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which, however, it must be owned, ing and acting of the Ruffian nations was bad enough. More was done in I fall only subjoin a few observations this matter by his female fucceffors. The extraordinary and indefatigable

“ In the times anterior to Peter it activity of this monarch: one while was usual for parents to conclude mar- undertaking a fiege at a diftance from riages for their

children; and the young his empire, or fighting at the head of people never saw one another till they his arthy, then suddenly appearing in were to be betrothed; a custom which the refidence, and frequenting the ft. was certainly attended with many in- tings of the Senate, or presenting him. conveniences. Peter made a law, that self in the courts of justice, or confult. every young couple fhould frequenting with the clergy on ecclefiaftical reone another for fix weeks at least pre- forms, or selecting ingenious persons vious to the betrothing,

to fend out on travels; now under “ In order to discredit, in the eyes taking a jqurney bimself, working in of his people, the old usages, many of foreign countries in the dockyards and which were indeed highly ridiculous, workthops ; becoming an attentive Peter had recourse to various methods. scholar in the studies of literary men, At times he appointed an entertain. at Amsterdam, 'with the paturalist ment, at which every thing was to Ruysch, or, as at Paris, vifting an proceed on the old footing, in which' academy of sciences; then re appearing his design was to display the difference in his empire, and there making difpobetween the ancient and modern man fitions for establishing a manufactory; ners, and to show the fuperiority of in one place causing a canal to be dug. the latter in a way irresistibly striking. in another ordering fhips to be built ; Thus, for example, he once celebrated to-day publishing an ordinance relating the nuptials of one of his court-fools to proceffes in the courts, to-IDOTTOV in a most magnificent manner; but en- issuing a table of precedence; one mos tirely in the ityle of the sixteenth cent ment severely punishing a judge who tury. The guests were obliged to ap- had suffered himself to be corrupted, pear in the dress after the fashion of the next rewarding another for fervices that time. No fire was lighted, though performed to the country; now holde the weather was intensely cold; be- ing a triumphal entry, then pafing the cause it was an old superstitious notion, whole day in the museum of the works that the kindling of a fire on the wed- of natu. e and art of his own inftitution, ding-day was unlucky. The old Rus in the contemplation of nature, and fians were fond of mead and brandy, the great performances of human in but drank no wine ;-this particular daftry and contrivance :-in short, that was therefore punctually observed. in all his undertakings for the good of The guests showed themselves highly his country he was obliged to work discontented at it.. • This was exactly and act himself, as he was in want of the cuftom with our forefathers, able persons to whom he should need Peter answered them smiling; and only to trace out a plan, and then • surely old customs are preferable to could leave the execution to their care

new ones :' thus jeeringly giving such a vast ađivity must surely have them a good lesson. It was then usual rouled in some degree the Ruffians, to keep fools for the diversion of the who were apt to let their faculties lie court; and, indeed, till very lately the dormant, from their inaction, animate nobility always had one about the them to the employment of their abili houle: nor is the practice yet entirely ties, and teach them to conGder indufe left off in the country. The court. try as a good and useful property."-. fools used frequently to make them. P. 130. telves merry with the old fashions,

(To be continued.) customs, and manners, mimicking many of the stiff obftinate sticklers for the antiquated ftyle; and, on their com. LXXXV. A general Account of all the plaining to Peter of the affront, he

Rivers of Note in Great Britain; generally answered them: They are

with their several Courses, their fools, what can be done with them? “ From what has been said, it plainly

peculiar Characters, the Countries appears that Peter in many respects

through which they flow, and the gave a new turn to the manner of think entire Sea.coast of our INand; con.


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duding with a minute Description rather inclined to the south-east, but of the Thames, and its auxiliary beneath Darlington it turns abruptly Streams. By HENRY Skrine, to the north-ealt

, and falls into the sea Efq. L.L. B. of Warley, in So.

below Stockton in Durham, which mersetshire, Author of " T hree fuc, may be called its port. ceffive Tours in the North of Tees derives its origin, are gigantic,

“The mountains, from which the England and Scotland, in 1795," and Teefdale presents a long winding and “ Two fucceffive Tours in stripe of fertility, surrounded by some South and North Wales, in 1799.” of the wildest districts in the kingdom. 8vo. Pp. 412. 1os. 6d. Elmsly. This extraordinary valley is more than

thirty miles in length, well sprinkled with villages, with the little town of

Middleton near its centre, and Barnard FRONTISPIECE- Seventeen Maps Caftle at its eastern extremity. The of the Courses of Rivers.

river itself aflimilates throughout with its external attendants, of rocks, moors, and mountains, being broad, shallow,

and rapid, frequently ravaging the valCHAP. I. General Introduction.

ley with its inundations, and precipi- II. Rivers of Essex,northward of the

tating itself in vast cataracts. It is here Thames.--111. The Trent and its fufpended by iron chains, after which,

croffed by an extraordinary foot bridge various component Streams.-IV. buried within deep rocks, and steep Congress of the Rivers of Yorkshire, wooded banks, it almost encircles the which unite with the Trent and Anc ancient town of Barnard Castle, dathkolme, to form the Humber.-V. ing through its long bridge beneath Rivers of Durham.----VI. Coaft of the walls of its castle; afterwards it Scotland, from Berwick on Tweed

enters a deep dell beneath the Abbey to the Firth of Forth.-VII. Eastern

of Egglestone, tearing its way with raCoast of Scotland, from the Firth of pidity through the rich domain of Tay to the extreme Point of Kin

Rokeby, below which it receives the

Greta from Yorkshire, and another naird, in Aberdeenshire, and to the small stream from the moors of Dur. Entrance of the Murray Firth.-- ham, forming a fine feature in the VIII

. The Spean of Inverness-shire, highly ornamented territory which sur-!X. Rivers of England communis rounds the majestic walls and towers cating with the western Sea.--X. of Raby Castle, and the elegantly-difRivers of Wales beyond the Dee.- posed grounds of Mr. Wane at Sellaby. XI. Milford Haven and its various

The Tees still preserves its character, Branches.--XII. The Wye and its

as it divides Durham from Yorkshire tributary Streams.--XIII. Rivers of

for a great distance, presenting a strike Somersétshire, the North of Devon

ing and romantic object, from which.

ever side it is viewed. The flourishing hire, and Cornwall.--XIV. Rivers town of Darlington, with its high of Devonshire and Dorsetshire.-XV. spire, lies a few miles above its northern The Coast of Devonshire, Dorset bank in Durham; and Stockton, in the dhire

, and Hampshire--Rivers of fame county, exhibits a street, with a Swifex and Kent.-XVI. The large market-house in its centre, which Thames and its auxiliary Streams.

for width and regularity is surpafled XVII. Ditto continued.--


by no country town in England. The Tees is here crossed by a magnificent stone bridge, and being now affected by the tide, admits ships of consider

able burden. EXTRACTS.

“ The Weare finds its source in the THE TEES AND THE WEARE. same wild range of moors which pro“THE Tees rises in those vast moors duce the Tees, but considerably to the which separate Yorkthire from Dur- north of that river; its course is almoft bam, Cumberland, Westmoreland,

and parallel with it, bearing at first to the Northumberland. Its course is at first fouth-east, and at Bihops Auckland


Ditto concluded.

Vol. V, -No. LI.

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turning to the north-east; after nearly rarely inhabited, except on public oo surrounding the city of Durham, it casions, by its prince palatine. The flows northwar! to Chester le Street, steep and wooded banks of the Weare and then inclines a little towards the present some very pleasant walks, as it cast, to reach its port of Sunderland. encompasses Durham, and exhibit

“ The Weare may be called a mi. much romantic scenery about Mr. niature of the Tees, much resembling Carr's neighbouring seat at Cocken. that river in character, though greatly “ The ftately pile of Lumley Castle its inferior in width and rapidity. afterwards overlooks it, and its exit to Weare-dale is (like Tees-dale) a very the fea, near the crowded port of Sunwild and romantic district, yet plea- derland, is graced with an iron bridge, santly interspersed with villages, headed matchless in its design and architecture, by the market town of Wolfingham. beneath which vesels in full fail may Emerging from these receffes, the · pals.P. 75. Weare flows boldly beneath the town of Bishops Auckland, and below the park of that princely territory, which

THE TAY many successive bishops of Durham « IS one of the moft confiderable have contributed to embellish as the and beautiful rivers in our island, traprincipal refidence of that rich and versing the whole great countyof Perth, powerful fee. The present bishop, amidst the richest districts of the middle enabled by a fortune superior to moft range of Scotland, and forming itself of his predecessors, has mad-onsider the principal ornament to some of the able improvements and addit.Jis, with most romantic tracts in nature. Its taste and liberality; which appear to source is in one of the highest and great advantage, in descending from wildest eminences in the western High the lodges opening from the Durham lands, from whence it rushes with a řnroad, where the venerable pile of the gularly characteristic rapidit v. through Gothic chapel exalts itself above the the gloomy hollow of Glena

urt, or numerous more modern buildings, the Vale of Afliction, where rms a fronted by an extensive portico in an small lake, with a bare island and a appropriate taste. The Weare buries castle, which might serve for the abode its winding course in deep dales, till it of melancholy. The pleasant little is arrested by the high circular hill town of Killin is delightfully situated, which is crowned by the majestic ca- fome miles lower, on a neck of land thedral and stately castle of Durham, between the two points, where the from whence the city descends in steep placid Lochy and the rapid Tay, winding streets to its three bridges, strongly contrasting each other in chawhich terminate in long suburbs. A racter, form the great expanse of water more fingular position for the capital called Loch Tay. Lofty mountains of a county can hardly be imagined, surround this charming lake, encircling and the effect of thele vast obje&s, a wooded, populous, and well-culti. from their elevated situation, is won vated distri&; two good roads pervade derfully striking ; but the streets are the whole, on eminences overhanging mostly narrow, steep, and inconvenient. each side of the water, and command Almost the whole summit is covered by every fpecies of the fublime and beauthe cathedral and its two closes, one of tiful' in landscape. These scenes are which contains the superb residences of varied happily by the three great turns the dean and chapter, the other being of Loch Tay, the last of which discloses appropriated to the bishop. The coun- all the ornamented territory of Tayty hall is within his great precincts, mouth, whole groves sweep the whole and the majestic towers of his almost horizon, stretching across the plain at regal castle, overhang the Weare the bottom of the lake from the heads proudly from the summit of a perpen- of two opposite mountains, and interdicular rock. It contains many noblespersed with many conspicuous buildapartinents, and would make a diftin. ings. The Tay makes its exit from the guished figure, were the same taste' lake through the handsome stone bridge and spirit which has adorned Bishops of Kenmore, the church of which ril. Auckland fo fuccessfully, extended to lage stands finely exalted on an emi. this majestic pile ; but of late (though nence looking directly down Loch kept in fufficient repair) it has beca Tay.


* " This

This river, now greatly increased beyond the latter, the precipices of the by the junction of the Lion from its rocky Ord of Caithness impend hora pleasant dale, but till preserving all its ribly over a stormy ocean, above which original rapidity, rolls in majestic state a road is carried far more exalted and between the rich groves of Taymouth, tremendous than that of Penmanmawt and at Aberfeldie is crosed by a large in North Wales. This is the only ftone bridge, built by General Wade, great pass of the country into Caithness, when the military roads were formed, after which the road divides into two and graced with a very claffic Latin in- branches, one pursuing the coast, and fcription. The Tumel, lately enlarged the other penetrating through the heart by the waters of the Carrie tumbling of that county northward to Thurlo, from the highly improved district of The eastern coast of Caithness, afterthe the Blair of Athol, through the 'hollow pafs of the Ord is surmounted, is far pass of Killicranky, meets the Tay be- less mountainous than that of Suthern low the romantic spot of Fafkally, land; one small river, called the Wick, which after paffes through a finely pas- descends to it from the north-west, tured and well timbered vale to Dun originating in the lake of Watten, and keld, the venerable remains of whose forming a fine bay beneath the port abbey present a fine object close to the situated on its northern shore, from Tay, and in the midst of the Duke of which it derives its name. Considerably Athol's numerous plantations. High further towards the north, Duncansby obtruding hills direct its winding course Head projects into the sea, marking in its exit from the Highlands beneath the north-eastern extremity of our the scanty remains of the celebrated island; advancing towards which, bewood of Birnam, from whence the yond the village of Houna, stands the ruined fortress of Dunsinane is seen at memorable ferry - house of John a a considerable distance across the plain. Groat, the Ultima Thule of most Eng · “ The Tay here makes a consider. lish travellers, and the last mansion in able circuit to meet the Ina from An- Great Britain. The coaft here is wild, gus, and then descending beneath the bold, and rocky; the Orkney Hands ancient palace of Scone, to the fine appear spread out in front across the city of Perth, passes under the arches boisterous Firth of Pentland, and duof its noble bridge, and sweeps in a ring fome weeks of the summer months bold femicircle round the rock of Kin- daylight is never lost to its inhabitants, noul, oppofite to the hill of Moncrieffe, for which they suffer by an equivalent where the Roman legions, struck with prolongation of night in the winter, aftonishment at the grandeur of the though the prevalence and brightness scene before them, suddenly halted, and of the Aurora Borealis usually relieves cried Ecce Tiberim.' The Earne de. this evil. The brcad bay of Dunnet fcends a little below this spot from succeeds, into which the river Thurfo Crieffe, and beneath the elevated pile descends from the south; the port, of Drummond Castle, adorns the fere which bears also its name, is placed at tile vale of Straith Earne, through the mouth of the stream, and separately which its course is parallel with the approached by the road which diverges Tay, till the two rivers join near New. from the shore a little above the Ord burgh. Thus is formed that vast æstu. 'of Caithness. ary called the Firth of Tay, at the “ Here end all tracks easily prachead of which the important and four ticable to any but the scanty inhabitrishing port of Dundee spreads over a ants of this wild coast, which, indentconfiderable eminence; this Firth nar. ing the country with deep bays through rows confiderably as it approaches its the remainder of Caithness and Suther. exit, and falls into the sea beneath the land, terminates towards the northwalls of Broughty Castle.” P. 99. west in the dangerous promontory of

Cape Wrath. It defcends then fouth

ward, interfected with large falt-water THE EASTERN COAST OF CAITHNESS

lochs, till the mountainous region of - JOHN A GROAT'S HOUSE,

Allynt projects again towards the weit, " ON the coaft, between the Fleet near the extremity of Sutherland.' The and the Brora, is situated the noble, western coast of Rofs-shire is not less but deferted, Castle of Dunrobin, the wild and barbarous, being penetrated apcient seat of the Barls of Sutberland; with dill deeper arms of the fea, as it


3 R 2

descends by the weft to the south; the habitants, providing also their only large isand of Lewes appears from means of sustenance. Mines are said thence at a considerable distance in the to abound in this great expanfe, and north-weft; and Skye, the principal of some of these are supposed to be of the Hebrides or Western Inands, al considerable value, but they are seldom most clofes in with it, as it approaches explored on account of the scantiness the borders of Inverness-shire. The of its population, and the want of western coast of that great county general animation; the mountains of abounds in fimilar features, being little Affynt are described as containing lefs wild, dreary, and inacceslible; it mailes of marble, equal to the Parian is also in like manner penetrated with in whiteness and purity, and the hidden vaft arms of the sta to its junction with minerals are supposed to be frequent, Argyle-thire. The northern part of as well as valuable, in the forests of that district participates in the same Dirrymoor, Durness, and Fainish, as qualities, as it makes a sweep to form well as in the diftri&ts of Coygach, the found of Mull, opposite to the Groinard, Gareloch, Applecrois, and island of that name, and then descends Kintail. Except some trifting streams again southward to the straits of Jura, which fall into the falt-water lochs, and from thence to the extreme point there appears to be a total failure of of the Mull of Cantire, opposite to rivers from the Thurlo of Caithness on Ireland, which it doubles, to form a the northern coaft, to the Spean of Infine bay round the islands of Arran and verness-shire on the western; a vaft outBute, beyond which, it reaches the line, widely differing from the reft of confines of Dumbarton-thire, and the our island, both in this, and most other mouth of the Clyde.

circumstances. “6 This immense tract of coast, which forms the point of the Mull of Cantire to Cape Wrath, extends northward

COMMENCEMENT OF THE BRITISH near four degrees, viz. from almost the

CHANNEL TO THE LAND'S END. 55th to the 59th, is nearly alike savage, “ THE western coast of England dreary, and inacceslible. The interior may be said to begin, where the shipping of the country corresponds with it in of King Road, at the junction of the wildness, few and uncertain being the Lower Avon with the Severn, properly roads which penetrate it, and miser. constitutes that great æftuary of the able, as well as scanty, its villages, Bristol Channel, a little below the opwhile cultivation is only pursued in a posite conflux of the Wye from Wales, few favoured spots, and that but im though fome navigators do not allow perfectly. Destitute of accommoda- it that titie till it reaches the islands tion for travellers, and full of craggy called the Holmes near Cardiffe. The mountains, interfected with lakes and Somerset/hire fhore' ftretches out at deep morafles; most part of this dif- - first in the broad plain before defcribmal territory is unknown, except to ed, bordered by marshes, while the those who are interested in it either as undulating range of the Mendip bills, inhabitants or proprietors. The peo- covered with fern and abounding in ple, however, are understood to be far minęs, closes the horizon, as it ad. more civilized, than the climate and vances through the country from the country they live in, together with borders of Wiltshire, above the pleatheir poverty and seclusion from the fant city of Wells with its neat catheworld, would warrant; minifters of dral, towards the great expanse of the Scotch kirk being resident with water below Axbridge. decent appointments in most of the “ Great marshes afterwards spread villages, and medical affiftants of suffin far into the country, of which the rich kient skill and character, being dispersed level of Sedgmoor is the most confiderover the whole peninsula. The feveral able, and the coast continues chiefly falt-water lochs, which penetrate this level till the waving line of the Quandistrict in every direction, from the tox hills in the fouth-west oppofes the northern and the western coasts, open parallel ridge of the Mendip in the an immense field for the herring fishery, north-east, between which the infulated which in some parts is pursued with terrace of Powlett, or Polden Hill, great assiduity, and in most forms exalts itself, traversed beautifully by early the whole occupation of its in one of the western roads from Bathta


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