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sky ferene, and the atmosphere free tal, which might give, for the total, from humidity: from this we may 550,000,000,000 of grasshoppers eggs, judge, that the wandering species, pro- that would have been hatched the folo bably more vigorous, as well as more lowing year. On other occasions a accufiomed to travelling, may, in warm reward was set on graf hoppers; in and dry climates, undertake long paf- 1769, two fous a pound were paid for fazes in close columns, and, favoured them in foine parts of Languedoc; in by the winds, venture to cross gulfs 1787, only one for was given; and yet and ftrits.

it was known, by the examination of " And the frightful havock of these the accounts of the little community numberlefs phalanxes of devouring in- of Saint Gilles, that eleven or twelve feéts is not always confined to the fer- hundred quintals of them had been de tile plains of the Eaf; they are feen, stroyed on its territory alone t." P.40. more rarely it is true, but with the same fury, to strip the fields of more western countries of their harvests, of their verdure, to change in an instant “ ONE of the productions which the rich and finiling carpet of fecundity the Cypriots rear with the greatest into a hideous scene of nakedness and attention, and which has not ccaldevastation; and, after having de- ed to be to them an advantageous prived the earth of her dress, men of branch of trade, although, like every the fruit of their labours and of their other, it has felt the violence and want means of subsistence, to finish by in- of reflection of the government, is the fecting the air with their carcales heap- famous wine which is yielded them by ed up, anci by tpreading contagion and vines with twisting and creeping stems, death. Who knows whether this be and large and delicious fruit. The best Dot one of the principal causes of the vines, a natural temple, dear to Bacmelancholy and cruel permanence of chus, whence flows this yellowish, the plague in the East?

rich, and perfumed wine, which con6 France herself has not been ex stitutes the delight and luxury of our empt from the misfortunes produced tables, occupy a district called the by these prodigious and formidable Commandery, because it made a part bodies, carrying in their train conftere of the great commandery of the Temnation and want. In the year 1784, a plars and of the knights of Malta. It is vaft swarm of these infects, coming comprised between Mount Olympus from the east, croiled France, devour- and the towns of Limafiol and Paphos. ed every thing on their pallage, and Although all the wines of Cyprus come fell into the British Channel. Mezerai not from this district, they do not the mentions with great detail another ir- lets, on that account, bear, in trade, ruption of grasshoppers, which der the name of the wines of the comprived the fouth of France of its har mandery, in order to enhance their vests, of its vegetables, and of its tre- value. Under that name is found some foil. That historian informs us, that very common, and at a very low price. the grasshoppers which ereaped from I have purchased at Alexandria some the birds, depofited such a quantity of of tắis pretended wine of the comeggs on the ground, particularly in mandery, at ten parats, or a little more the fandy spots, that it was thought than twelve jous the dame-jeanne *; it neceflary to cause them to be picked was new, very light, and had no reup in order to destroy them. They semblance in point of favour to the were found in heaps, and in this mane distinguished Cyprus wine. From all ner were collected upwards of three parts of the island the wines are colthousand quintals, which were burnt lected at Larnica, where they are kept or thrown into the Rhone. On calcu- till they are shipped; but they want lating the number of infects that were age in order to acquire the excellent to be hatched by these masses of eggs, qualities which caule them to be som it was found, by a very low estimate, much in request. The Grecks of Cythat there was 1,750,000 to the quin- prus, from a very ancient custom, when

† “ See the Notice.des Infeites de la France réputés venimeux; par M. Amoureux Fils, Médecin de Montpelier, 1789, introduction, page 122 and following.”

*“A glass veffel containing about three gallons Englih mealure.” VOL, V. No. LII.

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they have a child born, bury large and we thould be greatly mistaken to verifels filled with wine, and closely attribute to them the good quality and stopped; these are not taken out of the reputation which the superior the ground but for the marriage of that white grapes of Fontainebleau owe only same child. This wine, which might to their manner of being planted and be called family-wine, since it serves to cultivated, and to the care bestowed celebrate its most happy events, pre- on them. But the real difficulty, and served secure from the impressions of it is insurmountable, is to meet with the air, becomes exquisite on being the same foil, the same exposure, the taken out of the earth, and a real trea fame climate, the same degrees of sure to a delicate palate. Among pere temperature, in a word, to make Cy; sons in easy circumftarces, the quan- prus wine elsewhere than in Cyprys." tity of wine buried is feldom consumed p. 44. in marriage festivals, and a part is sold to Europeans, who have not always the opportunity of procuring any fo good.

UNHAPPY SITUATION OF THE Cyprus wine is conveyed to Eus rope, either in casks, or in thofe large THE fate of the Greeks, inhabit: glass bottles, covered with ruth or ants of the small islands of the Archipe wicker, which are called dames-jeannes. lago, abandoned to themselves, and This latter method would be prefer- who seemed to be fought only to be able, the wine keeping better in glass tormented and plundered, was truly vessels, if, on the other hand, the lots deplorable. If a Turkish thip, or the of it were not to be feared, from the finallest galiot belonging to that nation, danger of breaking the dames-jeannes puts into one of these islands, the in the course of a rather long voyage. commander becomes its despot; the When Cyprus wine is shipped in cas, chiefs of the town or village haften and the price is not considered in order to kiss his hand and receive his comto have that of the best quality, the mands. He disposes of every thing, purchaser procures casks in which has causes to be delivered to him the probeen left a certain quantity of lecs, vifions and all the articles of which he which have the property of improving stands in need, impofes labours on the the wine ; accordingly the casks, thus men, sets up for supreme judge, deprovided with lees,' sell four timescides controversies, settles quarrels, dearer than those which are destitute fondemns to fines, which must be paid of them.

immediately, orders the baftinado, on “ A modern author, who has written the sole of the feet, to be applied as he his travels to the Levant, ftruck with thinks proper; in short, his stay spreads the excellence of the Cyprus wines, is terror and confternation. Did a Maltele astonished that the merchants of Eu- privateer appear in her turn, nearly rope have not tried to convey thither the same scenes of the abuse and haribplants of these celebrated vines. He ness of power and of debasement were takes the trouble of describing minute. represented; the fame compliments, ly the precautions necessary to be ob- the same presents, the fame tasks, the served for removing these plants, in fame arbitrary acts, the same humiliasuch a manner that they might again tions, and sometimes even ill usage. ftrikein the new ground appropriated to “ One of the obligations of rigour them t:. It certainly is not in this that imposed on these unfortunate Greeks, the difficulty consists, living plants are was, as soon as a Maltese or Turkish brought to Europe from distances much vessel cast anchor in their harbour, to more considerable. It is even well station persons to look out on the mot known that Francis I. had procured elevated points, in order to discover at from Cyprus à sufficient quantity of a distance fhips at sea, to give notice vine plants for covering fifty arpens or of their approach, and to ikreen a French acres at Fontainebleau. We more troublesome guest from the danare ignorant what is become of these ger of being surprised by his enemy; pines, planted at so great an expenfe ; G*** had juft arrived in the road of

+ “ Voyages dans l' Ile de Chypre, la Syrie, et la Palestine, par M. l'Abbé Maritia translated from the Italian, vol. i. page 225,


P. 153

Argentiera; watches had been placed, not without great difficulty that the according to custom, at the top of agent and I, by dint of earneft folitowers built on some eminences which citations, fucceeded in obtaining his overlook the village on every side; the pardon. A few days after, G*** was captain of the privateer was on shore so fortunate as to surprise a carawith part of his crew, when the veffel vel coming from Alexandria, richly was seen to enter the road. The neg- laden, having on board the annual triligence of the sentinel posted on the bute which Egypt paid to the Grand fide from which the vessel came, was Signior. A prize of this importance cruelly punished. G*** ordered his ensured the fortune of the captors; house to be demolished, and forbad and I know not whether G***, who that, as long as he should live, any already lived at Malta in easy circumone should presume to build on the stances,covered with ycars and wounds, fame fpot. The order was executed having been a long time in Navery in every point, and, several years after, among the Turks, has been able to I saw the ruins of a habitation of a make up his mind to pass the remainder whole family, overrun by brambles and of his life in tranquillity, and to exserpents, and still struck by the curse piate, by acts of beneficence and the of a plundering adventurer.

exercise of the virtues, a career of disa “ I was witness of the sang froid of order and pillage.” this fame Captain G***, on another occasion, where he had like to have pronounced again the fatal anathema

ACCOUNT OF THE SUDDEN APPEARagainst another house in the village of

ANCE OF A NEW ISLAND IN 1707. Argentiera. He had landed there with “ IT is well known that Santorin, ten men well armed; and while the formerly Thera, and more anciently latter were dispersed among the inha- Callista, a word which fignifies the bitants, whom they laid under contri- Handsome, has experienced fingular bution, he dined at the house of the changes from the effect of subterraneFrench agent, where I was. In the ous fires. Emerged from the bosom middle of dinner, his people ran in, of the sea, it was afterwards partly quite scared, to announce to him that swallowed up in the year 237 before a vessel was coming into the road, the Christian era, and separated from and that she had the appearance of an Therafia, a small island at this day callenemy. G***, without rising from ed Afpronifi. The space contained behis feat or being in the least discon- tween those two islands, and at present certed, ordered them to bring to him filled by the sea, made, according to the epitropo, a sort of mayor or fyndic. the well-founded opinion of a judicious The latter being arrived, G*** asked observer *, a part of Thera, or the him what man of his village he had large island, which, at the time of this placed to look out at such a tower? revolution, assumed the form of a crefAnd, on receiving his answer, he en. cent. Indeed, the coast of that gulf, joined him to lay hold of that man, and composed of steep rocks, black, cale bring him into his presence. This or cined, and towering upwards of three der, being given in a tone to exact hundred feet above the level of the sea, prompt and unqualified obedience, appears to be the edge of an enormous he rose from table, and turning to. crater, the bottom of which has never wards his people, said to them: been fathomed.

Come, my lads, let us march, and “Several other revolutions happened prepare to attack and exterminate fucceflively in the same place; and the

thofe dogs of Turks !' He did not terrifying scenes of the great convul. go far, because it turned out that the lions of nature have been renewed vesiel arrived was a Ragusan trader; there repeatedly. An earthquake was but he was not disposed, on that ac- felt forty years after the islands of Thecount, to punith less cruelly the Greek ra and Therasia were separated. The who had neglected to give notice of waters boiled up, and a new iNand the approach of this veflèl; and it was rose above the sea, and all at once * “M. De Choiseul-Gouffier, Voyage Pittoresque do Grix, vol. i. pages 322

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and 323."

presented itself to the astonished navi- new lands had always been attendei by gators ť: This little island was called great disasters. Nevertheless

, twa or Kiera, sacred, no doubt, on account three days having painted without my of its origin, which bordered on a pro- thing fatal happening, fome of the indigy, and which occafioned it to be habitants of Santorin came to a resolu. consecrated to the god of hell. The tion of making observations on the nature of the calcined substances of very spot. Having "landed, curiofty which it is formed has fince obtained induced them to proceed from rock to it the name of Kammeni, or the Burnt rock; they found every where a fort Iland.

of white stone which might be cut libe “ “ Subterraneous commotions, con bread, and which so well imitated it in vulsions, and other phenomena, terri- figure, colour, and consistency, that, fied the men of these countries, at dif- with the exception of the taste, it ferent times, and produced on the might have been taken for real wheates land changes more or less confiderable, bread. What pleased them and aiotill the year 1743, when another iland nithed them more, was a quartity of suddenly appeared above the surface of fresh oysters adhering to the rocks, å the waters. In order to distinguish it circumítance very uncommon at Sanfrom the former, which is the larger, torin. While these Greeks were amus

. the Greeks have named it Micri Kam- ing then selves with eating the oysters, meni, or the Little Burnt Mand. they all at once felt the rocks move,

“ Lastly, at the beginning of the and the ground tremble under their century which has just elapred, a new feet; terror foon made them abandon illet appeared between the Great and their repaft, in order to jump into their the Little Kammeni, about a league boat, and row away as hard as they from Santorin. It was on the 23d of could pull. This shock was a motion May 1707, at break of day, that were of the illand, which was increasing, and perceived the commencements of this which, at that moment, vifibiy role

, other production of the subterraneous having, in a very few days, gained near fires which burn in these parts. On twenty feet in height, and twice as the 18th of the fame month, there had much in breadth. been felt at Santorin, two flight thocks “ As this motion, by which the new of an earthquake. No great attention inand was daily becoming higher and Kas paid to them at that time; but, in broader, was not always cqual

, acthe sequel, there was reason to suppofe cordingly it did not increase every day that, at that moment, the new inlet equally on all sides. It even frequently was beginning to detach itself from the happened that it fell and diminiled in bottom of the tea, and to rise towards one place, while it rote and spread in its surface. Be this as it may, fome another. One day, in particular, a Grecks helonging to Santorin having, rock very remarkable from its fize and very early in the morning, seen the figure, having issued from the living first points of the growing illandi, ima- forty or fifty paces from the middle of gined that these might be the remains the illand, lunk at the expiration of of some thipwreck, which the fca had four days into the water, and appeared brought during the night. In hopes no more. This was not the cave with of being the first to avail themielves of some other rocks, which, after having them, they haftened to reach them; made their appearance, and concealed but, no sooner had they discovered themselves at various times

, at lemata that, in lieu of pieces of a floating reappeared and remained fixed. The wreck, these were black and calcined different commotions violenty fhoek rocks, than they returned, quite fright- the Little Kanmeni, and, ened, publishing every where what they mit, wis remarked a long filiure, had just seen.

which had not been seen there before. “The fright was general in the whole During this time, the sea of the inland of Santorin; it was well known feveral times changed its colour: it fire there that thele sudden appearances of became of a dazzling green, then of

4 “ Juftin, book xxx. chap.iv, notes, that Pliny (Hift. Nat. lib. ii. cap. lxxxvii. says, inproperly, thint this event took place one hundred and thirty years after that which gave birth to the ille of Theratia.”

on its finis

a reddish

a reddish hue, anu at last of a pale the height of fifteen or twenty feet, yellow, and constantly emitted a great and the lea was covered with a reddish Itench.

substance or froth in some places, and “ On the 16th of July, smoke was yellowish in others. So greaťa degree feen, for the first time, to illue, vot of putrefaction spread through all San. from the part of the island that ap- torin, that the inhabitants were obliged peared, but from a chain of black to burn perfumes, and to kindle fires rocks, which rose all on a sudden fixty in the streets. This infection laited yards from the spot, and from a part only a day and a half. A very frella of the sea where no bottom had been fouth-west wind difpelled it; but in found: this, for some time, formed as driving away one evil, it introduced it were two separate islands, one of another. It carried this burning froke which was called the White Iland, over a great part of the best vineyards and the other, the Black Hand, on of Santorin, the grapes of which were account of their different colour; but almost ripe, and which, in one night, which ere long were again united to were all scorched. It was likewise reeach other, yet in such a manner that marked, that wherever this imoke was those black rocks which last sprang up carried, it blackened filver and copper, became the centre of the whole isand. and occafioned the inhabitants violent The smoke which illued from the headachs, accompanied by strong nauchain of black rocks was thick and fea. At that time, the White Illand whitish, like that which issues from fettled and funk all at once upwards of several lime-kilns thrown into one. ten feet. The wind carried it over one of the “ On the 31st of July, it was disco. habitations fituated at the extremity vered that the fea cast forth smoke, and of the gulf, and it did not there occa boiled up in two places, the one at fion much inconvenience: its smell too thirty, and the other at fixty yards was not particularly obnoxious. from the Black Island. In these two

“In the night between the 19th and spaces, each of which formed a perfect 20th, flames of fire were fun to rise circle, the water appeared like oil on from the middle of this smoke, which the fire. This lasted upwards of a caused the inhabitants of Santorin great month, during which were found a apprehension. This fire, nevertheless, great many dead fithes. was also little to be feared, since it “ The following night was heard a illued only from a single point of the hollow noise, like the report of several Black Inand, and did not appear at all cannons fired at a distance; and almost during the day.

immediately issued from the middle of Neither fire nor smoke was ever the crater two long sheets of fire, which seen on the White Illand; yet, not afcended very high, and were directly withstanding, it continued constantly extinguished. to grow larger; but the Black iNand “On the ist of August, the same increased far more quickly. Every hollow noise was heard repeatedly. It day were seen to arife big rocks, which was followed by a finoke, not white one while rendered it longer, another as before, but of a bluish black, and while broader; and this in lo percep- which, notwithstanding a very fresh tible a manner, that it was noticed from northerly wind, role in the form of a one moment to another. Someiimes pillar to a prodigious elevation. these rocks were joined to the island, “On the 7th of August, the noise which sometimes they were very remote from was heard was no longer so hollow: it it; so that in leis than a month were was similar to that of several large heaps reckoned as many as four little black of stones falling all at once into a deep ilands, which, in four days, were well. The extremities of the island united to each other, and then forined were thought to be in continual mo. but one. It was likewise remarked tion, and the rocks which formed them that the smoke had greatly increased, coming and going, disappearing and and that, no wind blowing at the time, then reappearing. This noise, after it afcended so high that it was seen having lasted several days, changed into from Candia, from Naxia, and from another considerably louder. It re«. other distant isands. During ihe night, fembled thunder in such a manner, this smoke always appeared fiery to that, when it really thundered, which


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