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been a favourite tree of the poets, by surprise. But that writer is miftaten whom it has been much celebrated, in applauding the temperance of the perhaps because no tree of equal beau- lower orders, and asserting, that no ty grows so easily and rapidly in this man but a foreigner is ever feen drunk climate. The poplars along the banks at Madrid. I have seen many Spaniards of the Manzanares are well known to drunk; and the walloon foldiers may in the readers of old Spanish poetry. The some measure be excused for this vice, Prado is now the usual promenade, when, instead of the four wine of where in the morning persons of high Germany and Italy, they can purchase rank are feen both on foot and on the fiery La Mancha for a trifle. horseback; but after the fiesta, or af “ The climate of Madrid is in geneternoon-nap, the whole is filled with ral very agreeable, the alr being warm, splendid equipages, which, according and rain uncommon; for the frontier to a custom peculiar to Spain, daily mountains of Castile seem to keep off perform the fame dull round, following the clouds, which I frequently law, each other during an hour or two, up when the wind was north, refting upon, one mail and down another, in a flow and hiding their summits, before they and tedious proceffion, without seeing descended to the adjacent country. In any one but foot patiengers of inferior summer the air is burning hot, no seacondition, or the other coaches which breezes lending their aid to cool it, happen to be in the opposite rank, and and in winter uncommonly cold; I oforming the most irkiome amufement have often seen the Manzanares coverthat Jollibly can be imagined: nor did ed with ice. This extreme cold, in fo 1, afier the first time I l'ad experienced southerly a latitude, undoubtedly arises "it, ever confent to endure it again. from the high situation of the town, as Sometimes a few coaches are feen the constantly low state of the baromewithout the gate, between the rows of ter and the continual descent to aptrees on the road to Aranjuez. But proach the banks of the Tagus, which who could he the bold adventurer, who from Aranjuez to Lisbon has also a first braved the laws of etiquette by confiderable fall, sufficiently prove.”. taking his pleasure without the gate? P. 96.

Madrid appears a very dead place except at the time of the promenade in the Prado, or in the morning, at

PORTUGUEZE MILITARY. fome part where a celebrated mass is « THE uniform of the Portugueze to be read. A great city, situated on infantry and cavalry is dark blue; that a brook in an ungrateful country, of the husfars light blue; the marines where manufactures only flourish by green; and the sailors are dreffed like means of extraordinary exertion and the English. But the blue or red cloth encouragement, and where the court breeches of many of the regiments, relides but a few weeks in the year, is and the black Manchefter breeches of great but by force, and that force is every the officers, have an unpleasing appear. where perceived. At Madrid there is ance. Generals and other officers wear a great scarcity of amutenients, which a suit of scarlet, richly embroidered are therefore supplied by devotion, and with gold. The cavalry, like that of its fifter pallion love. In Spain, the Spain, ride stallions; but their horses are stage is very poor; and at both the the- in better condition. They do not ride atres at Madrid, in general, bad pieces ill, but their uniforms ill become them. are performed by miserable players. The soldiers are but poorly paid: a One, however, of the actresses, who private receives two vinteins, or forty was not a bad performer, at this time rees (about twopence fterling); from shone in heroic parts. In this respect which something is deducted for cloththe Spaniards are even inferior to the ing. This is extremely miserable pay Portugueze, and have nothing to com- in so dear a country as Portugal, parpare with the excellent opera at Lisbon. ticularly at Lisbon. Bread, a sardine, Spaniards feldom invite company to and bad wine, are the constant and dinner, and more rarely, if ever, to daily food of these men, who feldom Tupper. They confine themselves to or never tafte meat or vegetables. In tertullas, where tea is given, and that the year 1998, many young men were great quantity of fweetmeats devoured, prefied, and many of the regiments at which Bourgoing expreßled so much increased by five hundred men; they

wers

were torn from the fields and kid- fion; and the shocks which Lisbon has napped every where, and the go- felt from time to time are attempts of vernment promised rewards to the nature to raise other similar bills. But juizes de fora who fhould send them it is evident this is one of the innumemost recruits. In consequence of this, rable hypotheles that have been thrown whole troops of considerable length out without proof on this subject, were often met travelling like criminals Portugal, however, is rich in warm with their hands bound. It was pain- springs, which are doubtless the effect ful to behold these unfortunate people, of subterraneous fires. Such springs who perhaps could live happily and are found even in Lisbon, though the comfortably at home on the fruit of warmth is very Night; also, at Cascaes their labour, now brought by force to a few miles from Lisbon.” P. 182. ftarve in the towns. At Lisbon I have often been solicited in an evening for charity by men among the guard at the

THE AQUEDUCT. barracks of the regiment of Gomez “ CLOSE to the north side of the Freire, who had the greatest claim to town, is that bold and grand work of my coinpaflion. But can any man art, the aqueduct called os arcos, by blame the natives of this country for which water is brought from several funning military service under such' springs situated at a distance of three circumstances ?" P. 139.

leagues and near the village of Bellas, being in some parts conducted under

ground. Near the town it passes over THE SOIL ROUND LISBON.

a deep valley, and the works are plan« THE foil round Lisbon consists of ned with great magnificence. It refts limeftone and basalt; the former lying on several bold arches, the largest of at top, and being here and there very which is 230 feet 10 inches French white, close, and excellent for build- high, and 107 feet 8 inches broad. ing, but breaking too coarse for the The view is fingular when the spectaftatuary. Another fingular fpecies of tor stands beneath it, and its pointed limestone, which only forms a mass of arches seem changed into a majestic petrification, appears at a depth in both vault that re-echoes every found. The banks of the river, lying beneath the whole length of the aqueduct is 2400 other ftrata. The balalt begins at the feet. In the middle is a covered archbank not far from the sea, and then ed way, of seven or eight feet, where proceeds through Quelus toward Bel- the water flows on each side through a las; meanwhile a branch of the basalt tunnel of stone. Without this arched mountain extends beyond the city by way and on each side is a path, where the aqueduct, and unites with the fore- two persons can conveniently walk mentioned chain toward Bellas. From abreast, with a parapet, over which they thence the basalt country extends as far may look down to its base. The small as Cabeça de Montachique. It properly towers perhaps disturb the general efforms only one mass of basalt, which fect, but could not be dispensed with, is here and there, covered with lime for they serve as ventilators. ftone. It is particularly striking that “ The water enters the town at a basalt is only found in those two parts place called da Amoreira, where it of Portugal, Lisbon and Cape St. Vin. divides into several other aqueducts, cent, where the earthquake of 1755 and supplies the fountains (or chafawas moft violent; and this circum- rizes) which are often very ornamental, ftance is thought to confirm the opi- though in a bad taste. Here the gallenion that basalt covering great strata of gos draw water in small barrels, and coal furnishes materials for subterrane- cry it about the streets. The water is ous fires, and thus gives rise to earth- very good, containing a portion of oxyquakes and volcanoes; but it must not genated calcareous earth, its sources be forgotten that Belem, which partly being in limestone hills. The Portu-' ftands on a basalt hill, suffered less gueze being inhabitants of a warm clifrom that earthquake than some parts mate, cannot be blamed for loving of the town evidently founded upon good water, but the ridiculous accounts limestone ; perhaps the basalt had at of Costigan and other travellers on this some former period been forced up subject are much exaggerated. In from these parts by a fimilar convul. summer, water is sold by the glass

throughout

OF

THE INHABITANTS.

throughout Spain and Portugal, in the of every nation. Of what then should public squares and promenades; and they consist at Lisbon ? Both high and among both these nations an excellent low delight in throwing all kinds of method is nfed to keep water and dirt and filth on the passengers, who, other liquors cool in fummer. Earthen in conformity to custom, and to avoid vefsels are made of clay containing lime quarrels, mun bear it patiently. and iron, to as to be very porous, but “ The high walls of the quintas in without glazing. These vessel which the town, the vacant and deferied are called bucaros or alcarrazes, futrer grounds, invite to robbery and murthe moifture to pervade their substance der, which are still farther favoured by in the forın of a fine dew, which is the badness of the police. These crimes continually evaporating, and thus pro are always perpetrated with knives, ducing cold. At first they give the thong hallpointed knivesare prohibited. water an unpleasant carthy tafte, which, “ Murders ger:erally arise from rehowever, it loon lotes by use." P. 183. venge or jealousy; robbers are general

ly contented with threats. The spring POLICE OF LISBON-MANNERS is the most dangerous time, and I have

known every night marked with some “ THE first object that must frike murder. The boldness of the atalis every foreigner on entering Lisbon, is is astonishing. On a fast-day, in a prothe badness of the police; the filth of ceflion in honour of St. Rochus, a man the streets lies every where in heaps, was murdered in open day in the which, in the narrow streets where throng, at five o'clock in the afternoon. the rain does not wash it away, require In the frummer of the fame year a man great skill in walking, to avoid finking was robbed at noon, between the walls into them. In one of the most fres near the Prince of Waldeck's, who quented streets on the river leading to was witness to the transaction. The the Ribera Nova, there is only a nar

robbers were even fo bold as to attack row path winding near the houses; coaches. But the criminals almoft and the reader may form an idea of always escaped, the compaflion of the the number of people who daily use it, Portugueze being such, that every one the gallegos with their very heavy bur- ailiits him in his flight. They exclaim dens, which a paflenger cannot avoid; Coutadinho! or, Alas poor man! and while the carts pafs as near to the every thing is done to aflitt him. The houfes as poflibic, that the horses may punishment of death is entirely done not go in the deepest part of the mud ; away, and the culprit is sent to the Inand thus all the dirt and filth is blindly dies or Angola; a punifliment which by fplaihed upon the paslengers, in the no means gives the impression of deatli, worst manner conceivable. As to the though the climates of both are fo vinight, the city was formerly lighted, wholesome that destruction is certain. but now this practice has cealed; and, " A great part of these robbers are as the window-thutters are ft ut early, negroes, of whom there is a greater there is no light to dimiqith the dark- number here, perhaps, than in any nefs of these dirty, nartba!, ill-paved other city of Europe, not excepting ftreets. A host of dogs without mas- London. Many of them get their ters, and living on the public, wander bread as trade people, not unfrequently abont like hungry wolves; and, itill become good and respectable citizens, worse than there, an army of banditti. and inftances occur of their arriving at Our friends often exprefied their asto a high degree of skill as artiians. A nishment at our venturing into Portu- larger portion are beggars, thieves, gal in these times of war; but I allired procurers, and procurefics. Every nethem it was by to means fo bold an gro who has ferved his master seven undertaking as to go at midnight from years in Europe is free, and then not Belem to Mravilhas, at the eastern unfrequently becomes a beggar unleis extremity of the town. How can a he has had a very good mafter. Great nation, among whom are a number of numbers of them are employed as enlightened men, bear fuch an abomi- sailors, and I do pot fee any reason nation, which degrades Lisbon even why they are not allo enlisted as fol. below Constantinople?

diers ; but Mr. Jungk's affertion, that “ The amusements of the carnival one fourth of the inhabitants of Lifbon are always governed by the ruling talte are negroes and creoles, like many

other

other affertions of that author, is much people, if the traveller but offer him a exaggerated.

pinch of good snuff. I saw a beggar“ There is a great number of vaga- woman put some snuff to the note of bonds in Lisbon, for all idle people her child who was still in arms. On a from the provinces come in torrents botanical excursion near Lisbon I met to the metropolis, and are permitted a well-drefled lady, who asked me for to live in the open town without im- a pinch of snuff, as she had lost her pediment. Hence arise the immense box; and when I told her that I never number of beggars, who partly rove used one, the replied, with an expresabout, and partly remain in fixed fion of the most violent grief, Ellou deplaces, crying out continually, and resperada (I am quite in despair). Nor promising to mention this or that per can we blame Alphonio IV. for giving son to Nolla Senhora in their prayers. the Englith foldiers, who had fought A physician might here meet with an so bravely for him at the battle of uncommon number of remarkable cu Ameixia', two pounds of tobacco each. taneous disorders; I have often ob- The Emoking of tobacco is, however, ferved a true leprosy, and endeavoured very uncommon; nor are even cigarby obfervations of this kind to render ros, though to customary in Spain, myseli interlible to the disgu't they in- used by any but failors.” P. 201. {pire. These beggars receive a great “ Both the higher and lower clasies deal in charity, through a mistaken are very fond of a profufion of comsense of piety prevalent in Catholic pliments, which flow in a torrent from countries. They also often practise every mouth. A common peasant artifices to obtain charity. I remem- meeting another takes off his hat quite ber an old man who fell down before low down, holds him a long while by us through hunger, as he afterwards the hand, inquires after his health and said, and thus immediately obtained that of his family, and does not fail to from my youthful companion a confi- add, 'I am at your commands, and derable piece of gold; while I, fome, your humble servant (estou a seus ordens, what colder, remarked his theatrical Jou criado). This is not a remark taken performance, withheld my charity, ex. from a single instance, for I have heard amined into the affair, and found my it extremely often from afxrivers, suspicions grounded. Another class of and others of similar clafles. The Porbegring is that for souls in purgatory. tugueze language indeed, even in the The religious fraternities, to whom it mouths of the common people, has properly belongs to collect these alms, naturally something well-bred and eland to have mailes performed in a cer- gant; nor do they ever use oaths and tain church for that purpote, farm out indecent expressions, like the English, this employment to certain people, French, and Spanish low execrations, who post themselves in the neighbour- though the loweft classes indeed fomehoud of this church to beg, for which times mention the devil. All the Porthey generally pay eight mitrees annu- tugueze are naturally talkative, and ally, and by this contract frequently fometimes very infipid. The rich are gain one hundred milrces a-year. Every said to conceal a false heart bentath a thing is done in Portugal pelo amor de profusion of polite expreflions. I have Deos e gelas almas (for the love of God nothing to say in defence of the higher and of the souls). The monasteries classes; they are as inferior to the Spafend their fruit, usually grapes, to be niards as the common people excel fold in the streets as it were by auction, them. The want of science and tafte, in order to perform masses for the which perhaps arises from the total money. They are cried about the want of works of art in this country ; streets as rvas pelas almas (grapes for a government which never had wifdum the fouls); and when the price is asked, or opportunity to bring into action the the afwer is generally confiderable. nobler passions of mankind, the corIn the Calzada de Eftrella fat a beggar, ftant and oppressive neighbourhood of who always cried snuff for the fouls. the English, who justly feel their supeSnuff is a great article of neceflity for riority, and the total decay of liteall rarks, for bo h sexes, for every old rature, are, I conceive, the chief causes man, wat in fhort for the whole nation. why the Portugueze nobles are formed Nor is it ditcult to obtain the parti- of vcrte materials than any European ality of any of the common class of nobility.” P. 210.

(To be continued.)

LVII. Ægyptiaca ; or Observations ler, employed the pen of the historian,

on certain Antiquities of Egypt. and exercised the skill of the antiquary In two parts. Part I. The Hir- and all these have united in holding it tory of Pompey's Pillar elucidated, forth to the notice and admiration of Part II. Abdullatif's Account of mankind. "But while the object of the Antiquities of Egypt: written the attempt to write after so much has

curiosity is admitted to be interesting, in Arabic A. D. 1203. Translated been written, may be deemed an idle into English, and illustrated with presumption: and the sceptical inquirer, Notes. By J. White, D. D. who has in vain fought for satisfactory Professor of Arabic in the Univer- information from those witnesses who sity of Oxford, &c. &c. Part I. have visited the spot, will perhaps dir. Royal 4to. pp. 127. 11. 15. Ox. dain that which is offered him from ford printed; Cadell and Davies

, the recesses of an university. To ob London.

viate such a prejudice (if any such fhould be entertained), let me here ex

plicitly inform the reader, that in the LIST OF PLATES,

ensuing pages he will see no paradox Engraved by Storer.

advanced to contradict and perplex 1. THE Situation of Pompey's Pillar the concurrent testimony of ages; but

he will find that the commonly rewith respect to Alexandria.

ceived accounts have some material 2. Pompey's Pillar (from Dalton).

defects to be supplied, and some grofs 3. Baje of Pompey's Pillar (from errors to be corrected, and that such Norden).

corrections have been made, it is hoped, 4. Base and Pivot,

upon the authority of unexceptionable 5. Plan of the Capital.

evidence.” P.i. 6. Alexandria.

“ In approaching this great object 7. Site of Serapeum, according to Dr. of curiosity, we enter upon a land of White.

wonders; in its history and fate distinguished from all others, and suggesting matter of the most serious and awful

reflection. For what country may SECT. I. Inquiries concerning compare with Egypt in early renown the Alexandrian Column-Observa- for power, and wealth, and science, tions on Pompey's Pillar, by Edward when other nations were fed with the Wortley Montague, Esq. (from the produce of her foil, and enriched with Philof. Tranf. vol. lvii. p. 438.)- elle can we behold such ftupendous

the treasures of her wisdom? Where Remarks on Ditto.-11. Opinions of works of art; which, no less in design Brotier, Father Sicard, De Maillet, than in magnitude, seem almost to ex: Niebuhr.-III. Opinions of Michae ceed the ability of human agents ? lis, Browne, Savary, and Bishop Po. And, lastly, where shall we find a de. cocke.--IV. Temple of Serapis. V. generacy like that of the present race The Alexandriano Library The of Egyptians; or where an ancient inOpinions of Gibbon criticised. VI. heritance of greatness and glory, which Further Inquiry concerning the Alex. has been so totally wasted and loft ?” andrian Column.---Appendix, No.I.

P. ii. Notes.-II. Concerning the Site of late to raise this country from its de

“ But an attempt has been made of the Serapeum-111. Further Partie graded and fallen condition, to restore culars respecting the Pillar— iddi- it to liberty and independence, and tional Notes.

replace it in its station among the kingdoms of the earth. Or rather, let us say, that, under the pretence of con

ferring these unsolicited benefits, a peo. “ THAT magnificent Pillar, which ple, regardless of every principle of is the chief subje&t of the following in- moral propriety, and every law of civi. quiry, may be ranked with the most fized nations, has carried thither with illustrious remains of ancient art. It out provocation all the miseries and has excited the attention of the travel- horrors of war. It is not improbable,

that

CONTENTS.

EXTRACTS FROM THE PREFACE.

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