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advance of cultivation. Increase of dom is a powerful weapon in its hands, rent is not rarely a strong incitement and enables the speculator to accomplish to spirited management, and the adop- all his projects. The merchants having tion of more productive modes of huse the corn trade under their command, bandry; therefore on particular occa- must have too great influence upon the fions is the means of procuring a market; and due justice can hardly be greater produce of the necessaries of expected from them, in general, when life. The value of landed property it is contrary to their interefs. Thave ought to increase with that of all other becn informed that forty or fifty ships cominodities, and agricultural produce brought cargoes of corn and flour into to fetch its just proportional price; a certain northern port during the peget such additional value and price riod of the present fcarcity, and that may be much more advantageously there were fold immediately for counfought in the increase of produce, by try bank-notcs, issued for the purpose, the improvement of ground and fupe- at suficiently reduced prices, but the Tior cultivation. Taxes immediately articles themselves continued, in the imposed upon agricultuie may very town and neighbourhood, to fell by rereadily become injurious, as discoi- tail at the fame high price as before. Taging cultivation, and hence advan- Beside speculators, what are called midcing the prices of the necessaries of life. dle-men are very numerous at the preThus, I am very credibly informed, sent time, and certainly, not seldom, have that the late aflefled taxes, by in- raised the price of provision confideraducing the cultivators of (mall farms bly to the consumers. These, as saving to part with all the horses they could the time of others, and expert in their spare, had the effect of greatly dimi- respective bulinesses, may be of great nishing the produce of such farms; service; yet if it be possible, or if they for they could not afford afterwards be not duly observed by the public, to buy oats at the late high prices for they will seek to take unfair advantheir reduced number of horses, which tages : if too few in number, they can required to be much better fed than fix what price they pleafe upon the they were before. Haoce the proprie- commodities in which they deal; or tors were not able to 'till their ground if very numerous, they will rather live properly, and carry a due quantity of and thrive upon the public, than break, manure, such as limc, to it: this was or starve. a fact, at leaft in fome countries. Taxes “ The partial application of agriwill in general have the greatest in- culture for the benefit of the wealthy, fuence upon small farmers, and pre to the injury of the indigent part of the vent them in particular from laying community, has been announced as the out money in the spiriícd management feventh caute which impedes the adeof their land.

quate supply of physical sustenance, “ The too great prevalence of spe- and proper necessaries for the fupport çulation in regard to the necesaries of of the community. The growth of life, certainly may very materially pre- wheat and iye has for many years vent the adequate supply of physical greatly decreated in the kingdom; and sustenance, and proper necesaries of the confequent scarcity being auglife for the support of the community. mented by the increase of population It is capable of raising their prices to and greater consumption, occafioned a very extraordinary height throughout by the present war. The principal purthe nation at large: and has no doubt poses, on account of which agriculture considerably augmented the evil of the has been diverted from the cultivation present scarcity. The spirit of com of grain best adapted for human food, merce, to largery diffi:fed through the are those of fattening rock, and keepkingdom, is naturally disposed to give ing a greater number of horses.

Of a very extenlive and powerful effect to each of these it is proper here to take fpeculation in the necessaries of life; fome notice. and it is not fuprising that it should “Chiefly in order to supply the shama have laid its grap upon provision, as bles, the old triennial rotation of fallow, the means of making a fortune at the winter, and spring corn, has, in many present i-vior, or that it should con- countries, given way to a crop of tur. tinue to keep up the prefent high nips, and two of spring corn, or to a quaprices. The paper credit of the king- drennial course of turnips, barley, clo

ver, and wheat; in conséquence, the wheat and rye in the rotation of crops; quantity of wheat and rye cultivated and can readily obtain from the legisin this country is confiderably dimi- lature fuch regulations as would pree mished, and other agricultural produce vent the frequent abuse of arable lands. increased in proportion. Nay, in fome Upon tracts of inferior land, long enparts, in order to grow more. turnips, closed, but lying generally in unfavourthese and a fingle spring crop are con- able climates, the agricultural improvetinued in conftant alternation. Even ment of which has been neglected, but far fewer milch cattle are kept, and has been recommended at length under much less cheese and butter made, in the fifth of the preceding heads, a order to fatten a greater number of greater quantity of corn may certainly stock; nay, often fewer stock, in order be fown with more advantage than is to make these more completely fat. at present, yet they are more suitable The quantity of meadow land is greater in grats. The kind fuperintendence of in many countries than is necessary for government, pointing out the quantity the dairy, and its after-grass is em of corn necellary for the known popu. ployed to finih off rock that has been lation of the kingdom, may be very summer-grazed. This laft is indeed a instrumental in promoting a sufficient remnant of the old practice of fupply- growth of it. If these views fail, if ing the winter consumption with hung the proposed national improvement of meat, slaughtered in the end of au- agriculture be not adopted, and if tum. As perhaps both this mode, and money be not advanced for supplying that of fupplying the winter market the community with corn at sufficiently with fresh meat, are not requisite, more reduced prices, the due proportion of corn might be grown by abandoning arable land, and of rye and wheat to the practice here mentioned, should be grown thereon, must be fixed by this be neceffary.

law: for a fufficient quantity of corn “ The demand for animal food is must at any rate be produced for the very confiderable in this kingdom; an consumption of the lower orders. infinitely greater quantity of it is now “A large proportion of the agriconsumed by the community at large cultural produce of the kingdom is than was a few years ago. The in- confumed in the support of horses : crease of commercial wealth has ma hence there must be a considerably less terially contributed to augment its con- quantity of the necessaries of life for fumption, and yearly extends the de. the use of the human species. The mand for it; for even the price of it number of horses in the kingdom ad. bas greatly advanced of late years in the mits of a twofold division: first, such northern counties of England, in confe- as are bred upon farms, and employed quence of the fat stock fent into manu- in the farming business; and secondly, fa&uring districts farther south. The such as are used for the general purquantity of land in corn has lestened poses of the community, amongst upon another account; arable land is which are to be classed the horses kept in general unmercifully scourged, to use for pleasure. Those of the second the common term on this occalion, or class, and more especially pleasure ill-treated under corn, and at last laid to horses, are very numerous, and greatly grass in an exhausted condition: also encroach upon the food destined for when improved it is frequently con the support of the lower and middling verted into grass, and kept in this state orders. On this account it is a very imthat it may not be exposed again to portant object to reduce their numbers. such devaftations. Grass land also lets However, it is not fericusly intended to higher than corn land, and for both persuade gentlemen that mufcular exerreasons often is not permitted to be cise of the body is the most wholesome, converted into arable.

that the heroes of ancient times were “ There are means, which deserve agile in the race during the decline attention, for the removal, or rather of life, and that their own itables and the prevention of the evil, explained dog-kennels deprive the poor of valuunder the present head; and to which able means of fubfiftence; yet the exa. perions of landed property can give cessive number of horses kept for racing, proper effect. They may permit a fox-hunting, and pleasure in general, fufficiently extensive growth of corn is at the present time an intolerable in suitable countries; may peremp. 'evil. Horses employed, for carriages torily infift upon a due proportion of on the roads, and often for commercial


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purposes, it would feem, cannot be made under circumftances of depression difpenied with : though their number that must have appalled the strongeft might be much reduced by the fre- minds ! Pofterity will know how to apquency of inland navigation; and oxen, preciate the merits of those who, in the in some countries abroad, are princi- day of nerveless defpondence and papally used for the purpose of carri- ralysed horror, placed themselves in the ages.P. 110.

breach, with a fortitude unparalleled, and a magnanimity unrivalled, in the

annals of nations! Pofterity will exult XI. Strictures on the true Cause of the in the noble and impofing

attitude the present alarming Scarcity of Grain afsumed when the rest of Europe were and other Provisions; and a Plan for crouching at the feet of the monstrous

chimæra, and when the greatest potenpermanent Relief: humbly subniitted to public Consideration. By panic-struck by a bare look from her

tates that attempted to tame her were ALEXANDER ANNESLEY. With Corsican keeper ?' P. 2. an historical Deduction of the “ A wide distinction certainly exists Prices of Provisions. Interspersed in laying restraints on articles of prime with various Matters connected neceflity, or on commodities peculiarwith the Commerce and Naviga. ly denominated mercantile articles.tion of Great Britain. Together the other rather ministering to our

The one is essential to our existence, with a chronological Account of the several Statutes, Proclamations, wants; yet to meddle with either, in

luxury than fatisfying our natural aud Parliamentary Regulations, for a free commercial state, is, I confess, controlling the Markets, and pre- very dangerous. It cannot be denied, venting Monopoly, Engrofing, however, that the axiom fo generally &c. &c. from the Norman Con- adopted of every species of trade, whequeft to the present Æra. Svo. ther in articles of the first necefsity or PP. 79. 25. Murray and Highlig. thofe of luxury, finding their own level

, has been practically proved fallacious,

and less solid than we could possibly EXTRACTS.

conceive, from the splendid talents of

those who laid it down as an incontroMUCH has been imputed to the vertible poftulatum. However impolitic expensive war we are at prefent

or anti-commercial it may be to lay reengaged in, and to which our calami- straints on manufactures and trading tous diarths have by many been ascribe commodities, it will never be denied ed; but on a candid and impartial in that the articles essential to the exiftvestigation it will be found that the ence of every individual in the ftate war has rather been the pretext for, ought not, nay cannot, come within than the cause of, the present high price the general rule of finding their own of every article of fubfiftence. We level. The practice of our ancestors inmust not form our judgment of the validates the position, and our statutepolitical and fiscal circumstances of na

books bearindubitableteftimonyagainst tions by the rules of appreciating the the practicability of so erroneous ? occurrences of private life.

maxiin. with mathematical precision be demon

“ In this age of politeness, or, we ftrated, that our increased expenses may with more truth write, in this age have been the natural result of addi- of licentiousness, when no other scale tional rcfources pouring in upon us

of merit or virtue exists but the depth from every quarter; nay, I will under

or breadth of the purki, empty praise take to prove, that a large proportion has little efficacy, and applouse without of the lubfidies paid to our allies, as profit operates but coldis on the human well as of the immense contributionsour

mind! inveterate foes have levied on them,

Probitas laudatur, et alget. have found their way to our coffers ! — The only emulation now prevailing is, Britain ftands a polítical phenomenon not who shall confer molt benefit ona on the face of the globe! and posterity but who shall become the richest man will, in her history, contemplate with in his country! Those whole heads admiration the noble struggle the has and hearts would otherwise reflect ho


It may


hour on the kingdom, are unhappily “ A great deal has been said and tainted with fordid avarice, not to written on the utility of bounties on much arising from a depraved mind as the exportation of corn, which were a bending to the mania of the times originally granted in order to prevent and a childish predilection for the pof- loss to the agriculturist in a plentiful session of splendid trifles.

year. This was certainly a wise expe“ The existing abuses imperiously dient, and very properly resorted to call on the strong arm of government for the promotion of tillage. But it for aid and redress, and in an especial unfortunately has happened that this degree for rendering the conveyance of plan, like many other well-intended articles of the first necessity to the hands regulations, carried with it an evil unof the consumer less circuitous. The foreseen by the original promoters number of middle-men between the for no provision was made against seaagriculturist and the consumer should fons of scarcity, inasmuch as the superbe lessened, all contracts and sales of flux corn ought rather to have been grain and cattle, as well as other ar. reserved in public granaries, agreeably tieles of ttock, should be invalid, unless to the practice of other European na. made bona fide in the cpen market *, tions, and even our own ancestors. and the corn inspector's law should be “ By granting bounties on exportafully enforced, in case of any violation tion, without either limiting the quanof that statute. Private interests muft tity, or reserving in public granaries a not be permitted to stand in competi- fufficient store to check monopoly, and tion with the public welfare and appre- guard against scarcity, very serious hended evils ought never to impede mischief has ensued; it has held out a the redress of those already existing : bait for rapacity to catch at, and thrown but my plan does not extend to com- temptations in the way of the capitalist pulsory sales, or fixing a maximum on that were irresistible. And when this the articles of fubfiftence. My object description of men once tasted with is to recommend a system for procuring how much facility princely fortunes voluntary, regular, and speedy supplies, might be acquired, they foon became and to point out plans which may ulti- callous to other men's complaints; mately prevent the fending such im- propelled alone by sordid views, they mense sums out of the kingdom for the shut their eyes as well as cars against all purchase of foreign grain.

moral and religious precept, intrenching, “ The inefficacy of laws to compel themselves behind such barriers as legal farmers to bring their grain to market, artillery could never reach.-Thus the without making it their interest to do price of wheat was gradually enhanso, has been fully demonstrated; to ced, and what was originally intended resort to Ginilar measures, therefore, as an encouragement and reward for would be as injudicious as impracti- fuperior exertions in tillage, became in cable. But the evil docs not entirely fadt a very great and almost insupportarise from the farmer withholding sup- able burden on the people-tending plies. The mischief is only half re more to check the population of the moved when he has fairly and properly country than any other cause. brought his grain for sale; a great " Nor was this all the corn-mernumber of rapacious agents are per- chant, not the farmer, for whose fole mitted to lep in between the farmer benefit the measure was intended, beand the confuner, all of whom struggle came enriched in years of plenty by for profit, whereby the price is fo cor- his iminenfe exports, without any very Eckrably enhanced as to place bread material advantages resulting to the almoft entirely without the reach of cultivator of the soil, whose additional the poor! These leeches should be profit, arising from the bounty, was thook off. The state engine will work only fixpence per bushel; and in years with more freedom when its machinery of scarcity, the merchants, by importing becomes less complex.P. 12. foreign grain, acquired immense profits

*“We are well affured that there are a number of very opulent persons who have entered into contracts for the purchase of corn and cattle for a certain number of years; and, confequently, if a plentiful year ensues, the public can derive no benefit from such a hleffing, as the market is governed by thiefe gentlemen, who find means molt ihamefully to evade tlie law !” VOL.V.--No. XLIII.



at the expense of a famished multitude, deration ; for, without regular returns without a single benefit resulting to of the stock in hand and the sales, made agriculturists! Thus a body of men, in the usual-manner that other excised whom the legislature rather tolerated commodities are subjected to, abuses will than encouraged, stepped in between the prevail, and ultimately counteract the husbandman and the consumer, reaping best digested plans and most judicious advantages, intended to eonfer general, fyftems. And if any grain thould be not partial benefits : and thus avarice improperly hoarded by purchasers for converted the plenty of one year to selfish purposes, and withheld from the private emolument, instead of general consumer for a given time, then such relief, through an oversight in the le- purchaser should incur the penalties of gislature, who ought to have guarded engrossing, &c. against rapacity, by retaining a part of « It would be seen in a short space the surplus corn of a plentiful year, at of time whether the dearth is real or a low investment, to meet future exi. factitious. And if it should happen gencies. By neglecting such a provi- tliat wheat, by the adoption of this mealion, the liberality of the kegiature sure (of which there cannot remain a has only tended to promote the sordid doubt), hould be reduced to 6os. per views of monopolists, who have unhap- quarter, in that case I Mould humbly pily feized the opportunity of aggran- submit that government should become dizing themselves at the expense of the purchasers of at least two million quarpublic.P. 18.

ters of wheat, to be stored in public “ I thall, therefore, without further granaries or magazines, agrecably to circumlocution, proceed to state my the practice and custom of many Europlan for permanent relief, one part of pean states, in order to meet future which is, to pay a bounty of five fhil. exigencies. By such a step no loss lings per quarter on the first two mil would be likely to ensue to government lions of quarters of new wheat that ultimately; but if any did accrue, it the farmers shall bring to, and, bond would certainly bear no proportion to fide, dispose of, in open market, in their the mischief of expatriating such imrespective vicinity. And no grain or · mense sums, as we have been recently other species of provision should, on driven to, and which can in no way any account, be permitted to be sold, find their way back to this country: or any contract whatever relating to “ The natural wants of agriculturists, grain or other species of provisions be and the constant demand on them for deemed valid, but such as are made current cath, added to the operation with the utmol publicity in the open of the excise fyftem, will naturally market. And, to prevent monopoly, compel them to send their remaining it would be advisable to subject all stock to market. But if government grain (if not viher provisions) to the should, in the outset, be losers, by operation of the excise laws! However purchasing at a higher price than grain unpopular such a proposition may be, can be purchased for in fucceeding yti, when we reflect on the immense years, the public would in fact receive advantages likely to emanate from the an ample compensation by fuch fubfemeafure, i feel no difñculty in submit- quent reduction in the price of grain.” ting the proposal to legislative confi- P. 22.




THE young Painter's Maulstick: be-

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for Delineation on Planes: treated
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correctly eary of Attainment, even

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