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OF

THE

MANNERS

AND

burned their dead in the country they perseverance, and address, that valu. now inhabit, they were under no ne- able part of the colony, the nursery of ceflity of discontinuing the practice cattle, had now been abandoned. A for want of fuel, being in the midst of whole division called the Tarka, and a inexhaustible forests.” P. 200. great part of another, the Sea-cow

river, and Rhinoceros-berg, had been

deserted, as well as a fmall part of SKETCH

Sneuwberg. There is, however, anoCOUNTRY OF THE BOSJESMANS.

ther cause which, more than the inter“ THREE weeks had scarcely elap{- ruption to the expeditions, has tended ed, after our return from the Kaffer to increase the strength and the bold. country, till we were ready for another ness of these savages, and which, unexpedition to the northward, across less removed, will in the end effect the the Sneuwberg or Snowy Mountains. utter ruin of this diftant part of the In these mountains, and in the country colony. The case is this: The goimmediately behind them, dwells a vernment of the Cape, which feemed face of men, that, by their habits and

to have been as little acquainted with manner of life, are justly entitled to

the temper and disposition of its difthe name of savage; a name, however, tant subjects as with the geography of of which, it is greatly to be feared, the country, formed all its resolutions they have been rendered more worthy respecting the Bosjesmans, on reproby the conduct of the European set- fentations made to it by the persons tlers. They are known in the colony immediately concerned. In consequence by the name of Bosjesmans, or men of of these representations, it decreed the bushes, from the concealed manner that such of the Bosjetinans as should in which they make their approaches be taken alive in the expeditions made to kill and to plunder. They neither against them, were to be distributed cultivate the ground nor breed cattle, by lot among the commandant and his but fubfift, in part, on the natural pro party, with whom they were to reduce of their country, and make up main in a state of servitude during their the rest by depredations on the colonists lives. Such as have been taken very on one lide, and the neighbouring

young, and well treated, have turned tribes of people that are more civilized out moft excellent servants; they have than themselves, on the other. Twenty shown great talent, great activity, and years ago, it seems, they were less nu

great fidelity. An opposite treatment mesous and less ferocious than at the

has been productive of a contrary efpresent day; and their boldness and feet; and the brutal conduct of moft numbers are faid of late to have very of the Dutch farmers towards those in much increased. At one time they their employ has already been noticed. were pretty well kept under by regular The poor Hottentot bears it with pa. expeditions of the peasantry against tience, or sinks under it; but on the them. Each division had its com temper and the turn of mind of the mandant, who was authorized to raise

Bosjesman it has a very different effect. a certain number of men, and these He takes the first opportunity that were furnished by government with offers of escaping to his countrymen, powder and ball. It was a service at and contrives frequently to carry off all times taken with reluctance, espe- with him a musket, and powder and cially by such as were least exposed to ball. With tales of cruelty he excites the attacks of the savages; and, during them to revenge ; he affifts them in the late disturbances of Graaff Reynet, their plans of attack; tells them the these expeditions met with considerable

strength of the whole, and of indivi. interruptions. The people of Bruynt- duals; the number of their cattle, and jes Hoogte were the first who failed in the advantages and the dangers that raising their proportion of men. Zuure will occur in the attempt to carry them Veldt was deserted, and Camdeboo . off; the manner in which expeditions and Zwart Ruggens became negligent are conducted against them; and, in and remise. The people of Sneuwberg, short, every thing he knows respecting lying nearest to the common enemy, the colonists. Armed with muskets were left to sustain the whole brunt of and poisoned arrows, a party of these the business; and bad they not con- people was bold enough, a few days ducted themselves with great fortitude, before we commenced our journey, to

approach

approach within four or five miles of expeditions against the Bosjesmans the Droidy, from whence they carried which had given him an opportunity off fereral huddred theep. They were of being acquainted not only with the followed into a kloof of one of the different parts within, but also urith mountains of Sneuwberg, where they much of the country beyond, the remained in poflellion of their plunder, limits of the colony. Having prelaughing at their pursuers, and inviting pared himself for the journey, we rethem to approach and tafte a little of inained with him only for the night; their own mutton. One of them fired and on the following inorning fent fora moket, and the ball grazing the hat ward the waggons, while we made aa of a peasant, caused the pursuing party excursion into the mountains on our to make a precipitate retreat.

left in search of Bosjesmans. A large " In order, therefore, to bring about party of these people had carried off a a conversation with some of the chiefs number of catile but two days before, of this people; to try if, by presents and another was supposed to be still and a lenient condua, they could be hovering about in these mountains. prevailed upon to quit their present The places of their usual haunts are wild and marauding way of life; at easily discoverable, but generally very the same time to see the state of the difficult of access, and not safe to apcolony, and the fituation of the inha- proach. The kloofs or chasms, wained bitarts; to inspect the boundaries, and by torrents of water rushing down the to examine the nature of the country, feep sides of the high stratified mouna journey to the northward appeared tains, frequently leave a succession of indifpenfably necellary. It promited caverns, of which the Bosjefınan chooles alfa much curiosity: and as no Euro- the highest

, as not only removing him pean traveller, except the two gentle- farther from the danger of a surprise, men mentioned in the introductory but giving him also the command of a chapter, had ever afcended the moun- greater extent of country. tains of Snow, a great deal of novelty “ In one of these retreats were dilo was to be expected from it.

sovered their recent traces. The fires “On the acth of October we de. were scarcely extinguished, and the parted from the Droidy, crossed the grass on which they had lept was not Sunday and its accompanying Karroo, yet withered. On the smooth sides of and at the distance of ten miles north- the cavern were drawings of several welterly reached the foot of the moun- animals that had been made from time tains, within which a narrow defile of to time by these lavages. Many of hve miles in length, and a steep ascent them were caricatures; but others were of three miles at the farther extremity, too well executed not to arrest attenled upon the extensive plains, and tion. The different antelopes that Fong the scattered mountains that were there delineated had each their compose the Sneuwberg. From the character fo well diseriininated, that plains of Camdeboo, the fronts of the originals, from whence the reprethese mountains appear to be the most sentations had been taken, could, wit:tegular formed, though the molt con out any difficulty, be ascertained. feedly placed, of any within the li- Among the numerous animals that mits of the colony. The stone ftratum were drawn, was the figure of a zebra that terminates their summits is so remarkably well done ; all the marks perfectly horizontal, and fo regularly and characters of this animal were acquared at the angles, that their valt curately represented, and the proporbeight and magnitude alone contradict tions were seemingly correa. The the idea of suppofing them to be lines force and spirit of drawings, given to

them by bold touches judiciously ap** The following day brought us to plied, and by the effect of light and Kaay Hoek, or Windy Corner, the shadow, could not be expected from babitation of the late provisional land. favages; but for accuracy of outline role of Graaff Reynet, who had figni- and correctness of the different parts, fied an inclination to accompany us on

worfe drawings than that of the zebra the intended expedition. He had at. have passed through the engraver's tended Governor Van Plettenberg on hands. The materials with which they his journey northwards, and had lince had been executed were charcoal, pipe. been commandant for many years on clay, and the different ochses. The

animals

of mafonry.P. 234.

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animals represented were zebras, qua- offered his feryices to be of our party, chas, gemiboks, springboks, reeboks, though he had but just returned from elands, baboons, and oftriches, all of an expedition against the Bosjesmans which, except the gemsbok, are found He had at this time with him in the upon the very pot. Several crofles, house one of these wild men, with his circles, points, and lines, were placed two wives and a little child, which had in a long rank, as if intended to express come to him by lot, out of forty that some meaning; but no other attempt had been taken prisoners. The man appeared at the representation of inani was only four feet five inches high, mate objects. In the course of travel and his wives were still of a shorter ling, I had frequently heard the pea. ftatüre, one being four feet two, and fantry mention the drawings in the the other four feet three inches. He mountains behind the Sneuwberg, represented to us the condition of his made by the Busjesmans; but I took countrymen as truly deplorable. That it for granted they were caricatures for several months in the year, when only, similar to those on the doors and the frost and snow prevented them wails of uninhabited buildings, the from making their excurfions againft works of idle boys; and it was no dif- the farmers, their sufferings from cold agreeable disappointment to find them and want of food were indescribable : very much the reverse. Some of the that they frequently beheld their wives drawings were known to be new; but and children perithing with hunger, many of them bad been remembered without being able to give them any from the first settlement of this part of relief. The good season even brought the colony.

little alleviation to their misery. They “ A part of the upper surface of the knew themselves to be hated by all cavern was covered with a thick coat- mankind, and that every nation around ing of a black substance, that externally them was an enemy planning their had the appearance of pitch. In con destruction. Not a breath of wind fiftence, tenacity; and colour of a ruilled through the leaves, not a bird brownith black, it resembled Spanish screamed, that were not supposed to liquorice. The smell was Nightly bi- announce danger. Hunted thus like tuminous, but faint, and rather offen- beasts of prey, and ill treated in the five. It flamed weakly in the candle, service of the farmers, he said that and gave out a thin brownish fluid, but they considered themselves driven to no smell while burning; the residuum desperation. The burden of their song was a black coaly substance, two thirds was vengeance against the Dutch: of the original bulk. The patch ad- This little man was intended to have hering to the rock was covered with accompanied us; but as he feemed myriads of very minute Ries. In reach more inclined to abide by his wivesi ing up to it, in order to cut off a 1pe- he was permitted to follow his uxoricimen with any knife, the people called ous inclinations. out to me to delift, afsuring me that if “ Proceeding to the northward, a the finallest particle got into the eye, curious but truly deplorable spectacle the fight of it would be lost for ever; presented itself. It was a troop of lothat it was deadly poison, and used by custs resting upon the ground. They the Hottentots to imear the points of covered a space of about one square their arrow's. They all agreed in the mile in extent, so completely that the baneful qualities of this black matter, surface appeared to the eye, at a little from having experienced the fatal ef. distance, to have been burnt and fects of it on several of their compa- ftrewed over with brown afhes. Not nions, who had suffered lingering a shrub nor blade of grass was visible. deaths from wounds received with ar The waggons pafled directly through rows poisoned by the klip gift, or rock them, before which they rose up in a poison. Not having as yet the oppor. cloud that darkened the air on each tunity of trying the deleterious quality fide. Desirous of seeing the whole of the substance, I cannot pretend to troop on the wing, the Hottentots ran say whether this account of the pea- amongst them, and the horses were fantry be stri&tly true.

made to gallop through them, but “ In the course of the day we ar- without success: none but such as were rived at the house of Kriiger, the com- immediately under the feet of the men mandant of Sneuwberg, who kindly and horses rose up. The peasantry

affirm that they are not to be driven quently seen from thirty to forty of away unless the tignal for departure their nefts together in one clump of thould be given from their commander reeds, but never more than two males in chief, one of which is supposed to at one place. The construction of accompany every troop.” P: 238.“ their nefts is very curious. These are

entirely composed of green grafs neatly.

plaited into a round ball, and knotted REMARKABLE BIRDS.

faft between the stems of two recds. « THE ils of water that mean The entrance is through a tube, whose dered through the meadows were con orifice is on the under lide, next to vered with the common reed, and the water.” P. 243. these were frequented with vaft flocks of small birds, particularly with the loxia orix, called by English ornitholo

THE SEA-COW RIVER-MYRIADS OF gifts the granadier, and by the French

LOCUSTS. the cardinal of the Cape of Good “ ON the evening of the 26th, we Hope. The male is remarkable for its collected our forces at the commencegaudy plumage during the spring and ment of the Sca-cow river, which was fummer months: in these reasons the about fix miles to the northward of neck, breaft, back, upper and under the last habitation. This river is formed part of the rump, are of a bright crim- from the collected branches that fall kon; the throat ald abdomen are gloffy to the northward from the different black. During the other fix months parts of Sneuwberg, and from the. it is stripped of its gaudy attire, and Roode-berg, or Red Mountain, which adopts the modest garb of the female, is in fact an arm of the former, stretchwhich is at all times that of a greyishing to the northward. The Sea-cow brown. They are gregarious, and river, and indeed all the streams that build their nefts in large societies. behind the Snowy Mountains ran Another remarkable bird we observed northerly, were remarkably distinguish. in the reeds. This was the long-tailed ed from those whose currents took an finch, described in the Systema Natura; opposite direction, by having their as the loxia Caffra, on the authority of banks covered with tall reeds, the Thunberg; and in the fame book, with arundo phragmites, and destitute of a more propriety, as the emberiza longi- srub or tree; whereas the latter were cauda. The changes that this bird un- always enclosed by mimosas, willows, dergoes are still more extraordinary and other tall arboreous plants. The than those of the granadier. The black northern rivers confifted generally of a feathers of its tail, which are fifteen chain of deep ftagnant pools, coninches long, while the body is barely nected by the beds of narrow channels, five; are placed in vertical positions, that for the greatest part of the year like those of the domestic cock. The are entirely dry. Some of the gats, bounty of nature Teems to have been or holes, of the Sea-cow river, were extended to this bird to its disadvan- five or fix miles in length, and deep tage; its tail, when on the wing, im- enough to have floated a line-of-battle peding, instead of affifting, its flight. fhip! They formerly contained vast This long tail, however, endures but the numbers of the animal' from whence season of love. In the winter it assumes the river has borrowed its name; but the same shape as that of the female, the proximity of the colony, and the fhort, brown, and horizontal; and it great convenience of hunting them in can then fly like other birds. The these pools, have been the means of change of plumage, in many birds, destroying them almost entirely. Now from that of the male to the female, and then a hippopotamus is fill taken and the contrary, has led some fpecu- in some of the holes of the river. lative naturalifts to adopt an opinion 6. The following day we passed over that a change of sex also actually takes plains that swarmed with game. Puro place. This, however, is not the case suing the gnoos and different antelopes, with respect to the two birds in quef- we killed a prodigious large tiĝertion. The long-tailed finch appears to wolf, such as has been described, two be one of those few of the feathered quachas, and a couple of snakes of the tribe that, in a state of nature, are fame species, one five, the other near found to be polygamous. I have fre. Gx feet long; their colour was entirely VOL. V No. XLVII.

LI

a golden

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a golden yellow; they were very fierce, of the larvæ of this infect, at leaft when and made several attempts to spring at they are to be obtained. Nature has the horses. The peasantry considered feldom given a bane but she has accomthem as very venemous, and gave them panied it with an antidote ; or, in other the name of cobra capella,

words, she has ordained that one half “ Twenty miles farther to the north. of the creation should destroy and deward brought us to that part of the vour the other, that the contant operiver where Governor Van Plettenberg rations of reproduction might

be going ended his travels towards this quarter; on. The numbers of the gryllivori are and, in commemoration of the evento not less astonishing than those of the he caused a stone or baaken to be there locults. Their neits, that at a diftance erected, which he also intended should appeared to be of such great magniserve as a point in the line of demarca- tude, were found on examination to tion between the colony and the coun- consist of a number of cells...each of try of the Bosjesmans. These people, which was a separate neft, with a tube however, had thrown down and broken that led into it through the fide. of in pieces the monument; but the place fuch cells each clump, contained from retained the name of the Edel Heer's fix to twenty; and one roof of interbaaken ; and the large hole of the river, woven twigs covered the whole like upon the bank of which it ftood, bore that made by the magpie. Most of the name of Plettenberg.

them had young birds, generally five; « The baaken of the governor was the eggs were of a blueith white, with less a subject of curiosity than one that small, faint, reddish specks. Thefe

appeared on the opposite bank of the birds had here taken up a temporary river. This was a clump of about half abode in a place where they were not a dozen large bushes, the first that had likely, in a short space of time, to be occurred for as many days; yet the under the necesity of quitting for rarity of fruitescent plants would not want of food. Of the innumerable have attracted so much notice;. had it multitudes of the incomplete infect, not been for the yast number and fize, or farva, of the locufts, that at this of nests with which they appeared to time infested this part of Africa, no be loaded. These were judged to be adequate idea could poffibly be conat least sufficiently large for the vul- ceived without having witnessed them. tures that were hovering in the air, or for the space of ten miles on each fide for the large blue cranes that fat by of the Sea-cow riter, and eighty or the river's fide near them. On ap. ninety miles in length, an area of fixproaching the bushes, a numerous teen or eighteen hundred square miles, Hock of birds, about the size of the the whole surface might literally be common sky-lark, iffued from them. said to be covered with them. The The farmers, thoughụnacquainted with water of the river was scarcely vifible the nests, immediately recognised the on account of the dead carcaffes that bird to be the locuft-eater, and rejoiced Aoated on the surface, drowned in the not a little at its appearance fo near attempt to come at the reeds which the colony. This species of thruth is grew in the water. They had devoured a migrating bind, and is only met with every green herb and every blade of in places where the migrating locuft grass; and had it not been for the frequents. It had not been seen in the reeds, on which our cattle entirely colony for the space of thirteen years; fubfifted while we skirted the banks of that is to fay, lince the last time that the river, the joumey must have been the locusts infested the Șnenwberg. discontinued, at least in the line that The head, breast, and back, are of a had been proposed. The larvæ, as pale cinereous colour; the abdomen generally is the case in this class of and rump white; wings and tail black, nature, are much more voracious than the latter short and a little forked; the perfect infect; nothing that is green from the angle of the mouth a naked feems to come amiss to them. They area of fulphureous yellow extends are not, however, without a choice in under the eye and a little beyond it; their food. When they attack a feld and two naked black striæ under the of corn just struck into the ear, they throat. The specific naine of grylli firft mount to the fummit, and pick vorous may with propriety be given to out every grain before they touch the it, as its whole food seems to confift leaves and the item. In such a state

it

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