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one in its extreme breadth in the cen- or for fear of the gulls, their greatest tre: there formerly was a wall run enemies. The puffin much resembles across it; but its traces, and for what the parrot, with an arched red beak; purpose, are not known. Anciently it they breed in holes vacated by the raba twas called Ptolemeus Lymen; and on bits. The vast number of eggs laid it were two chapels, but now no ver on these rocks are, when in season, the tige of them is to be seen: one was principal subsistence of the poorer fort dedicated to Saint David; and the of inhabitants about Saint David's: the other, named Ynis Devanog, dedica- eggs are about the size of a duck's, ted to a saint of that name; who with beautifully spotted and variegated with Faganus, was sent by Bishop Eluthe- many colours; all vary much, and rius to preach the word of life to the they say there are not two alike." Britons, in the year 186 after the af. P. 63. cenfion of our Saviour Jesus Christ. “ North-west of this isand are fix The last-mentioned chapel, with great rocks, supposed to have been formerly part of the island, has been swallowed part of the fame; they are called the pp by the fea, as far as the rocky ex. Bishop and Clerks, well known and crescences to the westward of it. The dreaded by all seamen who pass St. illand, it is said, was formerly inhabited George's Channel. They are thus by faints; and that no less than 20,000 spoken of by an author, about the have been buried there: it keeps many time of the Spanish invasion in 1588: cattle, theep, and rabbits; but the lat. They are fout sturdy fellows, and ter are nearly extirpated by the rats, I will not budge a foot; are able to rethat periodically swim across the found o fift the King of Spain's great navy, during the fummer. Great part of the and put her Majcły to no charge at foil is fertile, and yields good grain: "all. One of thein, most to the southbut this host of vermin convert it toward, is called Carreg Escob, or the their own use, denying the benefit of Bishop's Rock; the second, Carreg-yrthe cultivation to its occupiers. Rosan; the third, Gwen Carreg, or

" To this iNand, and the rocks ad- White Rock; the fourth, Deveck; the joining, yearly refort such an immenfe fifth, Carreg Hawloc; the fixth, Emfnumber of migrating fea-birds, of feve car. These rocks are watchfully looked ral forts, as none but those who have after by all palling this fea, as this been eye-witnesses thereof can be pre: bishop and his clerks preach such Sailed upon to believe, the cliffs being deadly doctrine to their winter audinearly covered by them: they chiefly ence. P. 66. conlist of the elyug, the razor-bili, which is the merc of Cornwall; the puffin, which is the ar&ic duck of LXXXIX. A View of a Course of LecClusius; and a variety of gulls. Here they all come to depofit their eggs,

tures, to be commenced the first Monand rear their young, in places so high

day after Chrijimas 1801, on the and rugged, as to make it almost in State of Society at the Opening of accefsible to the foot of plunder or

the nineteenth Century: containing hand of violence: their visits and re- : Inquiries into the Constitutions, turns are very precipitate; for, after Laws, and Manners, of the printhe breeding scafon, they depart in the

cipal States of Europe. By HENRY night: in the previous evening the

REDHEAD YORKE, of the Inner Focks are covered, and the next morning not a bird is to be seen: in like

Temple, Student at Law. Svo. manner, on their return in the evening,


Clement. not a bird will be scen, and the next morning the rocks will be full of them.

EXTRACT. They also visit commonly for a weck about Christmas, and then finally take DEFORE I enter into a minute and their departure until the follo

circumstantial examination of the breeding-season. The elyug and razor: relative power, fundamental laws, and bill lay but one egg cach, on the bare domestie policy of the principal states rock; never leaving it until it is hatch. of Europe, I shall prefent to my au. ed, and their offspring able to follow" dience a general outline of the progress them, either from instinctive fondness, of society and government, from the


Pp. 46.

earliest ages to the period which falls actions, they neglect all disquisition more immediately under our consider- into laws and manners, as unworthy ation. In this mode only, can govern- of remark, or incapable of ortament. ment and manners be studied to advan Antiquaries have displayed much cri. tage. Such a recapitulation will often tical and laborious investigation, but be found to explain the causes of many the spirit of customs ard of laws has existing institutions. In illustrating the also escaped their penetration. They progress of jurisprudence, we shall have often throw together theis materials frequent occasions of admiring and without arrangement, they are sfien observing how legislation refined, and unable to reason from them, and, forRept pace with the improvement of getting that the burran mind advances the intellectual powers and the moral progressively, they ascribe to rude akts advancement of nations. To delineate the ideas and sentiments of their own in this manner the spirit of nations, we times. These are all impediments in must recur to authentic documents, the way of political examinat to, and credible and impartial historians; and they have besides ihe fatal tendency of to determine their relative happinels, obliterating for a time our is fe of we must compare the accounts of their moral duty and the true itirdio of moral state, delivered by different wri- nations. Neither are these descripísons ters, living in different ages, yet re the most entertaining portion of hik presenting mankind under similar situa- torical narration. Scenes of carnage, tions. Thus Homer and Oflian may though drested in the pomp of murds, be adduced to illustrate the primitive may dazzle the eyes for a while, but histories of the Bible, and Charlevoix they cannot ultimately fix the attenand Lafitau to corroborate the descrip- tion of mankird. Doth not the inge: tions of Homer and Offian. In this nious scholar, who has enlarged and light, the beautiful art of poetry, which enlightened the faculties of the human falls principally within the province of mind; the inventive artif, who has imagination, may be rendered subser- in created the comforts and convenivient to the investigations of reason. ences of human life; the adverturous By the aid of this comparative history, merchant or mariner, who has disco. we may collate materials from Hindu Bered unknown coul.vies, and opened laws to elucidate the institutions which new sources of trade and wealth ; de the human mind has invented in fimi- ferve a place in the annals of his coudJar stages of society. The success of try, and in the grateful remembrance our discoveries on this head, must de- of pofterity, equally with the good pend on the care with which we select prir.ce, the wife politician, or the rico and arrange our materials. Modern torious general? Can we form just compilations afford but little aflistance, ideas of the characters and circumand the voluminous chronicles of na stances of our anceltors, by viewing tions, record frequently nothing but them only in the flames of civil and insipid genealogies and unprofitable religious 'discord, or in the fields of fables.

blood and Naughter; without ever at“ Unfortunately, this expofition of tending to their conduct and condition, the order of social life and civil policy, in the more permanent and peaceful cartnot be circumftantially extracted scenes of social life? Have we no cufrom the general relations of history. riosity to know at what time, by what Inquiries of this fort are feldom at- degrees, and by whofe means, mankind tended to hy historiaris. They prefer have been enriched with the treasures what is brilliant to what is useful, and of learning, political wisdom, arts and dwell with raptures on the conduct of commerce? "It is impossible. Such generals, the valour of armies, and the curiosity is natural, laudable

, and use

: consequences of victory and defeat. ful; and it is hoped, that this attempt And while they describe and embellish to gratify it, will be received by the the politics of princes and the fortunes public with some degree of favour": of nations, the splendid qualities of .“ Had the generality of historians eminent men, and the luftre of heroic attended to these important considera

* "Sce Dr. Henry's General Preface to his History of England. This indefatigable and excellent historian is a inarked exception to the preceding obfervation,”

tions, the labours of moral inquiry most celebrated Authors, in Prose would have been abridged, light would and Verle; with a Translation into have been diffused over the most in

English: being a Companion to teresting portions of human science; and I should have been enabled to trace

Sir William Jones's Persian Gramthe progress of society from the uncul

mar. To which is prefixed, an tivated forest to the polished capital,

Essay on the Language and Literawith the utmostexactitude, and without

ture of Persia. By S. Rousseau, being once compelled to hazard a con

Teacher of the Persian Language. jecture. But as these things have not 4to. pp. 222. 18s. Sewell, Mars been performed, the subject is exposed ray and Highley. to discussion and to difference of opinion; it will therefore be my duty to

EXTRACTS FROM THE PREFACE investigate it in such a manner as to convince the minds of my hearers, “ IN the first part is given an Efsay that laws, government, and manners,

on the Language and Literature have not only a necessary connexion of Persia, exhibiting a concise history with history, but with each other. This thereof, from the earliest accounts to fact has been unanswerably demonftra- the present time; interspersed with ted by Dr. Gilbert Stuart in his maf- anecdotes of the most celebrated Perá terly View of Society in Europe, a

fian authors, and the unbounded muwork that must immortalize his repu- nificence of the Eaftem sovereigns to tation as one of the most acute and the literati, who were invited to refide philosophical inquirers into the dark at their courts ; where they were careannals of unlettered ages. Laws and fully watched, left, in the hour of difmanners, says he, are commonly un- content, they should make their escape derstood to be nothing more than col- to the capital of some other monarch. lections of ordinances, and matters of

“ The second part contains a large fact; and government is too often a selection of entertaining and useful foundation for mere fpeculation and pieces, from different authors, which metaphysical refinements. Yet law is are given in Persian and English, fo only a science, when observed in its literal, that any person who has acfpirit and history; government cannot quired the rudiments of the language, be

comprehended but by attending to may, with very little trouble, turn the minute steps of its rise and pro

them out of Persian into English. greffon ; and the systems of manners “ The description of the Garden of which characterize man in all the pe- Irim (from the Oriental Collections, riods of society which pass from rude- vol. iii. p. 32, to which work the edinefs to civility, cannot be displayed tor is greatly indebted for several exwithout the discrimination of these dif- tracts in the following pages), exhibits ferent situations. It is in the records an account of that imaginary terrefof hiftory, in the scene of real life, trial paradise, which is so frequently not in the conceits and the abstractions alluded to by the Afiatic poets. This of fancy and philofophy, that human piece, notwithstanding it be a descripvature is to be studied. “But, while it tion of a fabulous garden, cannot fail is in the historical manner that laws, to be acceptable, lince it shows the cukoms, and government, are to be fuperftition of the Eastern nations, inquired into, it is obvious, that their multitudes of the people implicitly dependance and connexion are close believing that such a garden once and intimate. They all tend to the exifted. same point, and to the illustration of

“ The Geographical Extracts, which one another. It is from the confidera- follow the above, point out the diftion of them all, and in their union, tances from one place to another, by that we are to explain the complicated which the young Orientalift will be forms of civil society, and the wisdom enabled to travel, as it were, from one and accident which mingle in human town to another at a great distance,

with as much facility, as if he had a book of roads placed before him, which

will be rendered the more pleasing, XC. The Flowers of Perfian Litera- fince it is laid down by an Oriental ture: containing Extracts frona the writer of celebrity. The original work VOL. V.No. LI.


affairs." P. 17.

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whence they are taken, is entitled, versation. He died at the advanced • Nozhat al Coloub, which is divided age of eighty-one, A. H. 898, having into three parts; the first treating of spent, we may say, the whole of his astronomy, the second of anatomy, and life in the cultivation of letters.” P.xx. the third of geography. M. D'Herbelot quotes this Ms. and styles the author · Le Geographe Persan;' and

EXTRACTS. M. de Sacy, in illuftrating his excel. EXTRACTS FROM ESSAY ON lent •Memoires sur diverses Antiquités

THE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE de la Perse,' made use of it.” P. vii. OF PERSIA.

“ The Fables given at the close of “ AT the time when the Koraun the present volume, are extracted from was first published in Arabia, a merthe Baharistaun, or Mansion of Spring, chant who had lately returned from a an admired work by the celebrated long journey, brought with him some Jaumee. They were originally pub- Pertian romances, which he interpreted lished in 1778, in the Anthologia Per- to his countrymen, who were ex. uca, at Vienna, with a Latin version tremely delighted with them, and used by Jenisch. To our account of Jau- to say openly, that the stories of grifmee, we may add, that he was the son fons and giants were more amusing to of Mevlana Mohammed of Ispahaun, them than the moral leffons of Moand was born A. H. 817. He was re- hammed. Part of a chapter in the markably polite, of a very gentle dif- Koraun was immediately written, to position, and endued with such exten- stop the progress of these opinions ; five learning, that it was supposed the merchant was severely reprimandthere was not, throughout the empire ed; his tales were treated as pernicious of Persia, so complete a master of the fables, hateful to God and his prolanguage as himself. He was skilled phet; and Omar, from the fame moin the noblest sciences, and extremely tive of policy, determined to destroy ardent in the pursuit of letters. Have all the foreign books which should fall ing embraced the religious order of into his hands. Thus the idle loquaMooloo, he applied himself solely to city of an Arabian traveller, by setting literature, and made so great a pro- his' legends in competition with the gress therein, that he seems to be al- precepts of a powerful lawgiver, was lowed to have been the most elegant the cause of that enthufialm in the of all the modern Persian poets; which Mohammedans, which induced them is the reason that the fame of his wife to burn the famous library of Alexdom and learning has pervaded nearly andria *, and the records of the Perevery Eastern nation, where a taste for fian empire. literature and the fine arts has been cul “ It was a long time before the nativated. Even princes, who have been tive Persians could recover from the themielves men of erudition and ex shock of this violent revolution; and alted talents, have lavished upon him their language seems to bave been very the most unbounded praises and the little cultivated under the Khalifs

, who highest honours. He was very intimate gave greater encouragement to the liwith the Sultaun Aboo Said, who ne terature of the Arabians: but, when ver dismissed him without some distin- the power of the Abbasides began to guishing mark of his favour and appro- decline, and a number of independent bation, and even went himself fre- princes arose in the different provinces quently to visit the poet, being capti- of their empire, the arts of clegance, vated by his manners and his learning. and chiefly poetry, revived in Parlia; This prince continued the friend of and there was hardly a prince or ca Jaumce so long as he lived: after his vernor of a city, who had not feveal death our poet enjoyed the fame fa- poets and men of letters in his train. vours from his fucceffor Sultaun Hofein The Persian tongue was consequentiy Mirza, who was highly delighted with restored in the tenth century; but it his elegance of manners according to was very different from the Deri cr Jenisch, and his plealing mode of con Pehlevi of the ancients; it was mixed

* “ The number of MSS. supposed to have been burnt at this place et ceeded 500,000. They were distributed as fuel to the keepers of 4000 public baths,

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with the words of the Koraun, and great admirer of the fine arts. he apwith expressions from the Arabian proved the work of Anvauree, whom poets, whom the Persians considered he invited to his palace, and raised him as their masters, and'affected to imitate even to the first honours of the state. in their poetical measures, and the turn He found many other poets at court, of their verses." P. 6.

among whom were Sulmaun, Zuleer, “ Towards the close of the eleventh and Rusheedee, all men of wit and century arose three royal patrons of genius, but each eminent in a different Persian literature, who were remark- way; the first, for the delicacy of his able not only for their abilities and li- lyric verses; the second, for the moral berality, but for the fingular and unin- tendency of his poems; and the third, terrupted harmony which diftinguish- for the chastity of his compositions, a ed their correspondence. There were virtue which his predeceffors and conMalek-shah Jilaleddin, King of Persia ; temporaries were too apt to neglecta Keder ben Ibrahim, Sultaun of the In the same century flourished Nezau. Gheznevides; and Keder Khaun*, the mee, another poet of eminence and Khaukaun or King of Turqueftaun virtue.” P. 22. beyond the Jihon. The Khaukaun “ A vast deal of fiction is obfervable supported, with most magnificent ap- in the writings of every nation, parti ,,, pointments, a literary academy in his cularly in those which relate to the palace, consisting of a hundred men of history of former times; and it is the highest reputation in the East. The equally applicable to the Eastern wriprince would frequently preside at their ters as to those of the Western world. exercises of genius; on which occa- The fables of the Pagan priests of the sions, four large balins filled with gold Western countries are now generally and filver were placed by the side of looked upon with contempt, and those his throne, which he liberally distri- of the Eastern nations deserve no betbuted to those who principally ex ter treatment; and we must remark,

that the priests of that persuasiou found “At the opening of the twelfth it their interest to invent stories relative century lived Anvauree, a native of to facts which never took place, and Abiurd, in Khorausaun, whose adven- to propagate error, for the sole pura : tures deserve to be related, as they pose of increasing their own importwill likewise show in what high esteem ance, well knowing, that, without the polite arts were held in Asia, at some such auxiliary, the eyes of the the time when learning first began to multitude would soon be opened, and dawn in Europe. Anvauree, when he their trade and dependance shortly be was very young, was sitting at the annihilated : yet the traditions of these gate of his college, when a man richly men are not to be wholly disregarded. drefied rode by him on a fine Arabian What are the relations of the ancient horse, with a numerous train of at- Egyptians? What are the early annals tendants; upon his asking who it was, of Babylonia, of Greece, of Rome? he was told that it was a poet belong- Are they not mere traditions? Excluing to the court. When Anyauree re live then of such Persian authors as flected on the honour conferred on have escaped the fury of Mohammedan poetry, for which art he had a very bigots, or of Arabian profcription, early bent, he applied bimself to it and other records, of which our ima more ardently than ever, and, having perfect knowledge of their language, finished a poem, presented it to the and slender intercourse with their counSultaun. This was a prince of the try, bas hitherto deprived us of any Seljukian dynasty, named Sanjaz, a positive intelligence, one ground of

*"This prince's court was uncommonly splendid; even when he appeared abroad he was preceded by seven hundred horsemen with silver battle-axes, and followed by an equal number bearing maces of gold.”

† “ Amak, called also Abou’lnajib al Bokhari, who was the chief of the poets, had, exclusive of a great pension, a vast number of male and female Naves, with thirty horses of state richly caparisoned, and a retinue in proportion, which attended him wherever he went. Vid. D'Herbelot Bibliotheque Orientale, p. 105, 812,983, and the Negaristaun;"

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