« PreviousContinue »
and on shipboard, in battles upon the the insertion of the following extras sea. But the great fame acquired by from two old poetical legends, which our countrymen in archery, was de convey, at least, some idea of the prac. rived from their practice with the long- tice of archery in times anterior to our bow; and to this inftrument they own; the first is a ballad in eight fyttes gave the preference.” P. 41.
or parts, entitled, A mery Gelte of “ The length of the bow is not Robyn Hoode. According to the clearly ascertained; those used by the story, the King thought proper to pay soldiery appear, in the manuscript Robin Hood a visit, disguised in the drawings, to have been as tall, at least, habit of an abbot: and the outlaw, by as the bearers; agreeable to an ordi- way of entertaining his gueft, pronance made in the fifth year of Ed. posed a shooting-match. Two wands ward IV. commanding every man to were then set up, but at so great a dir. have a bow his own height; and they tance from each other, that, might, upon the average, be something By fyfty space our Kyng sayde, short of six feet long. The arrows
• The markes were to longe.used by the English archers at the me. On every fyde a rose garlande, morable battle of Agincourt were a
• The shot under the lyne. full yard in length. Carew, in his
4 Whofo faileth of the rofe garland, Survey of Cornwall, says, “ The Cor.
said Robyn, • nifh archers for long shooting, used
• His takyll he fhal tyne ; arrows a cloth yard long. The old
. And yelde it to his maister, and more modern ballads of Chevy
• Be it never fo fine.Chace speak of the arrow as being
• Twyfe Robyn shot about, the length of a cloth yard; but some
• And ever he cleved the wande, of these poetical legends extend it an ell.
And so did Gilbert, Little John, and “ Hall mentions a company of Scathelocke, his companions; but, archers, who met King Henry VIII. • At the last frot, that Robyn shot, at Shooter's Hill, on a May-day morn • For all his frendes fore, ing, where they discharged their bows • Yet he fayled of the garland, in his presence, and the arrows made a • 'Three fyngers and moreloud whilling in their flight, ‘by crafte of course his « takill was forfeited, of the heade.' The strangenets of which he presented to the King, faythe noise, we are informed, surprised ing, his Majesty, though at the same time he was much pleased with the contri
• Syr Abbot, I deliver thee myne vance. A modern author ** assures us,
arrowe.' this sound was occasioned by holes be “ The second poem is also of the ing made in the arrow heads, and that ballad kind, and apparently as old as such weapons were used upon military the former, wherein Adam Bell, Clym occasions, and especially as signals ; but of the Cloughe, and Williain Clounot, I presume, before the time meno delle, are introduced to shoot before tioned by the historian; for had not the King. The butts, or dead marks those arrows been newly introduced, fet up by the King's archers, were centhere is no reason why the king, who fured by Cloudese, saying, was well acquainted with every branch
• I hold hym never no good archer, of archery, should have been surprised at the found they made, or pleased at and having procured two hasell
. That shoteth at buttes fo widethe fight of them. « If the metrical romances and bala
roddes,' he set them up at the distance lads of the former ages may be de. of four hundred yards from each pended upon, the strength of our other; his first attempt in thooting English archers in drawing of the bow, at them, contrary to the expectation and their skill in directing the arrow to of the King, was fuccessful, for it is its mark, were juftly the objects of
• Cloudelle with a bearyng arowe “ The reader, I trust, will pardon • Clave the wand in two.'
* « Honourable Daines Barrington. Observations on the Practice of Archery. Archæologia, vol. vii. p.58."
The King being much surprised at the “ Carew, speaking of the Cornish performance, told him he was the best archers two centuries back, says, ' For archer he ever saw. Cloudesle then • long shooting, their shaft was a cloth proposed to show him a more extra- 'yard in length, and their prickes ordinary proof of his skill, and tied twenty-four score paces, equal to his eldest son, a child only seven years 'four hundred and eighty yards; and old, to a ftake, and placed an apple • for strength, they would pierce any upon his head; one hundred and twenty ' ordinary armour;' he then adds, yards were measured from the stake, and one Robert Arundell
, whom I and Cloudelle went to the end of the well knew, could shoot twelve score measurement: he first entreated the paces with his right hand, with his spectators to be filent,
« left, and from behind his head. This "And then drew out a fayre brode puts me in mind of a curious anecdote arrowe;
related by Hall: “There came to hys • Hys bow was great and longe,
• Grace King Henry the Eighth, a cer• He fét that arrowe in his bowe
tayn man, with a bowe and arrowe, • That was both styffe and stronge.
. and he defyred his Grace to take the
.muster of hym, and to see him shoote; • Then Cloudese cleft the apple in
• for that tyme hys Grace was contenttwo,
ed; the man put hys one fote in hys • As many a man myght se,
• bosome, and so dyd shoote, and thote • Over Gods forbode, fayde the Kynge, "a very good shoté, and well towardes • That thou sholde fhote at me.'
• hys marke; whereof, not onely his “ If we were to judge of the merits • Grace, but all others greatly mer. of the ancient bowmen from the prac- "veyled; so the Kynge gave him a retice of archery as it is exercised in the warde,' and for this curious feat he present day, these poetical eulogiums afterwards obtained the by-name of would appear to be entirely fictitious. Fote in Bosome. There are no such distances now al “ The same monarch having apfigned for the marks as are mentioned pointed a great match of archery at above, nor such precision even at Jhort Windsor, a citizen of London, named lengths in the direction of the arrows. Barlow, an inhabitant of Shoreditch, I believe few, if any, of the modern joined the archers, and surpassed them archers, in long shooting, reach four all in skill; the King was so much hundred yards; or in shooting at a pleased with his performance, that he mark, exceed the distance of eighty or jocolely gave him the title of Duke of an handred. I have seen the gentle- Shoreditch; and this title the captain men who practise archery in the vici- of the London archers retained for a nity of London, repeatedly shoot from considerable time afterwards. In the end to end, and not touch the target reign of Elizabeth, a grand shootingwith an arrow; and for the space of match was held in London, and the several hours, without lodging one in captain of the archers aliuming his the circle of gold, about six inches dia- title of Duke of Shoreditch, fummoned meter in the centre of the target: this, a fuit of nominal nobility, under the indeed, is so feldom done, that one is titles of Marquis of Barlo, of Clerkled to think, when it happens, it is enwell, of Inington, of Hoxton, of rather the effect of chance than of Shacklewell, and Earl of Pancrass, &c. ikill; which proves what Ascham has and these meeting together at the apa aflerted, that an archer thould be well pointed time, with their different comtaught early in life, and confirm the panies, proceeded in a pompous march good teaching by continual practice from Merchant Taylors' Hall, contista afterwards. We may alto recollecting of 3000 archers, sumptuoully ap. that archery is now followed for amuse- parelled *; 942 of them having chains ment only, and is to be commended as of gold about their necks. This fplen. a manly and gentleman-like exercise.” did company was guarded by 4000 P. 49.
whitllers and billmen, beldes pages “ Strype says, 'odly habited :' every man had a long bow, and four arrows, With the Marquis of Barlo and the Marquis of Clerkenwell were “ Hunters « who wound their horns.' Stow's Survey of London by Strype, vol. i, p. 250."
and footmen. They passed through held their anniversary meeting for this Broad Street, the residence of their purpose near the hospital of St. Macaptain, and thence into Moorfields, tilda, at St. Giles's in the fields, where by Finsbury, and to on to Smithfield, they were met by the inhabitants of where having performed several evo- the city and suburbs of Westminster, lutions, they shot at a target for ho- and a ram was appointed for the prize : nour.
the Londoners were victorious, having “ Another cavalcade of like kind greatly excelled their antagonists, which was made by the London archers in produced a challenge from the con the reign of Charles II. and the King quered party, to renew the conteft himself was present; but being a wet upon the Lammas day following at day, his Majesty was obliged to leave Westminster: the citizens of Londos the field foon after the arrival of the readily confented, and met them ac bowmen.” P. 53•
cordingly; but in the midft of the di. version, the bailiff of Westminfter and
his associates took occafion to quartel WRESTLING.
with the Londoners; a battle ensued, “ THE art of wrestling, which in and many of the latter were severely the present day is chiefly confined to wounded in making their retreat to the lower classes of the people, was the city. This unjustifiable petulance however highly esteemed by the an- of the bailiff gave rise to a more feo cients, and made a very considerable rious tumult, and it was several days figure among the Olympic games. In before the peace could be restored t: the ages of chivalry, to wrestle well • In old time, says a very accurate was counted one of the accomplish- historian, wrestling was more used than ments which an hero ought to possess. it has been of later years. In the
“ Wrestling is a kind of exercise month of August, adds he, about the that, from its nature, is likely to have feast of St. Bartholomew, there were been practised by every nation, and divers days spent in wreftling; the especially by those the least civilized. lord mayor, aldermen, and heriffs
, It was probably well known in this being present in a large tent pitched country long before the introduction for that purpose near Clerkenwell
. of foreign manners. The inhabitants Upon this occasion the officers of the of Cornwall and Devon have, we are city, namely, the theriffs, sergeants
, well affured, from time immemorial, and yeomen, the porters of the King's been celebrated for their expertness in beam or weighing-house, and others of this pastime, and are univerfally said to the city, gave a general challenge to be the best wrestlers in the kingdonn* fuch of the inhabitants of the fuburbs They learned the art at an early period as thought themselves expert in this of lite, for you fhall hardly find, lays éxercise; but of late years, continues Carew, an affembly of boys in Devon he, the wrestling is only praaised on and Cornwall, where the most unto- the afternoon of St. Bartholomew's wardly among them will not as readily day. The latter ceremony is thus degive you a muster of this exercise as scribed by a foreign writer, who was you are prone to require it.
an eye witness to the performance : “ The citizens of London, in times • When,' says he, the mayor goes out paft, are said to have been expert in of the precincts of the city, a icepte, the art of wrestling, and annually upon a sword, and a cap, are borne before St. James's day they were accustoined « lim, and he is followed by the prin. to make a public trial of their skill. cipal aldermen in scarlet gowns with In the fixth year of Hunry III. they golden chains; himself and they on
*“ To give a Cornish bug is a proverbial expreffion. The Cornish, fays Fuller, are mafters of the art of wreltling, so that if the Olympian games were now in falhion, they would come away with the victory. Their hug is a cuna ning clue with their fellow combatanis, the fruits whereof is his fair fall or foil at the least. Worthies of England, in Cornwall, p. 197.”
† “ Matthew Paris. Hift. Ang. sub an. 1222. Stow informs us that in the thiity-first year of Henry VI. A. D. 1453, at a wrestling match near Clerkenwell, another tumult was excited againit the lord mayor; but he does not faş upon what occasion it arose.”
horseback. Upon their arrival at a the populace. The lower ftory is de place appointed for that purpose, corated on all fides with columns of where a tent is pitched for their re: the Ionic order, and the upper with ception, the mob begin to wrestle be. Corinthian. The front towards the .fore them two at a time. He also Neya has but one entrance, in the midadds a circumftance not recorded by dle between the two extremities which the historian: . After this is over, a here project forward, like fhort wings. parcel of live rabbits are turned loose The end towards the admiralty was among the crowd, which are pursued inhabited by the Grand Duke Paul by a number of boys, who endea. Petrovitch. The basement story is Svour to catch them with all the noife taulted with two large rows of pillars they can make *"."
on each fide, having small apartments " Prom the time that wreftling be for the court attendants, guards, kitcame unfathionable, 'and was rarely chens, &c. These vaulted avenues, pradifed by perfons of opulence, it which resemble the aisles of a çather declined also among the populace, but dral, are so dark, in some places, as to by flower degrees; and at present is require lamps during the day, and conseldom seen except at wakes and fairs, sequently are of a gloomy aspect. The where it still continues to be partially entresol is filled with people belonging exhibited.".' P. 63.
to the court, either of the Empress or (To be continued.)
of the Grand Duke.
“ The infide of the palace contains
several particulars worthy of observaLXXXIV. Tooke's History of Ruffia. tion: the large magnificent marble (Continued from p. 428.)
Hight of stairs, on the
Neva fide, which is only ascended by ambassadors and
grandees on their first folemn audience: THE IMPERIAL PALACE.
the chapel, with its sumptuous paint
ings and facred veftments. The church. THE wiaten-palace of the sovereign service here is amazingly grand, and
is pleasantly situated on the right the folemnity of it much heightened hand bank of the Neya, on the spot by the exquisite fingers that compose where formerly itood the house of the choir. The masquerade rooms are Count Apraxing which he made a pre- remarkably brilliant, especially when fent of to the crown, and was used as lighted up on such occasions. The A palace. But in 1794, the Empress chamber of audience, with the throne Elizabeth caused it to be pulled down, of ancient fplendour. The cabinet, and the present prodigious structure to containing the infignia of the Empire, be raised in its stead; which was not is the most valuable
collection of jewels finished till 1762, the year in which to be feen in Europe. These insignia that Empress died, It forms a long are placed on a table in the midīt of quadrangle ; each of its fronts, to the the room, under a large glass bell
, Neva and to the town, being 450 which admits of their being thoroughly English feet in length, and the sides of viewed on all sides. The great crown its extremities 330 feet. It has a very of gold is faced with red velvet, almost lofty basement, an it the principal entirely covered with various kinds of ftory, and above that an entretol, The precious stones, fome of them of great whole height amounts to feventy feet, magnitude ; particularly at top is an The roof is low; but on the part uncommonly large ruby. The little which contains the chapel rises a cu- crown which is seen on the head of the pola with a cross, and on the parapet monarch on the great court festivals, are ftatues and other ornaments. The is about five inches in diameter, and is main front towards the city is provided esteemed of great value, from the numwith a magnificent portal, and two ber of large brilliants with which it is large entrances under spacious balco- befet. The knob of the sceptre is the nies, one of which is converted into a famous diamond which her late Map Toom, from whence on great holidays jesty purchased of Safratz the Greek, the Imperial family show themfelves to in 1974, for 450,000 rubles, and a life
*" Hentzner’s Itinerary, first published A.D. 1598. I have followed Lord Orford's translation, from the edition at Strawberry Hill, p. 36," VOL. V.No. L.
annuity of 100,000 rubles. It weighs confiderable fuite of rooms. By ad 194 carats: but having been cut in talogue taken in 1774, the paintings India, where it served for the eye of an then amounted to 2080, having among idol, it is not so perfectly shaped as it them originals by the pencils of Rae might have been done by an European phael, Rubens, Vandyk, Rembrandt workman. The mound and its golden Le Brun, Holbein, Corregio, Caracci, cross are covered to more than half Jordano, Pesne, Dietrick, and other their surface with precious stones of celebrated painters of the Dutch, Itavarious hues. ' Round the walls of this lian, and German schools. In this apartment are glass cases, like those great collection the Houghton gallery in toyshops, full of diamond orna- makes, as to number, but an incogments, stars of the several orders of fiderable figure. By the frequent pur. knighthood, watches, and watch-chains, chases made by the late Empress, the rings, epaulets,sword-hilts, fnuff-boxes, pictures are now so numerous that etuis, &c. from whence the fovereign they cannot all be hung up. They selects the presents he is pleased to may at present fafely be computed at make.
upwards of 4000; besides the minia. “ The apartments of the Empress, tures and enamels, which are at leaft the Grand Duke, and the Imperial fa- 200 in number. mily, are fitted up with the utmoft “ The sovereign's private library magnificence and taste. The rest of contains about 2000 volumes; and in the rooms are partly put to no use, other apartments are the libraries of though many of them are highly deco Voltaire and Diderot, which together rated in the old style of grandeur. may amount to 40,000 volumes. The 5. The Hermitage bears that name, collection of copper-plate engravings as devoted to the private recreations may be stated at 20,000. of the monarch, and is also called the « The cabinet of medals and coins, Gallery, on account of its forming part contains in both kinds about 16,000. of the suite of the Imperial collection The collection of gems, in which of pi&tures. The Hermitage is erected comprised that of the Duke of Orleans at the eastern extremity of the palace, and those of Natter, including such as in the same line with it on the bank of are of Taffie's manufacture, and some the Neva, reaching to the canal which compofitions from Italy, exceeds connects that river with the Moika. 10,000, not to mention great numbers This spacious building is joined to the of impressions in gypsur. palace by a covered way, leading from À choice collection of natural the middle ftory, so that her Majesty hiftory, from all the three kingdoms of could commodiously walk from her naturé, especially from the mineral, apartments into the Hermitage, which, which the Empress bought in 1786, of together with the whole length of the that famous naturalift, Profeffor Pallas
, palace, is nearly half an English mile. was not yet entirely arranged in 1997. The eastern part of this great square, Besides this, in an apartment adjoin. towards the Million, was inhabited bs ing, is a great collection of natural the late Prince Potemkin.
curiosities. « Besides these united palaces and 4 The chamber of confidence is a their several appurtenances, there is real folitude. The company feat them. -Atill beyond the Hermitage, but conti- selves at a confidential table, which guous to it, the old Imperial winter they find ready prepared, without ferpalace, built by Peter the Great, and vants, and therefore eat and converse in which he and his Catharine refided without reftraint. After the firft course
, to the end of their days. It has long at a signal given; the table sinks through been converted into a private theatre the floor, which closes of itself. At for operas, and apartments for the another fignal the table rises with the Italian performers, fingers, dancers, and second course. Each particular plate musicians, with their wardrobes and likewise descends through the table
, other conveniencies. At the end of which' rises again with whatever has the Hermitage, the - Emprefs has lately been ordered by a written paper upon built a Raphael's gallery, with copies it. The mechanism of this contrivance of all the paintings, of the fame di- is extremely fimple ; lines running over mensions and style with that in Italy. pullies; and a wheel winding it up and “ The picture gallery employs a down.