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VOL. II,

the Orientals. - VIII. The Bofpho- fituated in a happy climate. The rus and its Environs-Buyuk-déré. Greeks, who inhabit them, remote IX. Error in the Charts of the from the tyrants who oppress their Black Sea--Environs of Belgrade. — country, have preferved their gaiety, X. Princes’ INands—Their Produc- their activity, and their love of inde tious.-X1. Enter a Harem--Poly. their privileges, show themselves the

pendence: those of Scio, protected by gamy—lıfluence of Women.-XII. most active; the most industrious, and The Georgian and Circassian Women the most honest of all.

--Market of female Slaves.-XII. The isand of Crete, fo wretched, Review of a Turkilh Army-Origin fo poot at this day, is interefting frois of the Revolt of Paswan Oglou.- its productions, from its advantageous XIV. Position and Temperature of position, from the remembrance of its Constantinople--Use of the Tan- ancient inhabitants, and from the Sphadour, &c.---Fires. --XV. Of the chiots, who, on the top of their mounPlague.-XVI. The Ulemas—Tri. tains, brave the arrogance of the Turks,

and mock all their efforts. bunals of Justice.--XVII. The

“ Egypt gave me the idea of an exPachas, Waiwodes, and Mutselims, treme fecundity, by means of a con &c.—-Janizaries, Spahis, and other tinued labour, and a wife and intellimilitary Men.-XVIII. The Grand gent diftribution of the waters of the Vizier-The Divan of the Porte.- Nile. Egypt; situated between Afia X?X. Export Tradı--Alimentary and Africa, between the seas of Europe Substances.--XX. The Droguemans and those of India, appeared to one and Barataires ---French Workmen of the greatest men of antiquity, and tettled in the Levant.

to him, among us, who shows himself still greater, worthy to be the central

point of commerce of all nations. The Chap. I. Departure from Constan- river which gives life to this burning tinople----Ghemlek--Propontis-- region, as regular in its increase, as Galipoli ----Lampfacus---Arrival at the course of the stars and the more. the Dardanelles.--11. The Hellefpont,

ment of the universe, is well calculated and the Towns on its Shores. -111. to astonish even those who know how Excursion to Troas.-IV. Alexan- and who are familiarized to her phe

to observe the progress of Nature, dria, Troas, and its Environs-Te

nomnena. nedos.-l. Leibos –VI. Scio.-

“ Following the example of all traVII. Tchesmé, Tino, Andros, My- vellers, we did not quit Egypt without çoni, Delos, Naxia, Paros, and An- paying to the pyramids our tribute of tiparos.----VIII. Nio-Sikinos and admiration, without descending into Ph:olegandros---Cimolis, a volcanic those vast catacombs which the hand Illand-Cimolian Earth.-IX. Milo

of man has not feared to profane. Catacombs.--X. Return to Cimo

“ Syria, extremely diversified in its lis--Santorin.-X. Candia--Retino

productions, in its climate, and its

foil; Syria, burning on the sea-shore, --Cane ---Earthquake.----XII. Of temperate on the declivity of the the Nations which have succeeded mountains, cool on their fummit, is each other in Crete Historical Sum- beyond those mountains no more than mary resetting Lambro Canziani. a steril, uninhabited country. The har. XI11. Extent audi Population of Crete. bours of Tyre and of Sidon muft re-XIV. Agriculture in Crete-Cha- call to our mind the activity and inracter of the Turks----- Precautions dufry of the nations which made them against the Plague-Export and im- the emporium of an extensive com

merce ; and Alexandretta would, perport Trade of the Island.

haps, have answered the views of the

conqueror by whom it was founded, EXTRACTS FROM THE INTRODUC

had not the most unwholefome air in

the world been a constant obstacle to * THE isands of the Archipelago. it. Why must that interesting region appeared to me dry, parched, and be oppressed by the Turks, partly gomountainous, although productive, and verned by the most wicked man on

eath,

TION.

carth *, and be, besides, exposed to govern it. The cities the most flouthose dicadful scourges, earthquakes ? rishing under the reign of the Sophis, We beheld the deplorable effects of prefent every where nothing but ruins : that which was felt at Latakia during three fourths of the inhabitants lave our stay in Persia.

perished, or fled to the more trarquil “ If the upper part of Mesopotamia and fertile regions of Indoftan. A stay is extremely fertile and temperate, of several months at the court, for the the other is arid and burning. The accomplishment of a mission of the banks of the Euphrates and of the highest importance, furnished me with Tigris, formerly so peopled, are almost an opportunity of observing the great, entirely desert, or are no longer at this of studying the common people, and day frequented but by those tribes of of collecting interesting materials for Arab shepherds, whose manners in- the history of the intestine wars which terest us, and whose patriarchal cur- have desolated that empire fince the torns and laws merit for fome moments death of Nadir Shah. all the attention of the philosopher. “ From Kormancha to Casbin, from We shall not confound them with those Terehan to lipahan, and from that wandering hordes, not very numerous, city to Amadan, Perlia offered to me incessantly in a state of war, and ever only an elevated country, thickly coready to carry off flocks and plunder vered with high mountains destitute of travellers.

wood, and intersected by vast plains, “ Babylonia, whose soil is level, whose the greater part uncultivated. All this lands are deep, must have been a gra- space is cold in winter, but extremely nary of abundance, when inhabited by hot in summer: it is, in general, very a civilized, industrious, and agricul. dry, and far froin fertile. Productions tural people: it is not surprising that are there obtained only by means of astronomy should have taken birth in water, and it is by dint of labour alone this country, where the eternal clear.. that the inhabitants have succeeded in ness of a very pure sky was incessantly procuring springs fufficiently copious inviting man to contemplate the stars for all domestic wants, and for the irriand to follow their movements. At gation of the lands. present the exceflive heat of the sun, « On our return, a terrible war, increased by the abandonment and unexampled in the history of nations, nakedness of almost all the lands, permitted us not to embark in Syria; obliges man, in summer, to pass the and, notwithstanding the ardent willi day in subterraneous caves, and the of revisiting our country, notwithnight in the fields or on the roof of standing the infirmitics of Bruguière the houses. A wind which occasions my colleague, and his well-founded asphyxy, and which we shall distinguish aversion to travelling on horfeback, we from the burning wind of Africa, is were under the necessity of returning fometimes felt in thcfe countries, while by land to Constantinople. We reclouds of locusts frequently ravage the paired to Cyprus in the most dangerous crops; and yet the stupid and religned season of the year. We crotied that Muflulman never makes the smallest island, the wonders of which the effort to guard againt them.

Greeks have juftly extolled, and of “ In crosling the mountains occu which the Turks have made a place of pied by the Curds, I shall have occa infection and mortality. We quitted fion to make known that warlike, pas. it as quickly as pollible, and landed in toral, and agricultural people, who Caramania. fo greatly resemble the Modes their « Aha Minor unites the productions ancestors. To me they appeared the of the coldeft countries to thoie of the fame, whether I observed them in molt temperate. Hot on the borders countries seemingly subject to the and in the environs of the fea, cold in Ottoman dominion, or saw them ex- the interior, elevated and adorned with posed to the troubles and agitations wooded mountains, extensive plains, which desolate their neighbours. fertile and well watered, Asia Minor

“ For upwards of fixty years a fuc- is, perhaps, the country on earth the ceffion of ambitious men have uninter- most beautiful, the moft diversified, ruptedly devaitated Persia, in order to and the most capable of supporting a

* “ Dgezzar Pacha.”.
4 E 2

grcat

great population. No country has well as to the men of bufiness who coasts more winding, and harbours watch over his intereft, apprize him more numerous, more safe, and more of all the changes which happen, and spacious.

of all the dangers by which he is “ On our arrival at Conftantinople, threatened. we requested a passport from the agent “ Almost all the revenues of the of the European power which covered royal treasury are consumed in Cone the sea with its ships: it was refused ftantinople, because there it is that the to us. This refusal procured us the national establishments are ; and that, advantage of seeing Attica, the Isthmus in the provinces, there neither are of Corinth, the Gulf of Lepanto, and armies, navy, arsenals, nor fortrefies the islands of Ithaca, Cephalonia, and kept up at the expense of the Grand Corfu; but it was, perhaps, the cause Signior. The governors, pachas, mnt. of the death of my colleague. At selims or waiwodes, very far from de Ancona, Bruguière funk under a dif- riving emoluments from the Porte, order occafioned by the fatigues of a pour, on the contrary, annually into long journey, and the sudden grief of the treasury a sum more or less conhaving loft a brother in the very fiderable, according to the extent and country where we had juft landed." the nature of their government. The P. xvii.

molhas, the cadis, distribute juftice for “ Although deprived of my coade a duty of ten per cent. and various jutor for the particular publication of escheats. The janizaries and other solthe articles of natural history inedited diers receive a very moderate daily or little known, I shall not the less un- pay, taken from the revenues of the remittingly employ myself about them province: they equip themselves at as soon as the historical part shall be in their own expense, and join their coa state of greater forwardness, and a lours in time of war, without the general peace shall again promote, Grand Signior remitting the smallest among us, a brisker sale of works of sum of money for that purpose. The literature.' P. xxii.

officers or agas have patrimonies for life, by means of which they are bound,

on the first summons, to repair to the EXTRACTS.

army, and to take with them, and at

their cost, a certain number of soldiers. CONSTANTINOPLE-MEANS OF EX « All the establishments relating to ISTENCE OF THE INHABITANTS.

the navy are at Conftantinople. Ships “ IF we cast our eyes on the im- of war are not repaired, equipped, and mense population of Constantinople, manned in any other port. It is there we shall, perhaps, be aftonished to see that thips are chiefly built. True it is that almost all the inhabitants of that that, at this moment, there are dock. great city derive their means of ex- yards at Sinope, at the head of the istence from the Grand Signior, from Gulf of Mundania, in the Dardanelles, the great employments of the govern- at Mitylene, and at Rhodes, because ment, from hiring themfelves as ser-, those countries are within reach cf the vants, or from fome private industry; timber for ship-building; but the sum that a great part of the money of the of money which issues from ibe capiempire is swallowed up in the capital tal, for this object, is by no means by means of impofts, custom-house considerable, and is but a temporary duties, and the right of succeflion remittance; besides, the pachas most which the fovereign preserves over all frequently provide for thele expenses. his agents; by the confiscations in « The fortresses are kept up by the which he indulges, by the sale of all pachas on whose territories they are employments, of all places and all dig- situated; accordingly, they are almost nities, military, administrative, judi. all in bad condition: the greater part cial, and religious; by the great re of them even are falling into ruins. venues enjoyed by the mosques and The Grand Signior, in this refpeâ, is the principal officers of the crown; easily, deceived, because he receives lastly, by the voluntary or forced pre- annually an account of expenfes by sents which every man in place annually which he is imposed on: and if the makes to those who protect him with suspicion of infidelity or complaints the Porte, support and defend him, as induced him to send any one to the

spot

DERVISES.

fpot to verify the facts, a fum of money no other profession than that of lendgiven by the pacha would almost always ing, at an exorbitant interest, to the be sufficient for obtaining a favourable ambitious who could not obtain places report; but were the latter displaced, without this means; to the extortioners or even were his head cut off, the luc- who wish to cause their crimes to be cessor would not, on that account, put forgotten and to maintain themselves in the fortress into better condition; he their places, to those whom a powerful would at first make a few unimportant enemy would wish to destroy, and to repairs, and would interrupt them as those, in short, who want, by a great soon as he had taken the means fit for and speedy facrifice, to redeem their ensuring his impunity.

head threatened by the sword of the “ All the coin of Turkey, if we law or by the will of the Sultan.”. except Cairo, is ftruck at Constantino. Vol. i. p. 25. ple, and yields for the moment a confiderable revenue to the Grand Signior; CEREMONIES OF THE HOWLING because he has adulterated it to such a degree that it has not half of the value “THE ceremony began by some prayof that of the sultans his predecessors, .ers, during which all the friarsgave each and because he has caused it to be cire other the kiss of peace or fraternity. culated for a value equal to that which The novices, or those who appeared it had before. Foreign coin has, in- to of an inferior rank, fimply killed deed, greatly increased; but it is not the hand of the superior and of the yet at the price at which it ought to chiefs of the order, with the greatest arrive, because the balance of trade is respect. The latter were placed towards to the advantage of this empire. This the wall, on a line a little curved; behi-1 is not the case with India, as I Thall them were suspended various iron insay in another place, where Turkey struments, fit for piercing the different has scarcely any thing to furnish, None parts of the body, and taking hold of but old coin is received there, and that burning coals, in order to put them of Venice, Hungary, and Spain, iş still into the mouth or on the tongue; some preferred, as most pure.”. Vol.i. p. 21. were intended to be made red hot in

“ The richest private individuals of the fire, and to be afterwards applied, the empire do not come bither to spend as we were told, to different parts of their income in effeminacy and idle the body. Facing these chiefs, towards ness, or disipate their fortunes in the the middle of the hall, the derviles hazards of play, in the pleasures of were placed, on a curved line, in a love, or in the luxury of the table. humble posture, kneeling, sitting or The agas or lords remain on their their heels, according to the oriental estates, in order to preserve them, de custom. After a few minutes spent in fend them, and make the most of them. prayer, to these last was given a great The pachas cannot quit their govern- tabour, in the inside of which were one, ment without an order of the fove- two, or three strings, fimilar to our reign. The molhas and the cadis ex- thick violin or.bass strings. Onc alone ercise justice in the towns whither they of thesetabours had five or fix little copa have received orders to repair: both per wires. In front of these musicians the one and the other come to intrigue was placed a brasier, for the purpofa at Conftantinople only when they are of heating the instruments from time displaced.

to time, and giving to the skin the 56 Most frequently they avoid even suitable tenhon. The fuperior beat the too severe looks of the govern- time, and regulated the movement of ment: they have established agents, the instruments with cymbals ; two men of business who intrigue for them, others struck on twolittle kettie-drums. who exculpate them with money, who This music accompanied canticles in level difficulties with money, and honour of Mahoinet, which all the who procure them advancement with friars sang in unison. money. Here all dignities are fold to “ During this monotonous and tirethe highest bidder; all employments some conc rt, we were from time to are put up to auction; no lucrative time electrified by the fight of the friar place is obtained without a present who came and prefented himself to the more or less considerable.

superior, as if struck by the omnipo“ There is a class of men who have tence of the Divinity: he fell by de

greca

grees into convulsions: his body then and they appeared as if resuscitated grew stiff, and appeared in the fate of and cured of their wounds. They one dead. He funk into the arms of went and resumed their place and their the friars in waiting, who tried to re tabour. store him to life by touching his face, “ We were told that sometimes the his dress, and principally his arms and ceremony is more diversified, that these thighs. With some, this was a simple fanatics put burning coals into their ecfiafy: the return to life was effected mouth, and that they apply their in a flow and gradual manner; with tongue to hot iron : we easily believed others, the state of death appeared it, on seeing fufpended againft the complete. The friars in waiting ex wall the inftruments fit for executing tended them on the floor, and made similar fooleries. the greatest efforts to restore them to “ When this music ceased, almost life. Independently of touching them all the dervisęs placed themselves in a repeatedly, they spoke to them several circle, and pronounced the word Allab times in their ear; and, when all com- (God), at the fame time following the mon means were exhausted, the chief tone at first now, then quick, which approached in order to exercise his om was given by two of them, who had nipotence. He spread his hand over placed themselves in the middle, and the face of the dead person, who sud- who were, during this time, finging denly came to himself, and got up with canticles in honour of Mahomet and the greatest nimbleness, aliiited by a hís descendants. The former shook dervise in waiting. This fight, pre- their heads, sometimes forward, some sented all the time that the ceremony times fideways or circularly, with more lafted, became more frequent towards or less rapidity, according to the song. the end, during the howlings of thefe At other times they toffed about their fanatics.

body, fometimes to the right, fome“ For half an hour the music had times to the left, and sometimes backfatigued our ears, and the convulsiona- ward and forward, till they had exries had afflicted our hearts, when two haufted themselves with fatigue, and men, naked to the waist, came to oc were quite bathed with sweat. They eupy the scene for seven or eight mi- took breath for a moment, and then nutes. They were each armed with began again, constantly pronouncing two irons, upwards of a foot long, the word Allah, or only venting a cry pointed at one of the extremities, and similar to that of beh or bei, which terminated at the other by a wooden appeared to issue from the bottom of ball covered all round with little chains, the stomach. The short intervals the last link of which was in the form which occurred between these howlof a very sharp nail. These men made ings, were filled by the finging of the different movements backward and two friars, who, as we have faid, were forward with force and celerity, and scated in the middle of these howlers. appeared to thrust the points of thefe We remarked that there was among two irons into their belly ; but they the chiefs more reserve, more calmness, took care every time to put their less difpofition, to fanaticism; those thumb on the points. However, the among them who from time to time quickness of the motions, directed mixed with the howlers, spared their sometimes on one side, and sometimes lungs, and did not fatigue their body." on the other, the noise and the play of Vol. i. p. 52. the little chains-every thing prevented their cunning from being distinctly perceived. These two men at length

CUSTOM OF THE ORIENTALS. pretended to thrust the instruments into “ THE Orientals, more simple than their ears, their forehead, and theireyes; ourselves in their household furniture, · but then their precaution appeared are not acquainted with the luxury of

greater, their motion was not fo quick, beds. They have in their house a cer and a dervise suddenly wrapped thein tain number of very light mattresses, of up in a cloak; he laid them on the wool or cotton, which they spread on floor, where they remained for some the floor or on the sofas at bed-time, minutes like dead persons. They then and on which they pass the nigłt. got up again, at the same time rubbing The women take off their trinkets, their face and body with their hands, and lay afide their finery; the men

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