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men.

USE OF THE TANDOUR AND OP

PELISSES-FIRES.

trip themselves of their habit of cere- scarcely acquainted with the use of mony, change their turban, and lie: linen, who keep on their garments down in their clothes, as well as the during the night, and do not take them women. They cover themselves with off in general till they are worn out, quilted coverlids, to which the rich feas, bugs, and all the vermin which add a cotton sheet, which they com adhere to the dirty and negligent man, monly do not change till it is very must be extremely numerous ; this too dirty, or almost worn out.

was what made us suffer most in the "The next morning these mattresses course of our travels, because it was and coverlids are taken away; they are impoffible for us to secure ourselves shut up in closets, and the bedcham- against thote infects when we were ber again becomes the drawing-room obliged to lie down in a place which and eating parlour. Among the poor was infested by them. Greeks, Armenians, and Jews, the “ It was not enough for the feas whole family almost always seep in the and bugs to prevent us from sleeping ; same room; but, among the Muflul we were, besides, lighted by a lamp mans, the apartment of the men is which was burning before the image of always separate from that of the wo the Virgin, as is the practice night and

day in all the Greek houses of the “ As the use of chairs and tables Levant. We durft not extinguish it: is equally unknown to the Orientals, we should have afflicted too much the sofas are the principal and almost the worthy priest at whose house we had only articles of furniture of their apart. ftopped, and who had received us with ments: these are generally put on three the greatest politeness.” Vol. i. p. 646 fides of the room, on that of the windows and on two of the other fides : they are immediately placed on the floor, or raised a few inches, half a “ If we except the palaces of the foot and even a foot, by means of a ambassadors and a few merchants' little eminence formed of some planks. houses, the inhabitants of ConstantiThey are covered with beautiful print- nople have no chimnies in the aparted calicoes, stuffs of filk, velvet, or ments which they occupy: they warm cloth, and ornamented with cotton, filk, themselves by means of a brasier in filver, or gold fringe. There are large copper or baked earth, called mangal, cushions for the back, throughout the which they place within reach of their length of the sofa, trimmed with fringe fofas: but in the houses of some Mufand covered with the same stuffs. Car. sulmans, and in almost all thofe of the pets and mats are placed in the middle Greeks and Armenians, this brasier is

There remains a part of placed under a round or square table, the floor, opposite to the entrance covered with several carpets, one of door, which is lower by five or fix which, wadded and quilted, in printed inches, and which serves as a passage calico, hangs down to the floor in every for going to the lateral chambers. direction, and retains the heat under

“ The sofa serves as a seat during the the table: in this case a little charcoal day, and as a bed during the night: is put into the brafer, and it is cover. there it is that the Orientals pass the ed with ashes, in order to temper the day, squatted, with their legs crossed, heat. A stuffed bench, placed all and that, at night, they place their round, allows several persons to fit mattresses for sleeping. Frequently, in down, to stretch out their legs towards order not to wear the sofa too much, the mangal, and to receive the heat up they remain on the carpet or on the to their middle. This table, called mat, and, at night, for want of other tandour, appears to have a Greek orimattresses, they sleep on the fofa, after gin, if we consider that its use is more having taken off the cover by which it common among the Greeksthan among is ornamented.

the Turks, and that it is no longer to “ It may be conceived that this be found in the interior of Asia Minor, manner of living on the floor, on car where the colds are more sharp and pets or mats which cannot be fwept, more piercing than at Conftantinople. . and which are neglected to be beaten “ Whenever it is a little cold, tlo or Maken, in wooden houses, in a hot women feldom quit their tandour, there dimate, among a people who are it is that they paistheir day, that they

work,

of the room.

work, that they receive their female dressed in the ferge of Angora, lined friends, that they cause their meals to with petit gris, or gray squirrel skin. be ferved up. In the evening, it is on If the inhabitant of the country-places the tandour that they play at cards cannot procure a fine and foreign skin, at chess, or at draughts. It is round he at least uses those which fall in his the tandour that they assemble to carry way: the hare, the jackal, the lamb, the on converlation,communicate the news fncep, all are acceptable to him; he to each other, listen to some tragical secures himself from the cold, and be itory, fome tale of a ghoft, or the imitates the inhabitants of the cities. prowess of some pacha in rebellion “ The women have likewife furs of against the Porte.

all seasons: the black fox, the fable for “ The Europeans willingly habituate winter, the gray squirrel for autumn themselves to this custom, because it and spring, the ermine for fummer: brings the two fexes together, and be the greater part have in their closets caule the strict eye of a mother, or the ten or twelve furred gowns, the deareft jealous looks of a husband, cannot re of which sometimes exceeds fifteen or mark the signs of intelligence nor pre- twenty thousand livres. vent the expreflive touches which the “ It is not furprising that fires should tandour favours. If ever the use of be frequent in Constantinople, when chinnies could be introduced at Con- there is continually fire, during the ftantinople, we are persuaded that the winter, on wood-floors, within reach Greek women would oppose it with all of sofas, mats, and carpets. The their might; and certainly they would smallest negligence, children playing, find in their perfuafive eloquenice, good or a few iparks to which no attention reasons in favour of the gentie, mode. has been paid, frequently set on fire sate, and more economical heat in the those combustible substances; and tandour.

should a person then happen to be “ In a city where the houses are of asleep or abfent from his house, the fire wood and ill built, where the windows communicates by degrees from the are numerous and badly fhut, where furniture to the floor; if it be long the wind and exterior air come into before it is perceived, it foon breaks every room, not only through the doors out with violence, spreads with rapi. and windows, but through the walls dity, gains the neighbouring houses, and partitions, neither the mangal nor and sometimes even consumes a confia the tandour could fufficiently secure derable portion of the city. From the the inhabitants from the cold: they palace of the ambassador and from the require to be warmly clothed: Ruffia elevated places of Pera, we were, more and Poland afforded them the warıneft than once, witnesses of the violence of clothing that man can wear, and the fire, of the quickness with which it ctinom of furs was adopted by the in- {pread, and of the terrible effect which habitants of the capital, whence it it produced. fpread in a moment over the moft dif “ This right, beautiful and awful as tant provinces. The peliffe is become it is, ftrikes with horror the man of ever; where the aliment of luxury, the feeling who wishes to contemplate it, indication of opulence, the reward of because it presents the image of unfor. fırvices, a prilling want to all. In tunate beings, who, in those frightful countries where the cold is never felt, moments, are struggling with death ; as in Egypt and Arabia, as well as in of those who, seized with terror, are the moft nuthern cities of Turkey, endeavouring to escape with their vafuen as Cortantinople, Adrianople, luable effects; of those, in short, who and Belgrade, this custom is general, are striving, in the midft of the flames, not only among rich persons and thote to carry off children or old men that who enjoy a moderate fortune, but are dear to them. likewise among the indigent.

“ When a fire breaks out, whether “ The rich man wars at the same by day or by night, all the inhabitants time two or three furs during the win- of the city are foon warned to have an ter; he changes them in all seasons, eye to their own safety, or to give affitt. and, during the summer, he is still feen ance to the untortunate persons con*

* “ Cards are known only to the Greeks and Armenians who frequent the Europeans."

cerning

cerning whom they take an interest. may likewise hold good in other capiThe guard of every quarter parades tals, but surely it is no where lo strikthe Atreets, trailing on the pavement ing as here. This is partly because by sticks thod with iron, and crying from far the greater portion of the foreigners time to time in a melancholy and belong to the politer classes, and there. mournful voice: There's a fire!' fore in them are very conspicuous; Two enormous drums, placed the one partly too because no where are so on a lofty tower about the middle of many languages in use, and because Conftantinople, and the other on that the foreigners speak their own among of Galata, likewise apprize the inha- themselves and with the Ruffians. The bitants of a fire having broken out. foreigners fettled at London, Paris, In these circumstances, it is the duty Rome, &c. being only of the lower of the commander of the janizaries to orders of people, absolutely cannot run immediately with a numerous subsist without knowing the language guard to the place where the fire has of the country, and accommodating been discovered: the Grand Visir muft themselves to the prevailing manners also repair thither in person, and if the and customs. Hence it arises, that fire be not extinguished immediately, their number, even where it is very the Sultan never fails to come, and to great, is not only not Itriking, but cause money to be distributed in order remains entirely unobserved. Here the to excite the pumpers, the porters, the case is exactly the reverse. A German, guard, and the passengers, to work with for example, who arrives here as a ardour. But when the fire has made foreigner, can live at a German hotel, some progress, and especially when it fupply himself with necessaries from is rendered more active by the wind, German tradesmen, hire German ferno hope can be entertained of extin- vants, read German newspapers and guishing it but by endeavouring to cir- other periodical publications, frequent cumscribe it: in order to effect this, German churches, send his children to the nearest houses which are still un German schools, contract German actouched are demolished as quickly as quaintances of all ranks and conditions poffible: the materials are removed up to the very throne, and partake in before the fire has reached them, and all the enjoyments of society, without those which cannot be taken away are understanding the language of the laid under water.

country. He may all his life long carry “ The damages occasioned by fire on business or exercise his profession, are foon repaired : a few days after the keep house, nay, even hold public confiagration, are seen on all sides offices and be'employed in the weighty houses rifing similar to those which the affairs of government, without speakfire has consumed: the imperfections ing any other than his mother tongue. presented by narrow streets, ill laid All this is so unexampled, that it forms out, are exactly preserved; nor is any a peculiar feature in the general chachange made in the order and distribu- racteristic of Petersburg." P. 360. tion of the apartments. · The Mufful “ Among the foreigners, the Ger. man comes thither to resume, if he mans are the most obfervable, not less can, his former occupations, and live from their great numbers, which would there, as before, without regret and do honour to the population of a conwithout forelight.” Vol. i. p. 149. fiderable town, than by the connexion (To be concluded in our next.) in which they live with the Ruilians,

and the influence they have upon them.

Here are Germans of all clailte, and CII. Siorch's Picture of Petersburg. in each of them, the mercantile ex(Concluded from p. 550.)

cepted, they far exceed the other foreigners. As they are more attached to

the nation than the latter, and acquire FOREIGNERS

the language frequently in great perfection, they, of all the establitech

foreign inhabitants, have the greateft “THE foreigners living in St. Pe pretenfions to civil offices and military

tersburg compofe about a seventh stations. In fact, there is scarcely a part of the whole population. It is fingle department of importance in Yery possible that the same proportion which there are not Gerinans filling Vol. V.-No. LIII.

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fome

AT PETERSBURGCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE GERMANS.

some very confiderable and honourable earth, are distinguished, the Germans pofts: a proof of their utility, which alone seem totally deftitute. No other is the less ambiguous, as they have people affimilate fo readily and easily likewise here the ill hap, which pursues with foreign manners, no other people the Germans through almost all the so soon forget their native country as European countries that of not en the Germans. The Englishman lives joying any national respect. Whether at Naples, Lisbon, and Petersburg, as it be from the want of a fplendid out an Englishman; he confiders his tem, fide, or from a trifling propensity to porary sojourn, even though it were a formality and pedantry, or from any paradise, only as a place of exile, and other cause, it is fir.gular enough, that profits by the smiles of fortune there the German, in spite of his acknow- to enable him to return with the first ledged good qualities, is, in all parts opportunity to his beloved country. of Europe, in Paris as well as in Lon. The Germans, in foreign parts, partidon, in Rome as well as in Petersburg, cularly if they meet with success, in a not only as a German held in no parti- few years forget even the recollection cular respect, unless he has been able of their natal soil, whatever their poets to extort it by personal confideration may fing and say. I have known perand merit, but even is an object of fons who had come hither from the Night ridicule to the great body of the finest and happiest districts of Germany public. This, naturally with some ex- at the age of discretion, and have heard ceptions, is also the case here; and mę speak with rapture of the advanthe Russian term Niemetz perfectly tages of their country, without once corresponds to the English appellative expressing a defire to return to it. German and the French Allemand. Several substantial and independent

“ The principal causes of this phe. Germans, whom I interrogated on the nomenon, so offensive to our national subject, gave me to understand, with honour, seem here to be the following. the coldest insensibility, that they felt But few of the Germans that come perfectly at their ease wherever-roasthither are in such circumstances as meat and punch were to be had. But either not to need an address to the with extremely few of them can this purses of the public in some usual or sentiment spring from gratitude tounusual way, or immediately to make wards the country to which they are application for being engaged as atutor, indebted for their affluence; as such a trade, which on a variety of accounts remarkably fine feelings fall not to the is here looked upon with particular portion of the great bulk of mankind. disdain. The newspapers are filled “ There being no predominant fea. with the advertisements of such people ture at St. Petersburg, no national tum as are here upon their good behaviour, of mind, the Germans are naturally or perhaps have been driven to Peterf- here far less Russians, than they are burg by misfortunes of various kinds, Frenchmen at Paris or Englishmen at as the last harbour of adventurers. London; yet they assimilate with the There are often found among them Russians more than any other foreigners persons of talents and cultivation, and residing here. The German lady of they scarcely ever fail by alliduity of fashion talks Russ preferably to Gergetting into a comfortable fituation; man; there are Germans who are but, as the daily new-comers revive the ashamed of that appellation, as dreadforgotten image of their former condi- ing to be reckoned among a people tion, and the refidence being almost against whom a prejudice obtains.": the only channel of communication by P. 563. which these foreign fettlers overflow all Ruflia, it is natural that the Germans dould here be held in less ac

SIGNAL INSTANCE OF GERMAN count than in any other parts of the

HONESTY. empire.

“ IN the little town of Oranienbaum « I pass over several other causes lives a woman, bordering on ninety, in order juft to touch upon the last and by name Christophorevna, a native of most efficient, the want of self-confe- Holstein. A little cottage is her fote quence and national pride. Of these two poffeffion, and the visits of a few shipqualities, by which all, even the masters coming over from Cronstadt to wretchedest tribes on the face of the go to Petersburg by land, when the

wind does not serve for failing up, her vinced that honesty is not fo rare as only livelihood.

you imagined,' said she, putting the “ Several Dutch skippers having one bag upon the table. evening supped at her house, on their “ The guests were dumb with aftodeparture she found a sealed bag of nishment; and, on recollecting themmoney under the table. Her surprise selves, the reader may represent to at this unexpected discovery was natu

himself their several expressions of comrally very great; fome one of the com- mendation and gratitude. The four pany just gone must certainly have captains were all rather stricken in forgotten it: but they were failed over years, and had navigated the feas from to Cronstadt and perhaps at sea, the Japan to Newfoundland, and from the wind being fair, and therefore no hope Cape of Good Hope to Archangel ; of the guests returning. The good had had dealings with black and brown woman put up the bag in her cupboard, faces, with woolly-haired and powderto keep it till called for. However, ed heads—therefore that their amazenobody called for it. Full seven years ment was so great, is certainly no did she carefully keep this deposit, often panegyric on our times. tempted by opportunities, still oftener “ Never were such strong emotions pressed by want, to employ this gift of excited in any human mind, as in that chance. 'Her honesty, however, over- of the Dutchman. From the firmeft came every allurement of opportunity persuasion of his loss to the completest and every command of want. . Seven certainty of its recovery-the transition years had elapsed when some shipmaf- was too sudden and too great not to ters again stopped at her house, to take set every fibre of his phlegmatic body what refreshment they could find. in vibration. One look at the honeft Three of them were Englishmen, the woman to whom he was indebted for fourth a Dutchman. Conversing of this transport of joy, brought him tà various matters, one of the former ask himself. A sudden impulse of magnaed the Dutchman whether he had ever nimity overpowered him, to which all before been at Oranienbaum. Yes, other sensations reverently gave way.. ' sure I have,' returned he; • I know He seized the bag, tore open the seal,

the cursed place but too well: my took-one ruble out, and laid it on the ! being here once cost me feven hundred table, with a civil thanksgiving for the rubles.'— How fo ? —Why, in one trouble his hostess had had. of these wretched hovels here I once “ If the astonishment of the other got rather tipfy, and left behind me a three was great before, it was now .bag of rubles.'—- Was the bag feal. effaced by a greater. They stood "ed?' asked old Christophorevna, who looking at one another for a minute, was fitting in one corner of the room,

as silent as the grave. and had been roused to attention by 66 6 Dammee, at last exclaimed one what she had heard.— Yes, yes, it of the Englishmen, striking his fist upon

was sealed, and with this very seal the table; that bag there, my lad, • here at my watch-chain.' The wo you shall not carry off fo. Devil man looked at the seal, and knew it 'fetch me, but the old woman shall directly. Well, then,' said she, by " have it!'_His two countrymen, who that you may be able to recover what had been mute till now, added their you loft.'—-Recover it, mother! no; hearty concurrence to his proposal. 'I am rather too old to expect that. The Dutchman turned pale, but en. The world is not quite so honest as deavoured to console himself by the " that comes to. Besides, consider it reiterated protestations of Christopho• is now seven years since. I wish I revna that the required nothing at all,

had not mentioned it; it always that she thought she had done no more • makes me melancholy. Let us have than her duty, and inlifted that the . no more of it. Give me another Dutchman should even take back his • tumbler of punch, mother.'

ruble. However, the Britons could not “ While the four gentlemen were so easily be brought to strike fail. The engaged in drowning the remembrance conversation grew warm; the oaths of the doleful accident in punch, the followed rapidly on each other, and good woman had flipt out, and the fifts of the Englishmen were douwas now waddling in with her bag bling fpontaneously, and attitudes form. * See here, perhaps you may be con- ing for putting an end to the dispute

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