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water itself, and when so raised they • land. Those vapours, which hare are kept suspended in the middle re. "both common and electrical fire in gions of the atmosphere in the form them, are better supported than those. of clouds, until by some means not ' which contain only common fire; for yet indisputably ascertained, the water 'when vapours rise into the coldest reis again precipitated to the earth in "gion above the earth, the cold will rain.
not diminish the electrical fire, if it “ It may be necessary to premise, 'doth the common. Hence clouds that in treating of this subject I shall ' formed by vapours raised from fresh generally make use of the word vapour waters within land, from growing for that which arises from water or vegetables, moist earth, &c. more any other fuid, and of the term exha- ! speedily and easily deposit their wa. lation for that which comes from the 'ter, having but little electrical fire to land.
repel and keep the particles separate. “ By some authors it is supposed, so that the greatest part of the water that both vapours and exhalations are raised from the land is let fall on the small vesiculæ detached, as before ob. • land again; and winds blowing from ferved, from the earth or water by the land to the sea are dry, there beheat, and which muft be specifically «ing little use for rain on the sea; and lighter than the air, or they could not • to rob the land therefore of its mois. afcend. When they have palied through "ture, in order to rain on the sea, the denser mediuin near the earth, at would be contrary to the unerring tracted by the dry air above them, • diftributions of Nature. they continue to ascend until they ar “ “ But clouds formed by vapours rive at a cold region, where they be raited from the sea, having both fires, come condensed, and remain suspended, and particularly a great quantity of as befcre obferved, in the form of • the electrical, support their water clouds. In this state they continue • strongly, raise it high, and being floating, till by some new agent they • moved by winds, may bring it over are converted into rain, hail, Inow, the middle of the broadeft contineat mist, &c, Others again,' who equally • from the middle of the wideft ocean. admit that the clouds are formed by • How these ocean clouds, so strongly these vesiculæ, think that they coalesce • supporting their water, are made to in the upper regions of the atinosphere, deposit it on the land where it is forming into little masses until they bę. wanted, is next to be considered. come too heavy to be any longer suf “ “ If the ocean clouds are driven pended, and then descend in rain. But by winds against mountains, thofe this hypothesis cannot be well founded, mountains, being less electrifed, at. for the vapours are perpetually ascend- tract them, and on contact take away ing into the upper regions of the at “their electrical fire (and being cold, mosphere, which are always cold; and • their common fire also); hence the confequently, according to this theory, particles close towards the mountains, they would again be precipitated in and towards each other. If the air rain as soon as they have arrived at a . was not much loaded, it would only certain height, which would almost • fall in dews on the mountain tops and constantly produce regular showers. • fides, form springs, and descend into The same objection applies to the fys- "the vales in rivulets, which united tem of Dr. Derham, who accounts for . make larger streams and rivers. But rain by fuppofing the vesiculæ to be “bcing much loaded, the electrical fire full of air, which (he says) becoming is at once taken from the cloud, and contracted in the colder regions, the 'on leaving it the particles coalesce for watery mell, thus thickened, becomes want of that fire, and fall in heavy heavier than the air, and is precipitated "showers. in rain by its comparative weight. But “ ! When a ridge of mountains thus Dr. Franklin, in his Observations on • dams the clouds, and draws the elec, Electricity, seems to account moft ra "tric fire from the cloud first approachționally for the formation of the clouds .ing it, that which next follows, when and precipitation of rain. The fun it comes near the first cloud (now de* fupplies (or seems to supply),' he says, prived of its fire), flashes into it, and • common fire to all vapours raised begins to deposit its own water. The from the fea, or exhalations from the firit cloud again flashing into the
mountains, the third approaching fluid moving from all points horizon
cloud, and all the succeeding ones, tally towards a centre muft either • act in the same manner as far back as • ascend or descend; but air flowing 'they extend, which may be over many on or near the surface of land or wa"hundred miles of country.'
ter, from all fides towards a centre, “ It is evident from the geographical muft neceffarily at that centre ascend, fituation of the peninsula of India, that the land or water hindering its de the clouds which are conveyed over it • scent. But if these concentring curin both monsoons, must be saturated rents be in the upper region of the with moisture. In the N. E. monsoon 'atmosphere, they may indeed descend, the vapours will be raised from the sea . and cause a whirlwind; and when in the Gulf of Bengal, and as they ap • this current has reached either the proach the land on the coast of Coro • earth or water, it must spread, and mandel, the clouds, in the manner probably blow with great violence to above described, will be made to dis a considerable distance from the cena: charge their contents in great torrents'
"tre. Of the two kinds of whirlof rain. So likewise in the S.W.mon • winds, that which afcends is the moft foon, the vapours will be raised in the common;
but when the upper air Gulf of Sind and the Indian Ocean, • descends, it is perhaps in a greater and they also in the fame manner will ·body, extending wider, as in thunder discharge their contents on the Mala gusts, and without much whirlwind.' bar coast and amongst the Ballagat If then this opinion be well founded, mountains.
a common gale of wind, of moderate 6 But as an additional proof of the extent and thort duration, may be suptruth of this hypothesis, it may be ob- posed to proceed from the former, ferved, that the quantity of rain which but when violent, of long continufalls in the principal part of South ance, and with less variation, from the America, as well as in this part of In- latter. dia, is constantly in proportion to the “ It would not, perhaps, be a matheight and extent of the mountains, to ter of great difficulty to ascertain the the length of time that the wind con fituation of a thip in a whirlwind, by tinues to convey the clouds towards the observing the strength and changes of land, and to the extent of the fea or the wind : if the changes are sudden ocean whence the water is evaporated and the wind violent, in all probability which forms those clouds.
the ship must be near the centre or “ The principal features of both vortex oi the whirlwind; whereas if these countries bear a striking resem- the wind blows a great length of time blance to each other; those of the from the same point, and the changes peninsula of India being in miniature are gradual, it may be reasonably supalmost precisely the same as those of pored the ship is near the extremity America in the fame parallel of lati- of it. tude. The former is situated between “Anotherextraordinary circumstance the Gulf of Bengal and the Gulf of respecting these hurricanes thould likeSind; the latter between the South wise be mentioned, as tending to a difAtlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Both covery of their causes; that they moft countries have a lofty ridge of moun- frequently, it might perhaps with protains, which run through the centre of priety be said always, occur near large them from N. to S.; and both have bodies of land, but are not known at large rivers, apparently in exact pro- sea within the tropics, at least in that portion to the size of their respective part of the ocean remote from the cor mountains, which discharge themselves tinent, or even at a considerable diftowards the E. into the sea.” P. 44. tance from extenfive islands. It is a
well-known fact, as the name itself
implies, that the Pacific Ocean is exVHIRLWINDS ISLAND OF
empt from tempests. So likewise is the
middle of the South Atlantic Ocean, « • W-HIRLWINDS,' says Dr. particularly from the equator to the laFranklin, in one of his letters on phi- titude of 16 degrees S. A violent gale lofophical subjects, are of two kinds; of wind, for initance, was never known
one from the air ascending, and the at the little island of St. Helena, which * other from the air descending. A lies at the distance of nearly a thousand,
triles from the wet craft of Africa, currents of air, and in general whirlantifurther from the eaker coat trirds. Near every part of the contief AT Fica. The mkao terature ficnt of Asia, in the Gulf of Bengal, of St. Helsoais, Icre, side ees on either coast of Africa, near the ibland
17, which is the mean ten- of Midgatcar, and even in the ricipariure uf; sces or the contin ni, in pity of the islands of Mauritius and the stepraleis of la: ruce; but the Bourbesi, shere also there are tolca. yarates there throughout the finis Does, whirlwinds occifioned by sudden ton of the thermometer and barere changes in the atmosphere will, at ceris, ar vury true. It mit here je to nezions, frequently occur. But in a in rernbered, that the vapours the Pacific Ocean, and in the central Ified from the ocean have a larger parts of the North and South Atlantic, portion or outa citam.on slid electrical they will fekin happen. Ships in fire, ard are, therefort, more firmly croiting the North Atlantic scarcely fupported in the form of clouds than ever reet with hard gries of wind be thule which come from the land; that fore they approach the restern Idards, in these ccezis an equal temperature where likewité there are volcanas alruit conitant, priails, and that all But in the islands of Bermudas, which the circumambicat air is tied with are fituated in the Northern Atlantic hom vaeneous vapours. In every wide Ocean, about the latitud: of ;; deespai le of ocea!, therefore, unbroken grees X.and at the diftarce of lix hunha continent o eroane iliand, ro dred miles from the coast of America, fudan changes rekdy tot ke place humicanes, I believe, are almost u in the atr.ciphere; but, on the con known; but thunder and lghini, trert, where the clouds, which are with temporary gufs of wird, or vinform d by exlustiits from exterfive- lent fqualls, are very common. More bcs of land, a, 'proach thoie wich these iliands of Betunt, cr had tory are derived from the ocean, riolnt been placed within the tropic, it is and sudden ait:rations muft neceflrily probable they would have been as tXOccur; for, as it has been frequently empt, even fron tempefts, as St. Hbefore remarkid, the land clouds will leni, or the sands in the Paciis attract boih common and electrical Are Ocean; but fituted in the terper:: from those clouds which corr. from zone, and not very remote froin Áms. the ocean, until the equilibuum is re- rica, they are subject occasionalis :o foreci; and during this operation such fudden and violent gifts from the N.. changes muft necef?rily hapis in the which probably owginate on that Cl"} atmosphere, as will produce strong tient. The Birmudas *, however, i fl
*“ It is to be regretted that invalids in Europe, especially those affi:ated with pulmonary complaints, do not prefer a royage to the illands of Bermudas, :p viting eithus the fouth of France or Lisbon; for the mild regular climate if thefe illands is infinitely preferable to that of any place on the continent, ar:) even to the island of Madeira, which is near the coast of Africa; besides, the voyage to Bermudas, added to the purity of the air, together with the abundance and quality of the fruits and vegetables, would probably refore all thote to health, who are to be recovered either by good air or wholefonic food.
“ But the reputation of these isands has suffered from the report of the early navigators, who formerly vilited then in small veffels, and who were perhape terrified by the occafional storms of thunder and lightning, and ftill more by tł: rocks and shoals with which they are laid to be surrounded. The report of 01. or two timid or wonder-working travellers, at that carly period, was prohib'y fufficient to justify the character given of these islands by our immortal Shane speare, who makes Ariel, in the Tempeft, tell Profpero,
• Safely in harbour
« From the still vex'd Bermoothes.' “ Mr. Malone, in a note on this passage, says, Thus the islands now from by the name of Bermudas, were frequently, though not always, called in a
jor a delightful climate, not unlike mit of an early hay harvest; and I am the fineft weather of an European forry to say, that nine years in ter spring, or the early part of Tum at leaf, in the highly gifted county of mer, whence, probably, they derive Glamorgan, even at the prefect day, their name of the Suniner Wands.”- the hay is regularly spoiled in making. P.65.
But let not This circumftanæ be confidered as reflecting upon the farmers
of that country, who are far from deOBSERVATIONS, ficient either in industry or a compe
tent knowledge of their busineis. Their * TIIE tables in the Philofophical country, posiening every possible nae Transactions, those of Bishop Watson, tural advantage, has not, until lately, Dr. Robertson, and Major Hayman had any good turnpike roads; manuie Rooke, all tend to prove, that the was to be had only in small quantities; rainy season of these illands commences the little there was, it became difficult in June, and continues for the two or and expensive to pat on the land, and three subsequent months; and that the confequently they could not bring for. greatest quantity of rain falls almost ward their grals to be cut before the invariably in the month of July. This middle of July. The rains, therefore, is the fact: let us consider what use fo beneficial to the London farmer, may be derived from it by the farmer. were hurtful to them; but as it hap.
“ In the neighbourhood of London, pened almost every year, they patientfrom the great command of manure ly ruhnitted to what they considered and the goodness of the roads, the irrcnediable; for, being fituted lar farmer is able to bring forward his grafs, the fea, they fuppofed it the natural and to mow it sometimes at the be- consequence of their clin ate and foil. ginning of June, and always by the end “ But turnpike roads being now of the month: thus he completely fi- made throughout the country, and nishes his hay harveft before the fum- fase, expeditious, and cheap conreymer folstice; the folftitial rains there ances being opened, by means of the fore which follow, but feldom com- canals, from the interior of the coantry mence before this time, are extremely to the sea, and labourers of every dibeneficial to him: they bring forward scription resorting in great numbers to the aftermath, they (well the corn and the hills, where they are employed to increase the length of the straw; and work the mines of iron, lime, and coal,having finished one harvest, the farmer the produce of the country will in is completely prepared for the other. future be consumed on the spot, and But it is only within a very few years necessarily increase the quantity of mathat agriculture was in such an improve nure. In the course of a few years ed ftate, even near the capital, as to ad- then, the vallies at least will come into author's time. Hackluyt, in his Voyages, 1598, calls “the fea about the Ber.
mudas a hellith place for thunder, lightning, and storins.' So likewise the continuator of Stone's Annals, 1615, defcribing the arrival of the English at these illands in 1609: Sir George Somers fitting at the sterne, seeing the thrip desperate of relief, looking every minute when it wouid finke, he efpied land,
which according to his and Captain Newport's opinion shou'd be that dreadful *coast of the Bermodes, which illands were of all nations, faid and supposed to
be inchanted, and inhabited with witches and devils; which grew by reason or accustomed monsirous thunder, storme, and tempest, neere unto those ilands; afo for that the whole coast is so wonderous dangerous of rockes, that few can approach them but with unspeakable hazard of thipwreck.'
"The learned editor in this instance proves, that his inimitable author was correct, as far as the inforination of his day went, in making Ariel speak in the manner he does of these islands; but more modern and authentic accounts, amungft which is that of the learned Bishop Berkley, to whom Pope attributes every virtue under heaven, juítities also, I flatter mytelf, what has been said of them in this work. If the modern accounts are most deserving of credit, some unhappy invalid may, perhaps, be tempted to seek benefit from a voyage to the Summer Ifands, in which fome authors say perpetual spring prevails, and where also the inhabitants are stranger to most of our lives."
a high state of cultivation, and both the of every kind is safe from external cold, hay and corn harvest in Glamorgan- for (now being a non-conductor of shire will be as early and productive as heat, the internal warmth of the earth, thote of any other county of Great which at 'all seasons is equal at least to Britain. The experienced farmer would forty-eight degrees of Fahrenheit'sthernot thank me for any remarks on the mometer, rises, and is retained 'near great advantages to be derived from the surface; and when the thaw takes having fodder of a superior quality for place, vegetation, having been prehis horfes, cattle, and seep.
served under this excellent covering of “ As the solftitial rains are always the sheet of snow, is found to be in 2 accompanied withi wefterly and fouth- very advanced and improved state. westerly winds, the mariner will readi. " The mariner at this inclement fealy comprehend that this season is un- son will seldom go to sea if he can avoid favourable for ships outward bound to it; but voyages to the West Indies may the West Indies and America, and be undertaken in the winter, provided consequently the reverse for those there is a good outset from the Chainel tvhich are homeward bound from those by the help of easterly or north-easterly countries.
winds. As the spring approaches, the « It is usual for English travellers to easterly winds commence: the March fix the middle of July for their summer winds and April showers, says the excursions, but they must constantly honest countryman, bring forth May expect to be interrupted with heavy flowers; and it is supposed, that the mofhowers of rain. To one class of them tion of the trees at the vernal equinox however this circunstance may be con contributes to 'raife the sap and devefidered as an advantage: it has lately lope nature, which seems to have been been the fafhion to visit Wales, and in a state of torpor or necessary repose amidst its wild romantic scenery, the during the winter. The prudent farwaterfalls are in the height of their mer avails himself of these winds also beauty at this season.
to low his oats, barley, peas, beans, “ The next meteorological general potatoes, &c. The drying quality of fact worthy of observation is, that fre. these winds, on which I have already quent violent gales of wind happen pretty fully expatiated, takes from the soon after the autumnalequinox. With- earth what would otherwise be a su. out dwelling much on the advantages perabundant degree of moisture on the of these high winds, which are known surface of it. to strip the trees of their leaves, and “ At this season, likewise, the Bri. are said to contribute greatly, by the tish mariner becomes particularly acagitation of them, to the fall of the sap, tive. He may undertake his voyages I shall beg leave to observe, that the to all countries situated to the southlittle summer of St. Martin, which ward of these isands; and if bound to follows these gales, and is probably the the East Indies in particular, he may effect of them, continues from the
be- perform the voyage almost to a certainginning to the 22d of November. This ty in less than four months. The N. E. interval of clear weather is particularly winds being favourable for hips outuseful to the farmer and the gardener; ward bound, they are of course adverse to the former in ploughing and fowing to those that are homeward bound; winter and summer fallows, to the lat- therefore it would be prudent to postter in pruning and drefling his trees pone, if possible, entrance into the after the fall of the leaf, and when the Channel to the end of May, or the bereturn of the lap is completed. ginning of June.
“ As to the winter, it is well known “ In short, the spring is the most that little is to be done in the country favourable feason for outward bound at this time, except the carrying of thips, and the summer for those remanure; but it is important both to turning home. In the autumn the the farmer and gardener to remember, winds generally incline to the W. but that the hard weather seldom begins rather towards the N. than the S.; before Christmas, and in very severe and in winter they are often from the winters a hard frost is generally pre- N. E. but the heavier gales of wind alceded or accompanied, in the early most always come from the N. W. part of it, by a heavy fall of snow. “ After having pointed out to the Thus fecured, the wheat and herbage farmer and gardener, the mariner and