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yet living. Knowles replied, that Wil. peninsula of Lancaut; the whole conliam, the brother of John who sold fisting of not less than three thousand the estate, was still alive and in great acres, of which a confiderable portion distress. Bring him to Piercefield,' is woodland : the timber alone on the faid Morris, and I will make him eftate of Piercefield was estiihated at ! welcome.' — If you would give him soool. He has likewise confiderably your whole estate he could not walk, improved the place, and reftored many he is so much afflicted with the gout of the walks, which were choked with • in his feet, and earns a precarious underwood,' to their former beauty

livelihood by fishing.'-. If he cannot under Valentine Morris.” P. 396: ( then come to me, I will take the first opportunity of calling on him.! Being some time afterwards en- XLVII. The Beauties of Wiltfire

, gaged with Knowles in forming art opening in the wood, he saw two men

displayed in statistical

, historical, in a boat; “Stay here,' he said to

and descriptive Sketches; interKnowles, • I will crofs the river in that

spersed with Anecdotes of the boat, and examine whether the ob

Arts. vols. Svo: pp: 623. jects I want to low can be seen from il. 45. Large paper il 16s. Vere

hence. Descending hastily, he hailed hor and Hood, Whebla. the watermen, leaped into the boat, was ferried over, and on his return en: tered into conversation with the men,

LIST OF PLATES, and inquired their names and condis

Engraved by Storer." tion. My name," said one of them, is * * * * *, I am a native of Chep

VOL. I. * Atow; and that man,' pointing to his SALISBURY Cathedral, sef Front companion, is William Walters.'

Vignette-View of Stonehenge from What I Walters of Piercefield ? ex the Eart, claimed Mortis. Yes, pleafe your Longford Caftle. • Hanour, I am the brother of John Wilton House, who fold the eftate which you now enjoy. Morris made no reply; but Fonthill

, north Front. giving a gratuity to each of the men, Ditto, youth Front, leaped on fhore, rapidly afcended the Wardóur. hill, and rejoining Knowles, cried, I

have been talking with Walters Salisbury Cathedral, South-caft. taking out several guineas, he added, • Carry these to him, and tell him that Vignetic-Cascade'at Bowood. • he fhall never want while it is in my

Stourhead Gardens. * power to atlift him.' Knowles sug Longleat. gefted, that as the man was much ad. Stonehenge, ground Plans of. di&ed to liquor, he would render him Ditto, View of, from the Weft. more fervice by a weekly allowance. Stoke Park. The next market-day, one of Morris's Bowood. servants carried to Walters a joint of Corsham House. meat, and a finall sum of money, which were continued weekly until his death. Morris defrayed the expenses of his

CONTENTS funeral, and his carriage conveyed the corpse to St. Arvan's, where it was in. terred in the family vault.

PREFACE–Introductory Obler « In 1984, Piercefield was bought vations-Old Sarum-Salisbury Ca by George Smith, Esq. of Burnhall, thedral -Palace -Salisbury in the county of Durham, and in 1794 Churches-Colleges-Longford Caf by the present proprietor Colonel tle - Downton-Clarendon—Bemer Wood, formerly chief engineer of Bengal, and member. of parliament for ton Wilton-Wilton House Newark. Colonel Wood bias

increafed Fonthill-Wardour Wardour Cai the property by different purchases in tle-G. Huffey-AnacombKool the vicinity, particularly part of the -Mere, &c.

VOL. II.

VOL. I.

VOL

RALEIGH

MANUFACTORY.

VOL. 11.

the convulsive rebellion which then

broke out; he was stripped of all his STOURHEAD-Longleat--Warmiaster-----Agriculture --Salisbury faking his wife and family, and leaving

property, forced to fly for safety, forPlain, &c.—Barrows-Stonehenge- his camfortable home as a fearful wanAmbresbury--Savernake Forest- derer. He was taken at Bridgewater Marlborough--Devises--New Park in 1645, sent to Banwell as a prisoner, -Bowood-Calne-Chippenham- and afterwards given to the oustody of Corsham-Bradford.

a cruel shoemaker, who, upon being refused the fight of a letter he had

written to his wife, stabbed him in the EXTRACTS.

groin, of which wound he died. His

wife and children were deferted, and DOWNTON-ANECDOTES OF DR.

left deftitute of fubfiftence. His mur

derer was tried; but such was the chin “ THIS town, formerly written canery and vice of the times, that he Dunkton, and Donketon, is situated was acquitted. May a knowledge of in a valley, well watered by the river this circumstance operate, in fome deAvon; this stream not only fertilizes gree, as a warning example to living the meadow-land, but works leveral revolutionists, and deter them from mills in the town. There is a good concerting, in word or deed, those church, the tower of which has been horrors which certainly await anarchy raised more than thirty feet at the ex and rebellion !” Vol. i. p. 115. pense of the Earl of Radnor. In the chancel are some monuments, particularly to the late Lord Feversham and

WILTON-MONASTERY-CARPET family. The poor of this town are principally employed in making lace. It enjoys the benefit of a free-school, “ BEFORE the building of Salifwhich was founded by Gyles Eyre, Efq. bury, this place was the capital of the where twelve boys are instructed in county; but after the erection of the reading, writing, and arithmetic. Tra- new city, the inhabitants of Wilton, dition informs us that King John had with those of Old Sarum, were drawn a castle in this place, situated behind within the vortex of its attraction. the mills, now called Old Court; part That it was a place of confiderable of the walls were standing within the importance and magnitude, in former memory of some of the old inhabitants. days, I have no reason to doubt ; In the front of the inn called the White though, with Mr. Gough, I much Horse, are busts of this monarch and question the fidelity of Leland's deone of his queens, with the date 1225: scription, when he says, “ Wilton, or opposite to this house is a croís, where "Wiltown, had, previous to the rethe members are generally chosen.” moval of Sarum, twelve paroch Fol.i. p. 114.

• churches or more. If this ever were “ Ân account of the viciffitudes, the case, it has suffered materially in fortunes, and misfortunes of public its ecclefiaftical architecture, there becharacters, is generally interesting. In ing only one parish church remaining. this town was born Dr. Raleigh, elder “ Thus does the fate of places rebrother to the famous Sir Walter, and semble the fortunes of individuals; the son of Sir Carew Raleigh, a man who aggrandizement of one, takes from the experienced a distressing transition of fair proportion of another. A cale fortune : after being well educated, rather fimilar, though upon a more and serving as a regular commoner in magnificent scale, is the monstrous enthe university of Oxford, he was ap- largement of the metropolis, the over. pointed not only chaplain to Lord grown head of the kingdom. Pembroke, but received many other “ Wilton, like Saliibury, is situated honours and preferments. He became in a valley upon the conflux of the a minor prebendary in the church of rivers Nadder and Willey. The latter, Wells, rector of Streat in the same as Camden observes, gives name to the county, chaplain to Charles I. and at town. It was anciently called Ellanlength dean of Wells. From this pin- dun, as appears from old records, which nacle of preferment he was thrown by expressly mention, that • Weolkftan, VOL. V.-No. XLVII.

M m

• Earl

• Earl of Ellandun (i. e. Wilton), built educated, a monastery of stone in a • a little monastery here.'

royal style, instead of the wooden “ Of this monastery we find the fol. church; her holy zeal keeping pace lowing strange story, related by Good • with the King's. Mr. Aubrey, in win, in his Lives, of the Bishops: his MSS. has furnished me with the

About this time (1290) there was a following anecdote of this female: • certain knight, Sir Olborne Gifford, • Editha, natural daughter of King of Fonthill, who fele out of the Edgar, by the Lady Walshill, was

nunnery of Wilton, two fair nuns, • Abbess of Wilton, wherein the de"and carried them off. This coming" meaned herself with such devotion, to the ears of the Archbishop of Can ' that her memory obtained the repu

terbury, John Peckam, he first ex- 'tation of saintship. And yet an aucommunicated the said knight, and thor tells us, that being more curious • afterwards abfolved him upon the 'in her attire than beseemed her profollowing conditions: it, That he • feflion, Bishop Ethelwold sharply re• should never afterwards set his foot 'primanded her, who answered him

in any nunnery, or be in company roundly, .“ that God regarded the ' with any nun. 2dly, That he thould • heart more than the garment; and " be publicly whipped, three Sundays that fins might be covered as well • following, in the parish church of under rags as robes”.? • Wilton, and so likewise in the market “ Wilton was anciently one of the • and church of Sarisbury three other regio villa, cr royal burghs of the 6 days. 3dly, That he should fast a Saxon princes. · At this place,' fay 'certain nuinber of months. 4thly, Camden, · Egbert, King of the Wef • That he should not wear a shirt for 'Saxons, fought a successful battle, 'three years. And, lastly, That he • A. D. 821, against Beorwulf, the Mer

should not take on hin the habit and cian; but with so much flaughter 09 . title of a knight, but wear apparel of both sides, that the river ran with

a russet colour, until he had spent *the blood of the neighbouring peo three years in the Holy Land.' * All ple. Here likewise, in 872, Alfrei these severe penances he made him fought the Danes, and was at firt swear to perform, before he would " victorious, but foon after, by the grant him abfolution. • If some of uncertain fortune of war, worsted • our gentlemen (continues the Bishop) ' and obliged to retreat; but the Danes

were occasionally thus ferved, they • having lost great numbers in this bat o would not be so wanton as they are.' 'tle, and fearing the King would cog

“ This Weolkstan, or Wulftan, was • fiderably recruit his army, petitionen called the famous Earl or Duke of " for a truce, which Alfred readii Wiltthire. In the year 773, he re granted, upon condition that the paired an old church, then called St. would depart the kingdom.' Thu Mary's, and converted it into a cold though unfuccessful in battle, did th lege or chantry of fecular priests. This wife monarch prove victorious in pol was afterwards, A. D. 8co, changed tics; and, freed from his enemies, 1 into a nunnery by Elburga, sister to commenced the building of a new nur King Egbert; though Camden ex nery on the site of the old palace, ! pressly says, " King Edgar, accerding which he removed the nuns, and do to the chronicles, embellished it with bled their number. King Edward th a nunnery, over which he appointed Elder was so large a benefactor, thi « his daughter Edith, abbefs. But it fome have conlidered him as th appears to have been of older date, by founder. the ancient charter of Edgar, A. D.974,

“ This nunnery was of the Bened in which we find this pastage: 'The cite order, and valued, at the difici house founded by my great grand- tion, at above 6col. per annum. Hu « father King Edward, is a famous was also a house of Black Friars.

place, well known among the inha- Vol.i. p. 131. • bitarts by the name of Wiltun.' And, “ This town is particularly cr's in the life of Edward the Confeffor, we brated for its carpet manuf der have these words: "While St. Edward To investigate the cause of this ar

was building the abbey of St. Peter, brity; to trace the bistory of th: 6 at Westminster, Edithi, his wife, he fince its first establishment in England

gan at Wilton, where he had been to inquire into, and explain the vari

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processes of the manufa&ure; would in- fashionable publicity, and was known volve me in a disquisition too elaborate by the name of the marble cloth. for the present work, even admitting my “ About fix or seven years ago, the competency to the task. Besides, it manufacturers of this place made some would be totally impoflible to convey new carpeting, which they designated correct ideas of the complicated man by the name of Mock Bruffels. chinery used in this bufiness, without “ The Persian and Turkey carpets the aid of plates to exemplify the de- are most esteemed, though the first has fcriptions. It is rather fingular, that been happily imitated by the ingenuity not one of our Encyclopedias contains of the French, who have brought them an account of this art, although they all to almost equal perfection with those profefs to comprise a complete body of of Asiatic manufacture. The English, the arts and sciences. As we have never though not eminently celebrated for had any thing published on the subject, invention, have yet brought many inI hope the following curfory particu- genious plans to relative perfection, by lars will be acceptable.

perseverance and scientific skill. This “ Though Wilton contains more particularly applies to the manufacture than one manufactory of carpets, yet of carpets, which are so far improved the principal house is in the firm of as to be little inferior to those of foBuller, Maise, and Sutton. The pre- reign countries; they are, indeed, sudeceffors of thefe gentlemen obtained perior in beauty of colours, and neata patent, about fixty years since, for ness and taste in the patterns. the exclusive privilege of making car “ Mr. Arthur Young, in his Six pets in England. À patent was pri- Weeks Tour, afferts,' that a journeymarily intended to encourage genius, man's wages, in the carpet manufacto reward invention, and secure the tory, was from ten to twelve shillings useful plans of an individual for his per week, and that there were about own benefit; yet this, like many other sixty or eighty persons employed in the wise intentions, is often frustrated by business: this was in the year 1767. the cunning or fophiftry of those per- If Mr. Young's account was correct, fons who facrifice principle to interest; which seems very questionable, the who, like the drone, encroach upon difference between that time and the the property of others, and obtain fub- present is very great; for now, there fiftence from their industry.

are men working in the business who “The patent specified, among other can earn from one guinea and a half to particulars, that the carpets were to two guincas a week; and above one be made with bobbin and anchor. thousand persons employed in the town Some persons at Kidderminster, in in different branches of the trade.”Worcefur hire, having obtained an in- Vol. i. p. 136. fight into the process of the manufactory, foon procured looms on the same principle, with the trilling difference

BARROWS ON SALISBURY PLAIN. of having bobbin and ball, instead of “ THE numerous barrows which bobbin and anchor, and by this means meet the eye on almost every eminence evaded the letter of the law, and im- of these Downs, have been distributed mediately established a carpet manu- by Dr. Stukeley into no less than eight factory, in defiance of the patentees: different claires, according to their va. this was the origin of the Kiddermine riety of form, or relative situation.

Some he denominated royal sepulchres; " The first carpet ever made in Eng- others, the barrows of kings; athird kind land was manufactured at Wilton, by, were said to be the burial-places of the and under the direction of one Anthony Arch-druids; and a fourth, of Druids' Duffoly, who is lately dead. This of the common order: these, of course, man was brought from France by Lord are concluded to be of British origin. Pembroke, grandfather to the present But the Doctor, not contented with Earl

, a nobleman who encouraged afligning different shaped tumuli to and promoted the manufactures of his different orders of the community, country, by establishing this business without evidence fufficient to substana at Wilton; and also another, that of tiate his opinions, boldly advances into making a cloth, which acquired a the regions of fiction, and confounds

M m 2

the

fter carpets.

the customs of states and of nations, curious bit of a bridle t, were found by ascribing the constru&ion of monu- by fome people who were digging to ments of the same classification, to the plant trees on the top. Several atBritons, the Romans, and the Danes. tempts have been made to explore the

“ Thele chimerical speculations of centre and bottom of this artificial Dr. Stukeley have been completely mountain, but I cannot learn that any confuted by the learned and luminous satisfactory discoveries have been made; writings of Mr. Edward King *, who, nor does it appear that any person has after a very interesting examination of ever perfevered to any confiderable this subjec, draws the following con- depth. This is probably reserved for clusions:

fuine future antiquary; and I have not «« Nothing can be more vague and the least doubt, were a pafrage to be “unsatisfactory than the common ac- opened on a level with the native foil, · count usually given of their being from eaft to west, and a haft funk

Danish works; which account has immediately in the centre, but that taken its rise merely from the hafty fome curious objects would be difco• opinions of those who first began to vered. Analogy seems to warrant the • investigate these matters, as deserving supposition. « attention in these later ages; we may “ There is no part of England, and 'therefore, from such strong resem- perhaps no part of the world, where • blance between primæval and nearly barrows are so numerous as on Salifpatriarchal customs of the East, and brry Plain. The different shapes have the aboriginal works in Ireland and already been alluded to. It would be • Britain in the West, much more ra almoft endless to particularize the * tionally infer that these sepulchral whole; nor do I apprehend such a tak « barrows are almost, without excep- would be agreeable to the reader.! « tion, the works of the first race of know it would be tedious to myseli

. «fettlers in these countries, who re and shall, therefore, close this account “ tained primæval customs and usages, with a few particulars concerning som 'till they were disturbed and driven that have recently been explored.

out of them (as well as out of their “ In the summer of 1800, Mr. Cun * poffeffions) by the Romans and other nington, the gentleman already, men • invaders; and were converted to a tioned, opened feveral barrows in th

different mode of life and marners, neighbourhood of Heytesbury, and at . by the embracing of Chriftianity.' terwards favoured me with the follow

“ The most considerable of these ing particulars: barrows is Silbury Hill, which is litu "The first that weinvestigated is cal ated close by the great Bath road, one ed Long-barrow. This is forty yard mile south of Avebury, and five miles • in length, and fituated about a quarte west of Marlborough. This monstrous of a inile north from the house of S tumulus is unquestionably the largest of 'W.A'Court. A section was made fr 1 the kind in England. It measures one "the cattern fide to the centre; and o hundred and seventy feet perpendicu- ' a level with the adjoining ground u lar, one hundred and fire in diameter - found a ftratum of very black mout at the top, and five hundred at the • an inch thick, which gradually in bottom. Its shape is that of a trun • created in thickness as we advance cated cone, diminishing gradually from towards the middle, where it me its bafe to the summit. It is evidently sured twelve or more inches in dept formed by art, as the surrounding ex • Hence we worked longitudinally to cavations thoir from whence the earth • several feet to the right and left, al was obtained. That it was constructed (fill continued to find the black eart before the Romans came into this “at the bottom; yet, after all our county, is proved by the road of that • searches, found only tbree or fel people, which here takes a sweep near 'small pieces of bone, some small til ly half round it, in its course from of pottery, and a piece of a ftag Bath to Marlborough, &c. In the horn, five inches and a half in lengt year 1723, a human skeleton, and a “« The second was a small circula

* “ Munimenta Antiqua."

† “ Vide Gough's edition of Camden, where an engraving is given of the ancient relic."

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