century produced a new magnificent city.

epoch in the annals of architecture. « The Grecians were the next in The ravages of the Visigoths destroyed order of time, with whom architecture nearly all the moft beautiful and mag; seems to have obtained an honourable nificent monuments of Grecian as well fituation in the catalogue of arts. The as of Roman antiquity; and introdufpecimens, that remain to our time, ced, in lieu of them, that ftyle of build. most powerfully evince to what fubli- ing commonly denominated Gothic. mity of design, and corre&ness of exe On the ruins of ancient architecture was cution, this leamed people tlevated it. ingrafted, alfo, another species from With them originated the very names the south, as the Gothic was from the and distinctions, by which every order north, viz. the Moorish or Saracenic. and every ornament are still denominat. Though there was a general refem. ed, among the followers of this profer blance between these two styles, info. fion. The Romans inecceded the Gre- much that many writers have mif

. cians in the empire of arts, as well as of takenly treated of them as one and the arris; and this many renaiss, which fame, there was a palpable, and a very their desolated capital fill exhibits of material difference. As a principal their ancient grundeur, armpiy teftify objedt, however, in not a few of the with whai didelity and atract they co- fucceeding pages, will be an endeavour

* “ Trajan's pibar, as it is called, sras designed and built in honour of that emperor, by the architect Apollodorus, whose name it has immortalized: in thic famne reien do that it evidous work the bridge over the Danube, confuiting or twilay-two aretes, was projected and accomplished. Caligula, ina dred is faid to have begun a bridge over the Gulf of Baix, but this is not well authenticacal,"

to mark, with precision, the revolu- tropolis of the kingdom (London or tions that have taken place in ancient York), and to the purposes of the archite&ure, since the downfal of the building. The coluinns now began to western empire (which, if accomplish- take the form of a cluster of small pil. ed, will enable us to determine, with lars, closely united, and forming one tolerable accuracy, the origin and age compact and solid, but slender and of almost every ancient building in the elegant support. About this period, world), my first effort, at the com and before any great alteration began mencement of this investigation, thall to prevail in the mode of constructing be to bring into one point of view the the windows, we might, from the geo opinions of all the writers of eminence neral style of this fabric, if we wanted on this intricate subject. Where they other evidence, pronounce the choir agree, or do not differ materially from of Southwell church to have been each other, and their observations have erected; but this matter is placed bereceived confirmation from more mo- yond a doubt by the license of the dern discoveries, they afford a tolerably king (Edward III.), in the eleventh, correct and decifive rule, whereby to year of his reign, to the chapter, for form our judgment. Where they dif- the getting of stones from a quarry in fer among themselves, where they are his forest of Shirewood, for the build. contradi&ted by recent discoveries, oring of their church. where their opinions have not met with “ The heads of Edward III. and his the general concurrence of mankind, queen, as also that of the Black Prince, the subject is fairly open for new dit- support the ribs or springs of several cuffion, without the imputation of arches in the choir. The prince's prefumption; for new conjecture, with head, crowned with his three feathers, out the charge of temerity.” P. 5. is particularly conspicuous on the north

fide; and over the centre arch on the

south side, are the feathers only, neatly THE ARCHITECTURE OF SOUTH

cut in the stone. By these numerous WELL CHURCH.

compliments to the prince, we may “TO the Norman order of archi. prefúme this part was erected just at tecture (which it seems did not differ that point of time, when, by his conmaterially, at first, from the Saxon, in que in Frand he was in the zenith any of its most essential characteristic of his popularity. features; but was equally distinguished “ In conformity with the general by circular arches and maslive pillars, taste of that age, the windows are narwith, perhaps, some little addition of row, pointed, unornamented, and sculpture, and, in some instances, vault, without any division by stone guts or ed roofs) succeeded, what is generally mullions. It was not till late in this understood, though some think impro- reign, or in the next, that the fashion perly, by the denomination of Gothic: became general of having the windows because, as Wren writes, “the Geths much larger, less pointed, and divided 'were rather the 'destroyers, than in- into several lights by small stone pillars,

ventors of arts.' This style of build- terminating in various, ramifications ing seems to have been introduced be, within the areh; beautified and diverfore the reign of King John, and to fified, as accident influenced or design have prevailed very generally in that of di&ated. Henry III. It continued, with little “ Of this latter species of architecvariation, till the time of Edward III. ture, Southwell church exhibits more when a confiderable alteration took spreimens than one, and those not in-. place in the construction of the pillars clegant; viz. the chapter-house, and and roofs. The latter began to be di- the screen, which divides the choir from vided into several compartinents, by the western part of the church. These kinds of ribs, meeting in the centre of are of the same style, and, to all appearthe arch, and forming triangular spaces ance, of the same age; doubtlets much on each side. These ribs, and the posterior in date to the rest of the Go. junctions of them, were more or less this work in this church. The chanornamented, according to the affuerce · ter-louse is a detached octagonal buildof the builder, the skill of the architeit, iiri, conncated by a cloister with the the vicinity of the place to be feats of north aile of the choir. To what reign fashion and improvunent, either me iis erection ought to be attributed, we

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may, perhaps, void as we are of any “ It is obfervable in the choir of this thing like a record on the subject, find church, the only part, the date of it no casy matter to determine. The which can be incontrovertibly asceroutside does not boast a profusion of tained, that the fashionable style of arornament, though its battlement and chitecture was unknown at Southwell buttrefies are ligni and well finished, for full half a century after it had preand in a good taste. The inside is , vailed in most other parts of the kingmuch superior. The arch of entrance dom: for the more crnamented Gothic has arrested the admiration of many had been long introduced, and indeed travellers; who, in so plain, and even was become very general in public clumsy a building as the major part of buildings, at the time this part of this church presents to the view, could Southwell church was erected. The form no expectation of meeting with a choir, which was indisputably compiece of sculpture, exceeding in ele- pleted in the reign of Edward III. is gance of design, and correctness of exe: of the style of Edward I.; so the chapcution, almost every thing of a similar ter-house, which has all the appearance kind in this kingdom *. This chapter- of being built much fubsequent to the house is, in a general sense, built upon contiguous parts of the church, is cf the model of that of York, but in many the style of Edward III. excepting, inparticulars differs from it materially. deed, the arch at the entrance, and The arch, of which I have been treat that, carries with it a ftill more modern ing, is in the same style, but very superior appearance. If we affix to this buildin beauty and workmanship. The roof ing an origin as much subsequent to is of stone, not very richly ornamented, the introduction of that style, of which þut light and simple, and rather ele- it bears the appearance, as the choir gant. The stails, which are niches in itself is after that age, whose features the wall, and extend quite round the predominate in it, we must place the room, are divided, each from the con- chapter-house in the reign of Richtiguous one, by a small plain cylindri- ard II. Should this conjecture meet cal column. These colunins support with no material objection, it will rethe arched heads of the stalls ; all of ceive some confirmation from a prevawhich are pointed, and much deco- lent tradition, respecting one of the rated with sculpture, of a singular and ornaments of the arch, at the entrance curious, but not very striking or high- into the cloister, which leads tc the ly finished kind. Qf the devices on place we are examining. The ornathese stalls, it is somewhat remarkable, mept I mean is the head of a bishop. considering they are very numerous, On what foundation does not appear, that no two bear the smallest resem- but this has always been supposed, at blance to each other. The windows Southwell, to be a representation of are of the later Gothic; large, light, Archbishop Neville. Neville, we know, not much pointed at the vertex, and filled the fee of York in the reign of divided into three compartments by Richard ; to which period the building mone mullions. It is to be lamented, of the chapter-house has been attrithat the painted glass, whic buted. Giving credit, therefore, to the adorned them, is almost wholly dę, testimony of tradition, these facts seem stroyed; the few mutilated fragınents to confer some reciprocity. of illuftrathat remain being insufficient for any ·țion on each other, and give us ground purposes of illustration respecting the to conclude, that this chapter-house date of the building, or the benefactors was built, perhaps by the bounty, at to its foundation. The origin of the least under the fanction of this prelate. screen is involved in the same obscuri- Another circumstance, not to be omitty; but as the style is nearly if not al- ted, 'is, 'that on the opposite fide of together fimilar, it may reasonably be the arch to the archbishop, is the head attributed to the same period, of a king, very like the engraving of

* “ Dr. Drummond, the late archbishop of York, whose taste and science in architeciure are incontestably established, by the buildings he' erected at Bishopthorpe, preferred the arch, which is the present subject of observation, to every thing of the kind in the kingdom; and even went fo far as to say, he had scarcely kenit furpailed in lialy.”



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King Richard in Rapin's History of the mark to foppose them to have England; and in the window over this sprung from some of the tribes of those arch, till of late years, was the por- wandering Arabs known by the name traiture of John Gaunt, Duke af Lan- of Beduins. These people are known caster, and uncle to that king, on a to have penetrated into almoft every {quare of glass, well painted, and in part of Africa. Much of the Arab good preservation.P. 58.

features are visible in the countenance of a Kaffer; and there is a strong re

femblance in his way of life, his pastoXLV. Barrow's Travels into the Inie. ral habits, his character, and treatment

rior of Southern Africa. (Continued of strangers that may want his protecfrom p. 196.)

tion. Colonies of these people have found their way even to the islands of

South Africa, where more difficulties THE KAFFERS UNACQUAINTED WITH would occur than in a journey over

land to the Cape of Good Hope. By THERE are perhaps few nations, skirting the Red Sea, and turning to

besides the Kaffers, that have the southward along the fea-coast, the not contrived to draw some advantages great defert of fand that divides Africa from the poffesfion of the sea.coast. into two parts is entirely avoided, and They have no kind of fishery whatso- the passage lies over a couptry habi. ever, either with nets or boats. Whe- table as far as is known in every part.” ther they retain any remains of super

P.211. ftition attached to some of the various modifications through which the Mahometan, as well as the Christian, religion has undergone in its progress

“ THE Kaffers differ also very mathrough different countries, that for- terially from all the neighbouring nabids them the use of fish; or whether tions in their manner of disposing of their way of life has hitherto prevented the dead. Funeral rites are bestowed them from thinking on the means of only on the bodies of their chiefs, and obtaining a livelihood from the waters,

on their children. The first are geneI cannot pretend to say; but they rally interred very deep in the kraals or scarcely know what kind of a creature places where their own oxen uted to a fish is. The whole extent of their stand at nights; and the bodies of incoast, that is washed by the sea and fants are most commonly deposited in interfected by the mouéhs of ieveral the ant-hills that have been excavated large rivers, does not produce a single by the myrmecophagæ or ant-eaters. boat, nor canoe, nor any thing that The rest are expoted to be devoured resembles a floating vessel. The short by wolves. As these animals drag them pace of time, perhaps, which they away immediately into their dens, the have occupied that part of Africa they relations of the deceased are in no dannow inhabit, has not yet fufficientlyger of being hocked or disgusted with familiarized them to the nature of deep the light of the mangled carcass. A waters, to intrust themielves upon a

Kaffer, in consideration of this piece frail bark.

of service, holds the life of a wolf fas • Illi robur et æs triplex

cred, at least he never endeavours to · Circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci is, that the country fwarms with them.

destroy it; the contequence of which • Commisit pelago ratem

Some author has allerted, that the • Primus'

cuftom of burning the dead was uni“ The Kaffers most certainly are not vertal, till the practice of it, adopted the aborigines of the southern angle of as the most prudent and convenient Africa. Surrounded on all sides by disposal of an unpleasant object, bepeople that differ in every point, in came a subject of oftentatious parade; colour, in features, in form, in difpo- and the funeral pile having at length fition, in manners, and in language, it exhausted the forefts, neceility obliged would be absurd to consider them as them to have recourie to other means, indigenous to the small ipot they now fome to interment, others to exposure poffefs. To speculate upon their ori in high places to be devoured by crow's gin, it might not perhaps be far from and vultures. Had the Kaffero ever


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