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and clear system of English grammar, cultivation of our own tongue, which which happily by its fimplicity and fa- excited the disgust of M. Voltaire." cility is perhaps fitter than that of any other language for such a purpose; they would have fome notion of what they were going about, when they
ON THE EDUCATION OF THE MIDshould enter into the Latin grammar;
DLING CLASSES OF THE COMMUand would hardly be engaged so many years, as they now are, in that most " EMINENT scholars are the irksome and difficult part of literature, brightest ornaments of a nation : but with so much labour of the memory, the cultivation of ancient literature and with so little afli tance of the un must be confined comparatively to a derstanding.
few; it never can become a national “ Whatever the advantages or de- object in an institute of public educaa fe&ts of the English language be, as it tion. Hence, the application of several is our own language, it delerves a high years to the dead languages, by young degree of our study and attention, both perions whose views and situation in with regard to the choice of words life are such as to preclude them from which we employ, and with regard deriving any advantage or pleasure from to the syntax, or the arrangement of this
study, is an unprofitable and centhese words in a fentence. We know furable waste of time. And thougba how much the Greeks and the Romans, the attainment of classical learning in their most polished and flourishing hould be open to every one defirous times, cultivated their own tongues. of feeling its charins, yet it ihould We know how much study both the never be made a matter of necessity French and the Italians have bestowed with boys destined to the inferior ocupon theirs. Whatever knowledge may cupations. The same course of studies be acquired by the study of other lan- cannot be proper for the lawyer, the guagts, it can never be communicated divine, the physician, the soldier, the with advantage, unless by such as can failor, the merchant, and the mechawrite and speak their own language nic; and therefore, some other mode well. Let the matter of an author be of inftruction must be devised, different ever so good and useful, his compofi- books read, and different exercises pertions will always fuffer in the public formed, in order to render youth comesteem, if his expression be deficient in petent to engage in their several spheres purity and propriety. At the same of active life, with credit to themselves time, the attainment of a correct and and profit to the community. The elegant style, is an object which de- present system of education is distri. mands application and labour. If any buted, like a quack medicine, in equal imagine they can catch it merely by proportions to all constitutions, and in
ear, or acquire it by a slight peru- all disorders; it was framed in times fal of some of our good authors, they of popery and arbitrary power; an will find themselves much disappoint- age when knowledge only began to ed. The many errors, even in point dawn, after that long night which of grammar; the many offences against darkened all efforts of genius, and purity of language, which are com- eclipsed with clouds of barbarous fomitted by writers who are far from be- phiftry the luminous productions of ing contemptible, demonftrate, that a Greece and Rome. But, what cannot careful study of the language is pre. fail to excite our admiration and pity viously requisite in all who aim at wric at the obstinacy of established preju
dices, it has subfifted for three centuThese observations appear to de. ries, unaltered by the revolutions which termine conclufively the subject which have taken place in the religious, poliwe have been discussing ; they will suf- tical, and moral government of manfice therefore to prove, that the ap- kind, as well as in their manners, cusplication of a child to a dead language, toms, and opinions. before he is acquainted with his own,
" The causes of all these absurdities is a lamentable waste of time, and may be traced to one source. Ever highly detrimental to the improvement fince the days of Henry VIII. the stic of his mind. It was the neglest of the pend given for the instruction of boys
ting it properly.
has remained nearly the same. The English readers: for lisping, which is poor schoolmaster, whose relative im- the pronunciation of the letter Sor Z, portance in society is much greater or C before E and I, as though it were than the world imagines, is obliged to TH, may be effectually remedied by labour and toil for very low and inade- selecting words where the letter S prequate fums, when the prices of all vails, and pronouncing them with the other maiters and artists have increased teeth shut close, at the same time obin proportion to the increased wealth serving never to put the tongue beof the community. This hardilrip tween the teeth, except when tb occompels etery master to make up in curs. Stammering is casily cured, by number, whai is deficient in weight; causing the child to speak very lowly and, to procure a competency, he is and without fear. The first of the de. under the pecetlity of taking more fects above mentioned, destroys what. boys under his care, to whom it is im- ever is graceful and beautiful in propoflible he can do juftice, or pay fuf- nunciation, and whatever is various fcient attention.” P. 158.
and energetic in discourse. To avoid “ It is a serious blemish in the cha- it, a boy should be persuaded to read racter of all parents, that they literally, as be speaks, in order to preserve the gire larger wages to the men who train natural key of his voice; which practheir dogs and horses, than to thote tice will qualify him, as occahons rewho are to form the minds of their quire, to raise or depress, to vary or children to good or evil, to happiness modulate it. What can be more fatior mifery. It is a shame that not a guing to the reader, or more ridiculous fourth of what is commonly paid to and disagreeable to the auditor, than the dancing-master, is alloifèd to thetu- the following pathetic fentence from tor; it is insufferable, that opera dan- Thomion, delivered in an immodecers, fingers, mimics, and buffoons, rately loud or overstrained voice : riot in wealth, while the learned pre
• Unpitied, and unheard, where misery ceptor languishes in the midst of a
moans ; laborious einployment, in obscurity, • Where fickness pines; where thirst and often in poverty. This complaint
and hunger burn, is as old as the time of Henry VIII. Ro
And poor misfortune feels the lash of ger Atcham, who was tutor to Queen vice.' Elizabeth, has the following remarkable passage on this head: Pity it is The following energetic passage from that conmonly more care is had, yea, if delivered in the same languid tone as
Milton, would be completely laughable and that among very wise men, to • find out rather a cu
the preceding : • their horse, than a cunning man for
-Back to thy punishment, their children. They say nay, in
False fugitive, and to thy speed add ! word, but they do fo in deed; for to
wings, one they will gladly give a ftipend of
• Left with a whip of scorpions I pur. $two hundred crowns by the year, and
fue loth to offer to the other two hundred Thy lingering, or with one stroke of fhillings. God, that litteth ir bea this dart i ven, laugheth their choice to scorn, • Strange horrors feize thee, and pange ! and rewardeth their liberality as it
unfelt before.' should. For he suffereth them to “ The second defeat, which confifts have tame and well-ordered horses, in confounding the words, and in but wild and unfortunate children; drawing one sentence upon another, by
and therefore in the end, they find which it is either impoflible for the ? more pleasure in their horse, than' hearer to comprehend, or an attention comfort in their child'.” P. 163. is exacted from him too close to be
long observed without pain and diffi.
culty; is to be prevented by making a ARTICULATION---PROVINCIAL
boy pronounce distinctly; but not DIALECT, &c.
Nowly, every significant syllable; by “ AN unnatural elevation or depref. cauling all the stops or pauses to be fon of the voice, an indistinct articula- obferved; and by placing on the protion, and a corrupt or provincial dia. per fyllable, the itreis of the ruicę or icct, are the three principal defects of syllabical accent, and op fuch particu
lar words or portions of the sentence here is a most sublime idea conveyed, as the subject demands, the proper em that his hands dipped into the sea. phasis or oratorical accert. In narra would chuge the colour of the whole tive, boys are apt to full into nord occan from green to red. Nor if we tone, which ma; be eziy avoided by consider the disturbed frate of his imarightly accenting the proper syilable; ination at that time, will this thought, this communicates a iurprising ipirit hyperbolical as it may seem at firit and vivacity, as well as a proper dir- view, appear at all unnatural? for it tinction to words. If the following is highly probable that his fancy at that words were pronounced as they are instant presented all objects about him accented (popúlar, vivacity, confé- as of that sanguine hue; nay, converted quence), some time would elapfe before the very atmosphere that surrounded the hearer could recognise them. I him, into a sea of blood. was once witnets to a ludicrous cir “ Perhaps, no better admonition can cumstance of this fort while at college. be given on the subject of reading, ihan A certain do&tor of divinity, who was, the memorable answer of Betterton to at the same time, a man of tafte, po- the Billiop of London, who inquired liteness, and unexceptionable character, of him, " what could be the reason that was reading the second leflon, in which • whole audiences 'fhould be moved were these words-- Saul, Sau}, why to tears, and hive all sorts of palion perfecuteft thou me?' It happened 'excited, at the representation of fome that the fun fhone full in his face at the story on the stage, which they knew time, and as he pronounced the words 'to be feigner, and in the event of - in the Lancashire dialect, and in a sharp which they were not at all concerntone, as if spelt thus, Sol, Sol, why 'ed; yet that the same persons flould persecutest thou me? the associa- * fit fo utterly unmoved at the diftion which it raised in our minds be- 'courses from the pulpit, upon subjeds tween the ever-memorable inftant of • of the utmost importance to theirtenthe conversion of the great apostle of poral and their eternal interests. He the Gentiles, and the master of a cole received this memorable reply: 'My lege, tormented by the sunbeam, pro- Lord, it is because we are in carnet. duced such an instantaneous effect, “ Lastly, as a provincial dialect her that several of us burst into a loud fit trays an evident defe of inftrucion in of laughter." P. 210.
the carly part of life, confirmed by “ In the lectures on elocution which long habit, every posible attention þave been published by Mr. Sheridan, should be given to remedy this article. he very properly observes that the rule It is a remarkable fact, to which I have of throwing the accent as far back as paid particular attention, both here polible, is abfurd and pedantic; and, and abroad, that the fair sex deliver if I remember rightly, he illuftrates themselves with far more corre nessthis position by several striking ex- and purity than we do. The fact itself amples. He remarks respecting em I am nut able to rciolve into any gene
phafis, that in the play of Macbeth, ral principle, unless it be ascribed to . there is a paslage, which, as it has been that spirit of imitation, in which they
generally spoken on the stage, and read excel, and to the refined taste which by most people, is downright norsenfe; that spirit is calculated to excite. The but in itself is a very fire oni, and Atheniana (and the French, who in conveys an idea truly sublime. It is many refpecis referble them) were the expression of Macbeth after he has particularly careful of their mode of committed the murder, when he says, pronunciation. It is reported by Quin"Will all great Neptune's ocean walli tilian, thought I cannot immediately this blood
point to the palage, that one of the Clean from my hands? No- thife moit elegant writers of Greece expco? hands will rather,
rienced a fevere mortification from a • The multitudinous fca incarnadine, fruit-woman at Athens, whofe commo• Making the green obe, red.'
dities he was endeavouring to cheapen. “Now the last line pronounced in She replied, 'Stranger, I can take nothat manner, calling the sea the green 'thing less." Struck with astonishche, makes nonsense of it. But if we ment, he inquired her meaning, when read it with proper emphasis and stop, he was answered, that he did not proand say, make the green--one red; nounce a curtain word according to the
A PLAN FOR THE
STUDY OF GEO
Attic dialect. The young people of should be a large globular alto-relief in Athens were sent first to learn gram- every under academy, which fhould mar, urder masters who taught them represent the form of the earth, and regularly their own language; by which the diversities on its surface. This will they attained a knowledge of its whole strike the senses moft forcibly, and beauty, energy, number, and cadencé. leave a more durable impression on the In fort, to treak English well, a per- mind than any which can be derived fon should speak in such a manner that from books or lectures. The machine no one fouled discover whether he should revolve on its axis in the fame be a native of London, Edinburgh, or manner as a common globe, and reDublin. Sheridan's Dictionary appears present on its superficies the continents, to me to he the most useful work on inards, peninsulas, isthmuses, and capes, this fubject, and preserable to Walker's or promontories, the oceans, seas, gulfs
, Dictionary.” P.213.
bays or creeks, itraits, lakes, and ris vers, into which the world is divided. The tutor should explain the various
distributions of territory and water, at GRAPHY-GENERAL PSIFFER's cu- the same time that he points to each
object on the machine. Thus, when
he defines the nature of an island as a “ GEOGRAPHY is a science so body of land, entirely surrounded by very easy and entertaining, and its ad- water, he should point to the island, vantages so numerous and extensive, represented on the machine, u hich will that it cannot fail to attract the attend have the appearance of a small spot tion, and to make a permanent im- . raised above the surface, and will expreslion on the minds of children. actly describe the object in contemplaWhen the division is about to enter tion. If he want to give an account of upon this study, the tutor should ex. any particular island, he must refer to plain by lecture, that is, verbally, the our common gengraphical globes for a nature and usc of the science; the correct description of its thase and fructure of the earth, its division, and size; the object of the machine prothe evidences of its rotupdity. For, posed, being only to give general ideas, the first conceptions of a boy respect of the nature of islands, promontories ing the formation of the earth, are &c. &c. not of any particular island of much the same as thofe of the savage promontory. becoming civilized. We find from the “ If there be any merit in the invenreports of voyagers and travellers, that tion of such a simple instrument of uninftructed nations generally suppose knowledge, it belongs not to me ; for the earth to be a flat extended surface, the idea was first suggested to my mind, surrounded by water. This was my by the fight of a splendid and ingenious own idea of it during infancy; and geographical alto-relief, in the 11:ape of from the narrative of Lord Macartney's a parallelogram, invented by Lieuteembasiy, by Sir George Staunton, it nant General Pfiffer, of Lucerne in appears, that this is still the opinion Swifferland. This able and vencrable even of the enlightened Mandarins of geographer, when above seventy years China. As it is impollible that boys of age, climbed the cloud-capt mouncan make a rapid progress in any study, tains of his native country, and amici if they be deficient in its fundamental the roar of cataracts, and of lavanges parts; this falle conception should be loosened from their beds, and tumbling rectified, if pofble, by ocular demon- down with precipitate destruction, 1s ftration; if not, by luch methods as terally trzecd the topography of the approach nearest to it. I have not Forest Cantons, with such corre& exhitherto been fo fortunate as' to meet actitude, that it may justly challenge with any system of geography, which the superiority over any undertaking treats of these subjects in a demonstra- 'of the kind, that has ever been pere tive method; and therefore I tham forined in any age or nation of the suggest a plan, which will enable the world. His alto-relief represents every lecturer to demonstrate to the eye, the lake, mountain, cataract, and rivulet. instruction he wishes to convey to the Whenever he had reached the summit mind.
of a mountain, he picked up a ftone “ I propose, therefore, that there and on his return to Lucerne modelled
CAVE OF FINGAL.
it to the precise shape of the mountain two divisions of North and South itself, which he defcribed on his ma- America. chine: lakes are represented by bits of “ 1. Afia with its various sovereignflate, fashioned according to the exact ties, divisions, and subdivisions; their form of those he saw; a cataract is de productions, their religions, their gopicted by a little silver chain, a river vernments, their laws, customs, manby wire, and a road by light cords. ners, and population. 2. Europe. 3 The whole is a prodigious example of Africa. 4. America, with their prounhaken perseverance, of surprising ductions, &c. Their minds should be ingenuity, of accurate discrimination, thus impressed with the nature, proand of able workmanship. Nor was the perties, and extent of the globe ; and execution more wonderful, than the in their progress, such general prin. undertaking dangerous. For in taking ciples should be unfolded, as are easily his observations, the ice would crack, comprehended. By such means the and often threaten to overwhelm him memory will be exercised, curiosity in the depths of snow beneath. In all awakened, and they will be taught, al. these adventurous excursions, his only most without perceiving it, the rudi. fuftenance was the milk of two she ments of the important sciences of pogoats, which were his fole companions litics, commerce, navigation, and hisin this wild scene. While he was tory.” P. 261. taking his observations, they browsed on the declivity of the mountains ; when he had finished and recalled them, they returned with ecstacy at the LXVIII. Stoddart's Remarks on local found of his voice. By the help of a Scenery and Manners in Scotland. little falt, of which those creatures are
(Continued from p. 303.) extremely fond, and a bag of which the General always carried with him, he induced them to follow his danger
STAFFA-BASALTIC COLUMNS ous steps over all those terribly sublime and sequestered regions.
" THE next morning we made our “When the boys are perfected in first attempt to reach Staffa, the demonstrative part of the science, having first given in our names to the that is, are able to trace the boundaries landlord, to be transmitted to of the several kingdoms, states, and Mac Donald, Esq. proprietor of that empires; to mark the principal towns island. It was not unusual for strangers and cities, the various divifions of land to wait in vain, above a fortnight for and water; the numerous islands, penin- fair w Sather; and thould they land at fulas, and promontories; the feas, lakes, an unfavourable time, the rising temand rivers, as exhibited on the terrestrial pests might detain them, on the folia globe, or laid down in accurate maps; tary spot, without hopes of allistance. they should be lectured on the artificial Our excursion afforded us a proof of lines and distinctions, which have been that respectful deference, with which invented by geographers, to carry on the people here, probably from in. their fyftems. A terreftrial globe should terefted motives, consult the inclina. be placed on a table, and the tutor tions of their wealthy visitors. In the hould explain the two points or poles,
narrow Sound of Ulva, the fea was on which the earth is supposed to per- heaved into huge, white, breaking form her diurnal motion, as well as the surges, by a most violent gale, and we meaning and application of the terms were driven along fo rapidly, that had equator, meridians, degrees, minutes, we itruck on any of the bold pointed tropics, polar circles, zones, and cli? rocks, by which we were furrounded, nates. When they have acquired the we must have been instantly dashed to knowledge of the various divisions of pieces. After a little experience of this the globe, and of its inhabitants, as dangerous navigation, finding that the they are distinguished by their refpec- more we advanced into the open fea, tive situations; they should then con the more tremendous it appeared, I template the whole world divided into asked the only one of our boatmen two great continents; the eaftern, com who understood English, whether we prehending Asia, Europe, and Africa; could poisibly get to Staffa. He anand the western, comprehending the swered, ali uredly not:' and when Vol. V.-No. XLIX.