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1430. This was probably the High- EDINBURGH--MANNER S--HUGMENAT, land pipe; nor was the other introdı. ced at all into Scotland betore the fe « PERSONAL appearance is afventeenth century, and then probably feated by the differences of occupafrom England. In a MS. pocin of that tion, diess, food, air, cleanliness, &e, time, a ihepherd is described " with a In the higher ranks little difference is * pair of fine bagpipes upon a green discernible between the natives of

hill;' and at a later period, the pride Scotland and those of England; but which the pipers took in that instru- in the lower, the line is somewhat ment, decorating it with ribands, more strongly marked. I have already marching backward and forward in spoken of the women: the chief regreat state, and seeming inspired by culiarity of the men is in sometimes the sounds which they produced, was wearing the Scotch bonnet; for the well described in the Elegy on Habbie other parts of Highlandi veftvre are Simpson:

almost unknown here. Botlı fexcs oc“Who on his pipe bore bonny flags; casionally present picturesque and us• He made his cheeks as red as crimfon, common forms, the women carrying • And bobbit when he blow the bags.' water-ipouts, or larger undles of linen,

“ The effect which the bagpipes the men with long baikets at their produce on the Scottish military, is no backs. I have alto remarked few less striking than that of the cele- water-carriers, loaded with (nall caiks, brated Ranz des Vaches on the Swiss. whose figurce appear very fingular to an It is to be accounted for chiefly from English eye it: the pretini day; though, the associated recoilection of their na as appears from Ben Jonson's Every tive soil; but the nature of the sounds Man in his Humour, they were formerly themfelves is in no small degree con not unusual in London. ducive to enthusiasın. In music, no “ In the great points of food and distinction is so marked to an unculti- air, Edinburgh appears as fortunate as vated ear, as that of tone: and the a large city can be. I have heard, inpowerful tones of the bagpiše, toge- deed, froin a medical man, that the ther with its sudden and rough tranfi. harp winds are often fatal to very tions, render it peculiarly confonant young childitn; but those who survive with the turbulent feelings of warfare. are rerdered rumarkrhly healthy, and I own that I ain friendly to those dit- the whole city is preferved from epidetinctive marks of national character. mic disorders. The general iurply of I cannot but regret that fo few of t. fond may be inferred from the iemarkHighland gentry now retain that an- able cireumilance, that in 1781, there cient appendage of their state, the came into the Firth of Forth, fcurtes piper; and that this music is no longer fail of the line, above fifty 11'e indiaused, as formerly, to alleviate the toil, men, and soo Baltic traders: these veland cheer the intervals of ruftic labour. fcls remained here several week, were For the same reason (rather than on regularly fo:nished with the hell

progrounds of mufical taste), I am pleafed vilions, and yet their contiimpiion did with the institution of the annual prize not cause the least rise, even in the for players on the Highland pipes. price of vegetables. The fith-market

This cuítom was first established among is to well supplied, that a turbot, which the dealers in cattle, who came to the would fetch thirty fillings in London, Trudt, or meeting, at Falkirk; ner was has been known to be fold bere for the idea of those gentlemen injudi- eighteen-pence. The chief food of cious, who advised thein to transfer the poor is herrings, oatmeal, and po. their contest to the race-week at Edin. tatoes: wheaten bread, however, is burgh, where it is now held in the very much used. The hotels and higher theatre. I do not, however, think eating-houses are dear; but there are this by any means fufficient. A tem- in the Old Town many respectable porary stimulus will never kecp alive a places, where the charge of a dinner national feeling: and the real friends is very moderate, Cleanlinefs is a mat, of ancient Scottish melody Mould en ter of much importance to the general deavour to revive its practice in those health and accommodation or the city. parts of the country where it is gradu. In this repeat there has been of late 1 ally falling into diluie.” Voliii. p. 178. very favourable change; but fome




thing still remains to be done toward names of places, the use of peculiar the improvement of the general modes words, and (as some pretend to disco. of living. One circumstance, which ver) even in the accent. The intiooperates very materially against it, is duction of English manners, however, the division of houses into different is most strongly marked. Where naflats or stories, each occupied by a fe- tions, fo intimately connected, cement parate family: the Atairs, and other their union by gradual assimilation, the common parts of the building are fub- consequences must be highly advantaject to much filthiness, and the want geous on both sides; but there are of neatness in theie gives to the whole some persons who carry their affe&aa negleded and disgusting air.

tion of every thing English to a ridicu“ Peculiar cuftons gradually die lous excess. Thele are still lefs paratay, as a nation advances in civiliza donable than those who most. obfti. tion and refinement; but it is not un- nately adhere to the obfolete customs plealant to trace the records of former of their ancestors. The former, by occurrences in some of these remain- their unsuccessful attempts, acquire ing evidences. Of this kind is the only the awkwardness of a foreign air : Hugmenay, a fort of Saturnalian fefti- the latter exhibit strong traces of It's val, celebrating the conclufion of the nuine character and native virtue.” old, and commencement of the new Vol. ii. p. 212 year. The meaning of the word is difficult of explanation. It is probably a corruption of fome phrafi, fimilar

OLD LADY: OP in found, among the superstitions of

CLACKMANNAN, the Romish church, such as áryia uning “ TWO miles from Alloa, is Clackkoe mane, hoc manet, &c. After mid- mannan, a miserable village, which, night, when the year is fully ended, however, assumes the dignity of a many persons (chiefly of the lower county town. It is feated on a hill, orders) run through the streets with whose fummit is crowned by the tower good-humoured festivity, feldom doing of Clackmannan, once the seat of the any other mischief than stopping those chief of the Bruices. This venerable they meet, killing the women, and pile, which is going fast to decay, offering each other hot-pint, a beverage forms, from its situation, a picturesque composed of ale and whiskey. To re- object, and commands a view no less fute the cup, or to neglect wishing any admirable. From the top of the caftle, one a happy new year, is regarded as to which I climbed with diffculty, the an affront. Some few families, who prospect appears moft extenfive; but retain the Jacobite ideas, regale on it forms a more pleasing pidure from this night with poslet; in memory of an adjoining row of trees, on the de-. the birth of the Pretender.

clivity called King's Seat H:ll. Here, “ From what has been already said, a short time ago, lived the old Lady of it may easily be inferred, that much Clackmannan, no less remarkable for diversity is displayed at Edinburgh in her wit and good humour, than for the general syitem of manners, which her economy and her Jacobitifin. On results from so many complicated a very Nender income, the maintained caufes. Over all is spread that gravity much of the state, and all the respectawhich characterizes Scotland, when bility of her ancestors. She preserved compared with England, and which is the sword of King Robert Bruce, with particularly visible in every thing re which she affumed the right of conferspecting religious habits and opinions. ring knighthood; but when asked, The mixed effect of the law and of the whether she was of that monarch's university conduces much to the pre- family, the answered with much digvalence of literature. Commerce adds nity, 'King Robert was of my family?.” her influence: and the great refort of Volii. p. 234. independent families from the country increases the contrast. The traces of ancient events are not wholly obliterated. Some circunstances mark the “A NEAT bridge across the Ettrick former dignity of a royal city: and the leads to Selkirk. This town, feated connexion with France is observable in on a height, and fortified with three a few minutive of cookery, dress, the gates, was considered as a place of



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great strength. Its inhabitants distin- have been merely built on a figure of guished themselves by their valour; the Virgin Mary, in the armorial bearand the manufacture of fuoes having, ing of the town. The burrough confrom time immemorial, been very con- ftitution is here as prejudicial as it is Aderable, the “Souters of Selkirk' have in the other small towns in Scotland, obtained no unmericed celebrity. While where it prevails; but it has, perhaps, I was here, I was enabled, by the fa- served to prolong fome old cuftoms, vour of my friend Mr. Scott, who is which would otherwise have been worn sheriff-depute of this county, to in- quite out of memory. Such wer the reitigate with some accuracy, the tra filver arrow, an ancient prize si arditional accounts of the battle of Flod. chery; and the piper, who used in my deti. The general report is, that the through the streets (on the Letti d town-clerk led a large body of shoe pipe), every morning and then i nakers to that battle, moit of whoin but whose place has been suppilt were eut off; but he himself escaping late years, by a drum and fiie.' with difficulty, was created a knight Vol. ii. p. 262. banneret, and that dignity perpetuated on his office. For all this there is doubtleís fome foundation. The men of Selkirk distinguished themselves on

“ THE predatory life of the old that occasion. The town ftill holds a

Borderers, forms an interesting subject Large portion of land, on account of of contemplation. From the border ther fervices. A charter, which I ex- hiftories of Ridpath and others, the ainined, and which was granted by events of this continual warfare may James V. in 1538, confirms some pre- be collected; but the concomitant vious charters ; " because,' among other feelings of men in such a tate of foreasons, the burgh of Selkirk, and

ciety, are to be fought in local tradi• inhabitants thereoff, continuallie, < fince the feild of Floudoun, where drawn from fimilar fources.

tions, poetical remains, and works

Much * his Majestie was extraordinarly afilifted illustration of border customs may be

by thein, has been opprefied, herrit, found in the rude literary attempt of an • and outridden be the Inglith theives unlettered mute, entitled, ' A uue Hif' and traittors.'. The weavers' com- 'tory of several honourable families pany ftill poffefs the fragment of a • of the honourable Name of Scot,' by banner taken in the battle. The town- Captain W. Scott, who informs us, clerk of that period (Sir Andrew Bry- that he was seventy-three years old in den) was knighted, as appears from

1686, the date of his publication. The feveral charters. His descendants Hill whole composition, which consists of live here, and till lately pofleticd a

two parts, Watt's Bellanden, and sword and halbert, taken on that oc

Satchel's Past'ral, is without order or casion. The oflicial knighthood of the arrangement, and in a barburous metre; town-clerk, has always been a preva- but the authorities cited are often lent notion here; and it is not many curious, and some of them no longer years since a dispute of precedence, acceflible. liere we find, that the on some public occasion, was fettled

very term Freebooter was not confiderby the submission of both parties to

ed as a reproach by the Borderers, who his superior rank. It may be doubted

during the open wars of the two coun. whether all the Selkirk warriors were

tries, combined, with their perforal hoemakers; but it is certain that their views of plunder, something like a nafillin making the single-soled thoon,'

tional spirit of patriotism. At other is of confiderable antiquity. The well. times they became dangerous to both known song, “ Up with the Souters of parties, though generally profesing • Selkirk,' fometimes cited as a corro. hofiility orly to the inhabitants of the boration of their claim, is probably of cpposite territory. Finally, when the much later date, and of more trifling

two poreriments agreed to measures origin; referring to a match at foot of mutual advantage, for the suppresball, or some other game, at which it fion of the border depredations, an is usual for whole parishes to contend. irregular fyftem of conventional justice The tale which is related of the wo- arole, which itself was not untiequentman, who was found after the battle ly the source of fresh difpute and of Flodden, frozen to deathi, seems to bloodthed. The old ballads pourtray 3


these various states, with many forcible loud lamentations: it is, however, very touches of humour and pathos; and dangerous, in cases of contagion, and their effect is enhanced by incidents should be as much as posible discoundescriptive of personal character, or of tenanced. I cannot omit one fingular, popular fuperftition. Among them but obsolete custom, formerly prevamay he particularly noticed Dick o' lent here, called kandfasting. There the Cow, Jock o' the Side, Hobie was a certain holm, where coupics Nuble, the Battle of the Redfwaire, met and joined hands: they then lived Johnie Armstrong, &c.

together a year, after which, repairing “ It was long before the ancient once more to the same spot, they border cuftoms could be wholly over- either united for life, or shook hands, come; but they may now be said to be and separated. like a tale that is told;' nay, the very “ Among the local curiofities in this tales of a tale, the ballads, the popular neighbourhood, we may reckon the traditions, the memory of events at traces of the old market-town of Staple tached to names and places, even the Gordon, now deitroyed; as well as dialeđ itself is gradually wearing out. those of many other places, which Still the peculiarity of litzation must prove the country to have been mich necessarily itamp a peculiar character more populous than at present, such on the inhabitants. The whole coun as Stanger's Wa's, &c. In the hills try is divided into different tales, are frequent monuments of the Camenamed from the waters Rowing through ronians, and other fe&taries, who were them. This is fo universally the cate, killed in the religious diftentions of that the water' is here provincially former times. At a place, called the used for the neighbourhood ;' and a Shaw Rigg, a large tone is standing traveller asking for falt-fish, or pickled upright, in memory, as is faid, of a herring, may, perhaps, be surprised at Pictiih king; and a place in the river is receiving for antiver, that there is called King Pool, on account of his “none in the water. All the Borderers being drowned there. After all that are capital horfemen, and to this day has been written on the Pitts, their frequent fairs, and other public meet- origin, and even the language they ings, chiefly on horseback. At fuch {poke, is very doubtful. The popular affemblages, which are usually crowd- belief respecting these Pechts (tor lo ed, there are not often boxing-matches, they are called), is, that they were cudgel-playing, &c. as in England; dwarfish, but wonderfully strong meit, but in their stead leaping, fair wrest- poflefling fomething like fupernatural ling, and other contests merely ami power; and the authors of many ancable. The profeslional pipers, former- cient works, which we know from hifa ly very common, are now rare: but tory to have been Roman, Danish, &c. young men, for their own amusement, That this nation, if they were excr play much on the Lowland bagpipes established in Ekdale, spoke the Gaulic fiddle, &c. Dancing alio is a favourite language, is probable from many names diverfion; and there are fometimes of places, either existing or recollected. subscription dances for the benent of The Elk itself is so called, either from the poorer families. Superstitious no- esk, an eel; or from uisge, water: and tions have greatly decayed of late; yet in some instances a Scoti-Saxon word is there is still some belief in witches and added to an original Gaelic term, as in

Dou-len-Cleugh, the two first syllables * Black, white, and grey, with all their fignifying a dark vale, in Gaelic, and trumperya'

the last, a hollow, in Lowland Scotch." "The Sabbath is observed with great Vol.ii. p. 268. ftri&nefs. A man will not have himfelf on that day: and a parent has been known to express scruples at gathering a cabbage for his sick child. At church, “ IN returning we pased Ancrum all ranks appear in neat, but not House, which stands on a commandlively drelles, generally wearing a black ing eminence, surrounded by majestic and white plaid, of a small simple pat- woods, and looks down on the junction tern. The late wake, or fitting up to of the Tiviot with the winding Ale. watch the dead, prevails here, fome- Beyond it is Ancrum moor, the scene times with weeping, singing, and other of the bloody battle of 1545, in which




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the Scottish army completely routed Such declarations however have now the English invaders. On reaching the ceased, and it is unjust-to reproach the banks of the Tweed, we once more Portugueze with these absurdities. It paid our respects to the Earl of Bu- should be remembered, that, in Italy, chan; and then proceeded by Dry- Jacquier and Le Sear, the worthy edigrange to the Leader. Lauderdale, tors of Newton's Principia, were cbligwhich takes its name from this river, is ed, fo late as the year 1739, to declare in this lower part prettily varied with they did not believe with Sir Isaan plantations; but as we advanced, it Newton, that the earth moves roud became gradually more bare and uniñ- the sun. Men have so often laughed teresting. The old house of Cowden- at the expense of the Portugueze, that knows, now in part modernized, is a it is but fair to reinind them of the folpicturesque object, at the foot of the lies of other nations. hill celebrated for its bonny broom.' “ The Inquisition was never very In a little plain, a mile or two further, powerful in Portugal. During the latt is the village of Earlstoun, with the reign it was quite insignificant; being tower of Thomas the Rhymer. This confined to disorderly monks. The extraordinary character, who lived in temper of the Queen certainly increased the thirteenth century, obtained an in- their power, and rendered them partifuence over the minds of his country- cularly formidable to an author. An men, by uttering, in rude rhynte, fen- auto da fe, or corporal punishment, it tences which were looked upon as pro- is true, are no longer practised; but phetical. Many of his prophecies were banishment is be more readily inflicted, preserved traditionally, and many 1p1- being apparently confidered as a trifle, rious ones have since been publithed and therefore infli&ted when it is doubt. under his name. The common people ful whether the accused is guilty or believe, that he was a magician, and innocent. that he still exists, practising his super “ Only one political journal is pubnatural arts, in some unknown retire- lished in Portugal, called the Gazeta ment. The town of Lauder is small de Lisboa, and all foreign newspapers and poor. Near it is Lauder Castle, are prohibited. Hence political news no bad specimen of the heavy turreted arrive fomewhat tardily, and sometimes old residencés of the nobility. Beyond very late; but then their authenticity this, the country becomes more dreary, may be relied on, except when ile as we afcend the Soutra Ihill; from dubious phrase dizem (they say isadi. whence defcending upon the plains of ed. Nor is any distinction ma le ia Lothian, the proípects gradually im- regard to delay between favourite prove, until we reach Dalkeith, be- news and the contrary; for the intclitween which and Edinburgh, the gence of the battle of Aboukir 135 scenery has been already defcribed." equally late with the taking of Maila. Vol. ii. p. 285.

It was also the fashion to be very im. partial and difcreet; but whether it

was so always, or prudence at this time LXXIV. Hinckley's Transation of rendered it neceffary on account of the Link's Travels in Portugal

, &c. connexion of Portugal with Spain, 1 (Concluded from p. 364.)

will not determine.

“ A court calenviar is annually pub

lished at Lisbon, which is by no means ON THE LITERATURE OF PORTUGAL.

bad; but, in March 1999, I could nui IN old Portugueze books a pro- procure that of the current year. Be

testation follows the title, in which fides this there is the Coletario des the author declares he has not inten- Santos, and some smaller. Ard Jose Mationally said any thing contrary to the ria Dantes Permira, published by order Catholic church, and some poets have of the Academy, 7, thought it necessary to declare they did which are copied from the Englik not believe in the heathen gods. A ephemeris. verse, pretended to be written by the “ In this country are no literary great Camoens, is often quoted, in journals, reviews, &c. new works bewhich he avers this; but the poem it- ing only briefly announced in the Gafelf that contains it, is, like many zeta de Lisboa, and printed bills of others, falf«ly attributed to that writer. them posted up as in London and Paris.


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