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them *.

tvhatever mysteries were concealed in OF THE SCYTHIAN ORIGIN OF THE the Skiran rites; and which, by ex

TIerlela. plaining what were really the religious “ JT would be going into too wide principles of the Greeks from their a field of inquiry, were we now to exappropriate symbols, may afford some amine the degree of intimacy which useful hints in the study of antiquities.” certainly existed, from earliest times, P.v.

between the Scythians and the Greeks,

by way of ascertaining the source from EXTRACTS.

which the pastoral game was imparted

to the latter. Nor would I here with THE GAME OF MERRILS,

to adduce all the various authorities, “ KNOWN to the Greeks by the which must be fresh in every memory, name of Tgiódios, was probably more tending to establish the identity of the ancient than the Merleia, and perhaps northern inhabitants of Greece with the parent of it; inasmuch as depofit- the Hyperboreans, and proving how ing the pebbles alternately, must have generally Scythian manners and relibeen more ancient than the moving gious ceremonies were diffused over

every part of Greece. It is enough to “ Dr. Hyde observes, that the Oric point out that the Greeks, at one time, ental name for this central square upon were associated with, and partook of the board of Merrils, is Zindan; Car- the manners of the Scythian Nomades, cer. Anglicè, the Pound,'--' quah peco- to establish the possibility of their hav

rum carcer. And indeed it is very ing received the Netisiz from them. In probable that it was originally intended accounting for the coincidence of anto represent something of this kind. cient customs, we must look for some For as the eastern shepherds amused probable reason, which will equally themselves by playing with the peb- apply to every party concerned in the bles, whilst they watched their folds, question. Now, the purpose of this they might afterwards have introduced inquiry could not be answered, by rethe figure of the fold itself, as an orna- ferring the origin of the game to any ment to the board. This had likewise other country. It is hardly probable its use; the pebbles being probably that Chaldæa or Egypt should have firft deposited there, and taken from fent the Ilorieia into Greece. The it, as occafion required, in the course former was a polished, as well as a

powerful nation, long beforethe Greeks . And here, I think I observe the had quitted the wandering state; there, origin of the Sacred mark; for, as I fore little likely to have communicated have no doubt of the Hurleis having to them a paftoral game. On the taken its rise from this simple game, other hand, it may be justly doubted the sheep-fuld was retained in the centre whether the Egyptians communicated of the board of the Ilerleia also, and it to the Greeks; for, notwithstanding ftyled by the Greeks Enxòs, the sheep- a hearsay report of Plato, concerning fold. But in process of time, we find their god Theut being the inventor, this word accepted in a very different we have no reason to believe they ever fense f. And it came first to fignify considered it as a relaxation, if they the square enclosure, or railing within ever were acquainted with it; but rawhich the images of the gods were

ther made it fubfervient to their faplaced; and, at last, the legix, or tem vourite study of astronomy; and by difple itself. And thus, from want of dif- posing the pebbles upon the Herlevtágios, criminating between the ancient and so as to express the relative situation of modern sense of the word Enxos, the the planets, they formed from it the space in the centre of the board was first idea of the orrery. But the macalled the Sacred;' and because it terial difficulty will be, to convey the covered the central ftation, or point game from Greece to the north of of intersection, the ! Isga ay pappen." China, where it certainly was known.

The tñpon and Ping, of the Greek and * « The scheme of this board, as known amongst the shepherds of this country, is mentioned by our poet Shakspeare as the Nine-men's Morrice.” † “ Potter's Antiquities, vol. i. p. 176." 3 L a


of the game.

P. 13.

Chinese ganes, will appear as armed termination may be varied) is applied natives of the fame corniry, and en to many different objects which must gayed in the fame warfare, however have been totally unconnected with widely diftant the field in which the this theme, we are to conclude that operation, of each were carried on; the word itself had some other generic the former, fecining tu confide on their meaning. Amongst the various figniown unaffitted exertions; the latter, fications of it, we find that Exifar imacting with auxiliaries, ill adapted to plies the north-wejt wind; and this the nature of their discipline, and serv- may poffibly have been its original ing rather is an incumbrance than an sense with regard to those other words. ornament to the game. We all be Thus, the Exavguvides sériai, were large at no lofo' fx up the intermediate rocks lying to the N.W.; and the robwandering tribes of Alia, as the com ber Skiron, whom Theseus llew, was municriors of the same to all these perhaps a hardyandcruel Hyperborean. countries, whose several confines they The evinę révtis of Pausanias, who touched upon. Numerous as these founded the ancient temple of Minerva tribes must have been, and varying at the port of the Phalerus, came from from each other, beth as to diftinguish- Dodona, and was therefcre of Pelasgic iny names and language, in this point defcent; to which we may add, that they agreed, that they were Nomades; he poffibly received the title of Skiros, and they may be therefore allowed an on account of his coming from the indifc in nate right to the merit of the NW. We might continue these re. invention.” P. 51.

marks, by obterving, that the picket and advanced guard of the Lacedæmonian

army was composed of trocps called OF THE FEAST OF THE UMBRELLA, Exigits. These were Arcidians, al-, OR THE BOUGH-THE MISTLETOE.

ceruing to Hesychius; for Exiços was a

settlement in Arcadia, establfhed, no “ AMONGST the many I!yperbo- doubt, hy a people who come from the rean rites bruglit into Greece by the north-wefr; and it was in the fafresses Pelaigi, which continued even after of this country that I hive supposed the exsufion of that people by the the rest of the Pelafgi had taken ihelter. Ilellenes, we may rank the Skiro noria. But it would be tedious to multiply Upon the fuccelies of the latter, no instances; I am however led to condoubt but many of the ancient poflet- ceive that Arcadia, of all the provinces fors of the country i cured to them- 'of ancient Greece, must be the richest ielves a Beher in the mountainous in Pelaf ic remains; and that if a moparts of Greece, and particularly in derate attention were paid to those Aro?dia, whire the feast we have inen parts, many va nable discoveries might tioned vas long preserved; and be present themselves to the inquirer, trayed it origin by the ilyperborean which would amply repay his search." cerimnies employed in the celebra- P. 101. tion f it. It is fufficient to say that “ From the celebration of this feat the Erstzia, as conducted at Alea in about the summer folftice, and from Arcadia, admitted the cruel custom of the circumstance of the Athenian year scourging, which clearly indicates the beginning at the fame time, we might quuier from whence the whole was conclude, that the Skiran rites were

derived. The mure enlightened Athe- intended to folemnize the opening of ; nians, however, from motives of hu- . the year; in which opinion we should manity perhaps, omitted this practice - be considerably encouraged, were we in the festival, which they were in the to advert to certain rites adopted by hali: ot celi ratire equally with the other nations, which would be found Arcadians, and which, no doubt, they to have the fame allofion with the €012!'y received trian: the fame fource. Sxiraplomirt notwithstanding the new

"A further indrice ment for my be- year of those nations began diferently lieving that the Skirojhoria were of from the other folitice, or from the Hyperborkan or Scythian origin, arifes equinoctial prints.P. 104. fr mth following onliderations: that " The milk-toe-lough was equally although this ceremony has ever gene an attendant imbiem upon the Hysese rally e irred to the Luişov, or Umbrello, borean year. As it was particularis vei, as this word (accordingly as its venerated on the night of the old y to


I have



I have little fcruple in construing it into in Inferis, is compared by Virgil to the an emblem of night.

miftletoe, and is actually represented " In Holstein, says the intelligent as growing upon the oak-tree. Editor of the Northern Antiquities, it is called the · Marentaken,' or branch

" Quale folet fylvis brumali frigore Vifof fpe&tres. What can this imply, but

Fronde virere novú,' that it was an emblem of night, which the ghosts were said to be attendant upon ? "Jam te mariet Nox, fabula

Talis erat fpecies auri frondentis opaca

« Ilice.' que Manes. As the Roman poet

FENEID, lib. vi. ver. 204. combined them together, so the misletoe, representing the hardes, was pro

" We now shall learn to account for perly termed the branch of fpe&tres.' the otherwise diticult meaning of the

" When we read, in the Edda, that won! Exiços, as aprired to the N.W.; Balder (who was the same as the Sun) it is; even in this funfe, tu jie underwas killed by the mistletoe thrown at food as Txapos, or shody, for hele rites bim, this can only denote, that- were brillit by ine Hiperborcans * The sun set, and the lades of night rendered, "The Land of Shades *.? it

from the Nk. which way thus be were spread over himn.'

Was there that the Cimmerian Tartarus "Keyser relates a fingular ceremony wis placed, and the Orcus of the in Germany and Gaul, that on the last Grecko and Runaus, which last still day of Deceniber, you'hs go about remains in our Circud's, or Orkney with the mistietie, crying, To the Plane's; as bas been uply proved by ' miflirtoe !'The new y:ar is at Mr. Bailly, and by almost every


writer who has taken up the subject of “ The Christians of northern Eu- Noithi mn antiquities. rope fondly continue their reverence “ The Pelatric institution of the for this bourn to the present moment, Skirophoria was therefore the procefand they finpand it in their halls on fiun of the bough; which might pofChristmas Eve (which is about the win- fibly have been borne, in earlier times, ter solstice), as an einblim of the night, on the day preceding the winter iola which, to them, precedes a new year ftice; but which curtain.iy formed, in of Redem,ion.

the latur aces, a religiosis feitival at “ The Hyperboreans called night, Athens, on the day which prcccued "The Motiver of the Year. The init- the opening of the new folar year. It tletoe was a fit emblem of it; and the was attended likewise with other cere. Grieks, who borrowed much of their monies, in which the fun was called reli: jous worship from them, oniy ex upon by the Athenians to allist, and charged winter for the fummer flítice, favour their agricultural labours." and in other refpects adopted the cere P. 108. mony. The priest of the fun carried, for this purpose, a bough, which, from its ihade, was called Exiepie Exięz, or Exipt. It was, with the Grecks, an emblem of the nicht, or the old year,

“ FROM the elegant translator of, to which the dav of the new year was and commentator upon, Mr. Mallet's on the point of succeeding; and from work †, to whom I have been aiready this allusion of the bough to night, so much indebted, I learn that the whenever we fee a bough, or an um Northern nations conceived that their breila, or a tree depicted upon Hetrul gods were feated, and aciministered can vates, it invariably implies the juitice from, under an ajh-tree; that Thades, and alludes to the Inferi: and many customs still remain of courts it is a very curious circumstance, that being held, and magistrates and officers the golden bough, which Æneas finds chosen under trees. An Etonian also

*"What shall we say of the Umbri, the 'gens antiquissima Italiæ ? whose name has hitherto been derived from "Ou bpos, or from their having been overshadowed by the Apennines ? Were they not rather Exiguves, from the Land of Shades?”

† “ Northern Antiquities, 2 vol. 8vo. 1770."





will be pleased with recollecting, on count of an Elephant's Tusk, iu
this occasion, the ceremonies of his which the Iron Head of a Spear was
college :-the cafe frondex pro taber- found imbedded. By Mr. Charles
naculis, in the window recefles of Conibe. --X. Description of the
the Lower School, and the arbours in Arseniates of Copper, and of Iron,
Long Chamber, for which, if I mis from the County of Cornwall. By
take not, a waggon-load of boughs is
provided at the expense of the college; the Count de Bournon.-XI. Ana.
and this happening at the time of the lysis of the Arfeniates of Copper,
annuel ele&tion of candidates for the and of Iron, described in the preced-
university, seem referrible to this, and ing Paper; likewise an Analysis of
may be remains of the old northern cuf- the red octaedral Copper Ore of
tom of electing under the bough.' And Cornwall; with Remarks on some
I hope it may not be deemed too fan, particular Modes of Analysis. By
ciful, if I suppose that Theseus elected Richard Chenevix. Esq. M.R.I.A.
his magistrates at the feast of the Bough,
at the summer folftice, that they might kepi'at the Apartments of the Royal

Appendix. Meteorological Journal
enter upon their office at the first new
moon." P. 118.

Society, by Order of the President and Council.

With 15

LXXVII. Philosophical Transactions

EXTRACTS. of the Royal Society of London, for

ON THE IRRITABILITY OF NERVES, the Year 1801. Part I. 4to. pp. BY EVERARD HOME, ESQ. F.R.S. 2 40. Appendix 26.

“ THE nerves have been hitherto Plates. 175. Elmsly.

considered as chords that have no powers of contraction within them.

selves, but only serving as a medium, CONTENTS.

by means of which the influence of I. THE Croonian Lecture. On the brain may be communicated to the

the Irritability of Nerves. By muscles, and the impreffions made Everard Home, Esq. F.R.S.-II. The upon different parts of the body conPokerian Lecture.' On the Mecha. veyed to the brain. nilm of the Eye. By Thomas Young, attempt to investigate the real state, o

The difficulties which attend every M. D. F.R.S.—III. On the recer. the nerves in the living body, and the fary Truth of certain Conclusions impoflibility of acquiring any informaobtained by Means , of imaginary tion upon this subject after death, may Quantities. By Robert Woodhouse, be urged in excuse for this opinion A. M. Fellow of Caius College.- having been fo universally received, IV. On the Production of artificial since it will be found, from the follow, Cold by Means of Muria:e of Lime. ing experiments and obfervations, to By Mr. Richard Walker. -V. Ac. be void of foundation. count of a monstrous Lamb. In a

“ The only means by which any Letter from Mr. Anthony Carlisle,

knowledge respecting the irritability of to the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, the operations in furgery performed

nerves can be procured, must be from Bart. K.B. P.R.S.-VI. An anato

upon nerves, either in a healthy ftate, mical Description of a male Rhino or under the influence of disease; or ceros. By Mr. H. Leigh Thomas, from experiments made upon animal Surgeon.-VII. Demonstration of a bodies before they are wholly deprived Theorem, by which such Portions of of life, and initituted for that particu. the Solidity of a Sphere are afligned lar purpofe. as admit an algebraic Expression. By

“ My attention was directed to this Robert Woodhouse, A. M. Fellow subject by the following case, which of Caius College, Cambridge.–VIII. ing the actions of the nerves when un

explains many circumstances reípedia Account of the Discovery of Silver der the influence of disease, and gave in Herland Copper Mine. By the rise to the experiments and observations Rev. Malachy Hitchins.--IX. Ac- contained in this Paper.

“ A person

" A person thirty-fix years of age, was the first fymptom in all these atnaturally eager and anxious in his dif- tacks, the asliitants were led to conpolition, whose stomach was peculiarly trive a glove, the front of which was irritable and irregular in its action, in strong enough to resist the motion of the winter of the year 1796, while the thumb, and to keep it in its place: riding in the country, was thrown while this was kept on, the attacks from his feat by a sudden motion of were less frequent. A ligature was the horse; and, in endeavouring to then applied round the fore-arm; fave himself, fell with his whole weight when the thumb was beginning to be upon the end of his thumb, against the agitated, this was tightened, and the pommel of the faddle.

1palms were found to be arrested at the “ The part swelled, and became ligature, and of course deprived of Fery painful. A few days after, he their violence. hurt it again, which prevented the “ From this time, a tourniquet was fwelling from subfiding, and it remain. kept constantly upon the fore-arm; ed uneasy and enlarged for three or and a perfon was always in readinets four months. It afterwards got well, to tighten it, the moment the spasm but the motions of the thumb were was expected, which was always prenot always under the command of the ceded by a general feel of uneasiness will; so that he was sensible, in the all over the body: as soon as the spalin Fears 1797 and 1798, while writing, of went off, which it did instantaneously, finding a difficulty in forming particu- the tourniquet was loosened. The lar letters.

fpafms in the thumb and fore-arm “ On the evening of the 16th of returned frequently, and at irregular Otober 1799, which was cold and intervals, generally every three hours, danip, he was travelling in a post-chaise fometimes oftener, and once did not with two other persons, and let down come on for thirty-fix hours. the window, to speak to the driver. « On the third or fourth day, elecA cold wind blew directly into the car- tricity was tried, with a view to relieve riage, and he endeavoured to pull up them; sparks drawn from the thumb, the window; but not seeing the glats produced tremors in the muscles, which rise, he looked down, and his hand, in- were confined to the thumb. An elecktead of pulling up the window, was tric Mock through the ball of the lying upon his knee. The thumb was thumb, brought on a very severe spasm tent in towards the palm of the hand; in the arm; but neither sparks, nor a a ipasm came upon the mufcles of the lock through the other thumb, proan, making them bend the elbow; duced any sensible effect. and immediately he became intensible : “ On the 29th of December, I first in a quarter of an hour he perfectly re faw the patient; and, after watching covered himself. Some hours after, the symptoms for three days, made the upon bending his thumb, to show following observations upon the comwhat had happened to him in the car- plaint. rage, there was a return of the same “ That the beginning of the attack attack, which also rendered him insen was fome involuntary motion of the fible for a few minutes.

thumb and fore-finger; and therefore, “ From this time, he had no return the disease appeared to be in the branch of these attacks for nine weeks; at the of the nerve which fupplies these two end of which period, on the 18th of parts, called by Winllow the median December 1999, he was waving his hand over his head, with a degree of “ That the progress of the spasms tagerness, as a sign for some people to was in the dir et course of the trunks make haste and follow him; this ex

of the median nerve, up to the head. crtion made the thumb contract to “ That completing the parts in the wards the palm of the hand, and he course of that nerve, when it was done fill upon the ground in a state of in- before the spaims had reached them, fenfibility. This attack went off as always arrested their progress; but, the others had done; he had another when once the muicles had become in the evening; and, in the course of convulfed, or agitat«c!, the fame conthe next day, two more, equally vio- pression had no effect in stopping the kni. As the motion of the thumb progress of the spaims.


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