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via fa&ti: during all which the Dutch- One confequence of this temper is the man was striving to get the corpus de- disposition to liberality, which deserves li&ti into his custody.

to be mentioned as a very general fea« After long debate, conducted with ture in their character. This difpofivarious degrees of heat, perceiving no tion is eminently peculiar to the Rurpoflibility of success against the fturdy fans, among whom it is also nourished arguments likely to be advanced, the by the maxims of religion, by educafkipper agreed to part with fifty rubles. tion, and example. Of its universality The Englismen insisted on a hundred. even the most inattentive observer can This proposal seemed to the Dutch- bear witness. A common Russian feldom man so unreasonable, that he declared pafles a beggar in the streets, without, he would fooner encounter the whole though unfolicited, putting his hand weight of their fifts than comply with in his pocket. People in good circumit.

stances make it a rule to beftow, at “< Avast, my lads!' cried the cap- stated times, money, clothes, and tain who had made the firft attack upon victuals on the poor, and particularthe Dutchman's generosity; . I have ly on prifoners: the provisions that

somewhat to say. The bag does not are weekly, and especially on certain • belong to us: that is true; but a holidays, sent to the prisons, often • Briton will never stand by, and not see amount in quantity to more than fufjustice done : and, by Heaven, the ficient for their immediate neceffiwoman here has acted nobly, and ties. It may be affirmed, that in but

ought to be rewarded. Give me hold few capitals it is so easy to make col. of the bag. I will count out the lections and raise contributions for • hundred rubles.'

beneficent purposes : uncommon in“ No sooner faid than done. The stances of this nature have been already Dutchman, thunderstruck at this fum- frequently noticed in this book. mary way of proceeding, had not time Strangers coming hither without a fufto recover himself before the hundred ficient stock of money, persons in want rubles were fairly counted upon the of the means for setting on foot useful table.

undertakings, or for devoting their “ This brought on a truce. Where abilities to certain beneficial purposes, humanity, gratitude, generosity, and always find among their fet of acquaintEnglish fifts had made the attack in ance, however imall

, fome persons vain, there conquered---national pride. who interest themselves in their behalf, The Dutchman infifted upon it, that and frequently supply their wants in a the Britons should let him treat them; way that far exceeds their expectations. and in perfect stoical resignation parted Similar cases, of which I myself have with a hundred of his beloved, long- been an eye-witness, would sufficiently lamented, and lately recovered rubles.” confirm what is here advanced, were P. 568.

it poflible to quote them without

bringing both the giver and the receiver GENEROSITY OF THE PETERSBURGH- into an unwelcome publicity.

“ To thefe in part highly amiable

qualities, the Petersburghers unite, on “ THOUGH the thirst of lucre is so many occasions, a very apparent levity, predominant, few misers are seen here. and an inconsistency that threatens No vice is more rare than avarice. their best plans and enterprises with a The manner of living is a fufficient total dcicát, when once they have lost proof of this, which absolutely admits their novelty. The residence being the of no parfimony, much less of avarice. central point of all political connexions, Nothing therefore is more ridiculous the emporium of trade and commerce; to the Peteriburghers than the particu- every man finds here the sphere of his lar inftance of this tolly, which one or activity, the aim of his exertions: acother individual may happen to exhi. cordingly no where in the empire is it bit. Ordinary traits of this kind, eatier to make a fortune than here. which in other places excite no fenfa. The frequent experiences of this, banih tion at all, here raite general attonith- all cares for the future, all solicitude ment; and if the good-natured humour about pofiible, if not probable difafters. of the Petersburghers ever takes a far- Most people live just for the moment, castic turn, it is on such occalions.- and leave their good genius to take





care of the rest. Persons of very de- ing, forms a very curious contraft. pendent means or with large families, But this contraft will not much longer are quite at their ease if they can but sublift.” P. 587. satisfy the demands of the day. Numbers when in embarrassments have recourse to critical and extraordinary CIII. Strutt's Sports and Pastimes methods; but, loaded with debts and

of the People of England. (Conperfecuted by creditors, they bring tinued from p. 544.) into company a bright countenance and a cheerful humour. Some sudden turn of fortune, on which indeed they had

TUTORED BY THE JUGno reason to rely, but which here, like a true deus ex machina unties so many fatal knots, faves them from ruin, and “ THE people of Sybaris, a city in they retain the same temper of mind Calabria, are proverbial on acon all occasions, without suffering count of their effeminacy; and it is themfelves to be disturbed in their said that they taught their horses to comforts by either adverse or favour- dance to the music of the pipe; for able occurrences. Children occasion which reason, their enemies the Crotono concern or anxiety to people of this nians, at a time when they were at war fort. The great public inftitutions with them, brought a great number of relieve them from the expenses of edu- pipers into the field, and, at the comcation ; and young persons, at first en mencement of the battle, they played tering the world, begin their course of upon their pipes; the Sylarian hories, life, in which, even without support, hearing the found of the music, began they know how to help themselves to dance; and their riders, unable to forward. That this way of thinking is manage them as they ought to have common only with one part of the done, were thrown into confusion, and community, and admits of great ex defeated with prodigious slaughter, ceptions among certain claffes, pro- This circumstance is mentioned by bably it may not be necessary to men Aristotle ; and, if not ftri&tly true, tion. More general and characteristic proves, at least, that the teaching of is the inconsistency of the people here. animals to exceed the bounds of action No where Mall we perceive to many prescribed by nature was not unknown enterprises begun with enthusiasm and to the ancients. then suddenly abandoned, as in this “We are told that, in the thirteenth place. Edifices, gardens, collections century, a horfe was exhibited by the of rarities, libraries, all bear the marks joculators, which danced upon a rope; of this inconsistency. The violent zeal and oxen wire rendered so docile as to with which they sometimes interest ride upon hortis, holding trumpets to themselves in behalf of an amiable their mouths as though they were ftranger, or an ingenious artist, or a founding them. If we refer to the patriotic project, subsides into coldness twenty-fourtla plate, we shall find the as soon as the object of it has loft the reprcientation of several surprising charm of novelty. Even the places of tricks performed by horses, far exceedpublic entertaininent, let them be as ing thole displayed in the present day. elegant and delightful as they may, Ai the top is depicted the cruel diver have no better destiny to look for. No fion of baiting a horse with dogs; imwhere does a man change his habita- mediately under it is a horse dancing tion with so much facility as here; upon his hinder feet to the music of there are people who choose their place the pipe and tabour; and opposite to of abode every year in a different quar- him another horse, ervaring up and ter of the town. Almost all agreements attacking the joculator, who opposes for the hire of houses are made only him with a small fhield and a cudgel. for a month ; and even the domesics There mock combats, to which the adopt this practice, that they may animals were properly trained, were change their places as often as possible. conftantly regulated by some kind of With this inconsistency, which likewise musical inftrument.

The two perextends to manners, customs, and fa- formances delineated at the bottom of Thions, the attachment of the common the plate are more astonishing than Rusians to their national mode of lize those above them: in one instance, the


horse is standing upon his hinder feet, themselves into ranks like a company and beating with his fore feet upon a of soldiers; small cones of paper bear. kind of tabour or drum, held by his ing some resemblance to grenadiers' master; in the other, he is exhibiting a caps were put upon their heads, and Similar trick with his hinder feet, and diminutive imitations of muskets made fupports himself upon his fore feet. The with wood secured under their left original drawings, copied on this plate, wings. Thus equipped, they marched are all of them upwards of four hun.. to and fro several times; when a single dred and fifty years old; and at the bird was brought forward, supposed time in which they were made, the to be a deserter, and set between fix of joculators were in full pofleffion of the the musketeers, three in a row; who public favour.

conducted him from the top to the “ Horses, are animals exceedingly bottom of the table, on the middle of susceptible of instruction, and their which a small brass cannon, charged performances have been extended to with a little gunpowder, had been prefar as to bear the appearance of rational viously placed; and the deserter was discernment. I have before me a fhow- fituated in the front part of the canbill, published in the reign of Queen non; his guards then divided, three Anne, which is thus prefaced: To retiring on one side, and three on the be seen at the Ship upon Great Tower other, and he was left standing by

Hill, the fines taught borse in the himself. Another bird was immediate .quorld. The abilities of the animal are ly produced; and a lighted match befpecified as follows: • He fetches and ing put into one of his claws, he hopped * carries like a spaniel dog. If you hide boldly on the other to the tail of the . a glove, a handkerchief

, a door-key, a cannon, and applying the match to pewter bafin, or fo small a thing as a the priming, discharged the piece with• silver twopence, he will seek about the out the least appearance of fear or "room till he has found it, and then he agitation. The moment the explosion • will bring it to his master. He will also took place, the deserter fell down, and

tell the number of spots on a card, lay, apparently motionless, like a dead and leap through a hoop; with va- bird; but, at the command of his tu6 riety of other curious performances.' tor, he rose again; and, the cages beAnd we may, I trust, give full credit ing brought, the feathered soldiers to the statement of this advertisement; were stripped of their ornaments, and for, á horse equally scientific is to be returned into them in perfect order." feen in the present day at Astley's P. 187. Amphitheatre: this animal is so small, that he and his keeper frequently parade the streets in a hackney-coach.”


“ IN the reign of Queen Anne, a “ The joculators did not confine man, whose name was Clench, a nathemselves to the tutoring of quadru- tive of Barnet, made his appearance at peds, but extended their practice to London: I have his advertisement bebirds also; and a curious fpecimen of fore me; which states that heimi. their art appears on the twenty-third tated the horses, the huntsmen, and a plate, where a cock is represented pack of bounds, a mam do&or, an old dancing on stilts to the music of a pipe woman, a drunken man, the bells, the and tabour. In the present day, this "flute, the double curtell, and the organ may probably be considered as a mere with three voices, by his own natural effort of the illuminator's fancy, and voice, to the greateft perfection. He admit of a doubt whether such a trick then professes himself to be the only was ever displayed in reality: but man that ever could attain to lo many are yet living who were witnesses great an art.' He had, however, a to an exhibition far more surprising, rival, who is noted in one of the papers fhown at Breslaw's, a celebrated jug- of the Spectator, and called the wbiftgler, who performed at London some- ling man.

in. His excellency confifted in what more than twenty years ago. A counterfeiting the notes of all kinds of number of little birds, to the amount finging birds. The same performance I believe of twelve or fourteen, being was exhibited in great perfection by taken from different cages, were placed the bird-tutor associated with Breslaw upon a table in the prefence of the the juggler. This man afsumed the fpectators; and there they formed name of Rossignol, and, after he had



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quitted BreNaw, appeared on the stage wich, who was treated with the fight at Covent Garden Theatre; where, in of a bear and bull baiting, “tempered,' addition to his imitation of the birds, says Holin head, with other merry he executed a concerto on a fiddle disports;' and, for the diversion of without ftrings; that is, he made the the populace, there was a horse with notes in a wonderful manner with his an ape upon his back; which highly voice, and represented the bowing by pleased them, so that they expressed drawing a small truncheon backwards their inward-conceived joy and deand forwards over a stringless violin. light with shrill shouts and variety of His performance was received with gestures”.P. 193. great applause; and the success he met with produced many competitors, but none of them equalled him: it was, however, discovered, that the founds were produced by an instrument, con “ I SHALL conclude this chapter trived for the purpose, concealed in with the two following instances of the mouth; and then the trick lost all bodily power, recorded by our histoits reputation. Six years ago, I heard rians. The first is of Courcy Earl a poor rustic, a native of St. Alban's, of Ulfter; who, in the presence of imitate with great exactness, the whole John King of England and Philip of assemblage of animals belonging to a France, cut through a helmet of steel farm-yard; but especially he excelled with one blow of his sword, and struck in counterfeiting the grunting of swine, the weapon so deeply into the post the squeaking of pigs, and the quarrel- upon which the helmet was placed, ling of two dogs. P. 191.

that no one but himself was able to draw it out again. The second is men

tioned by Froissart; who tells us that, BULL AND BEAR BAITING

one Christmas day, the Earl of Foix, “ IS not encouraged by persons of according to his usual custom, held a rank and opulence in the present day; great feast; and, after dyner, he deand when practised, which rarely hap- perted out of the hall, and went up pens, it is attended only by the lowest into a galarye, of twenty-four stayres and most defpicable part of the people; of heyght. It being exceedingly cold, which plainly indicates a general retine • the Erle complained that the fire was ment of manners and prevalency of not large enough; when a person named humanity among the moderns; on the • Ervalton, of Spayne, went down the contrary, this barbarous pastime was stayres, and beneth in the court he highly relished by the nobility in former • fawe a great meny of afles laden with ages, and countenanced by persons of. woode to serve ihe house; than he the most exalted rank, without excep- went, and tooke one of the greateft tion even of the fair sex. When Queen afles, with all the woode, and layde Mary visited her sister the Princess hym on hys backe, and went up al Elizabeth during her confinement at the stayres into the galary; and dyd Hatfield House, the next morning, after « caste downe the alle, with al the mass, a grand exhibition of bear-bait- woode, into the chimney, and the ing was made for their amusement, "ase's fete upward: whereof the Erle with which, it is said, their High . of Foix had greate joye; and so hadde • nesses were right well content.' The “all thy that wer ther, and had mervele same princess, foon after her accession of his strength.” P. 198. to the throne, gave a splendid dinner. to the French ambassadors, who afterwards were entertained with the bait

BULL-RUNNING ing of bulls and bears, and the Queen “ IS a barbarous diversion, fomeherself ftood with the ambassadors what different from bull-baiting, and looking on the pastime till fix at night. much less known: I do not recollect The day following, the same ambaffa- that it was regularly practised in any dors went by water to Paris Garden, part of the kingdom, excepting at where they saw another baiting of bulls Stamford in Lincolnshire, and at Tutand of bears; and again, twenty-seven bury in Staffordshire. The traditionyears pofterior, Queen Elizabeth re. ary origin of the bull-running at Stam.' ceived the Danish ambassador at Green, ford, and the manner in which it was


performed in the seventeenth century, “were, in a kind of tumult. The are given by Butcher, in bis Survey of sport so highly diverted the Earl, who, that town; and this account I thall lay it seems, was a spectator, that he gave before my readers in the author's own 6 all those meadows in which the two words. «The bull-running is a sport bulls had been fighting, perpetually • of no pleasure, except to such as take as a common to the butchers of the . a pleasure in beastlinefs and mischief: " town, after the first grass is eaten, to

it is performed just the day fix weeks • keep their cattle in till the time of . before Christmass. The butchers of ' laughter, upon the condition that, * the town, at their own charge, againft on the anniversary of that day, they

the time provide the wildest bull they • should yearly find, at their own ex• can get. This bull over night is had pense, a mad bull for the continuance • into fome stable or barn belonging to of the sport.' «the alderman. The next morning, “ The company of minstrels, be. proclamation is made by the common longing to the manor of Tutbury, had • bellman of the town, round about several peculiar privileges granted to • the fame, that each one inut up their them by a charter from John of Gaunt • Thop-doors and gates, and that none, Duke of Lancaster. In this charter, • upon pain of imprisonment, offer to it is required of the minstrels to per

do any violence to frangers; for the form their respective services, upon the • preventing whereof, the town, being day of the assumption of our Lady, " a great thoroughfair, and then being at the steward's court, held for the • term time, a guard is appointed for honour of Tutbury, according to an"the passing of travellers through the cient custom; they had also, it seems, « fame, without hurt; that none have a privilege, exclusive of the charter, to

any iron upon their bull-clubs, or claim upon that day a bull from the • other staff, which they pursue the bull prior of Tutbury. In the seventeenth

with. Which proclamation made, and century, these services were performed « the gates all thut up, the bull is turned the day after the Assumption; and the

out of the alderman's house; and bull was given by the Duke of Devonthen, hivie-skivy, tag and rag, men, fhire, as the prior's representative. The

women, and children, of all forts and historian of Staffordshire informs us, • fizes, with all the dogs in the town, that a dinner was provided for the • promiscuously running after him with minstrels upon this occafion, which • their bull-clubs, ipattering dirt in being finished, they went anciently to « each other's faces, that one would the abbey gate, but of late years to a * think them to be so many furies start • little barn by the town lide, in ex

ed out of hell for the punihment of pectance of the bull to be turned Cerberus, &c. And, which is the forth to them. The animal, pro• greater Thame, I have feen persons of vided for this purpose, had his horns

rank and family, of both sexes, fol- fawed off, his ears cropped, his tail • lowing this brilling-bufiness. I can say cut short, his body fmeared over with ( no more of it, but ouly to set forth soap, and his nofe blown full of beaten • the antiquity thereof as tradition goes. pepper, in order to make him as mad • William Earl of Warren, the first lord as it was possible for him to be. Whence, . • of this town in the time of King • after folemn proclamation first made • John, ftanding upon his castle wails by the fleward, that all manner of in Stamford, faw two bulls fighting persons should give way to the bull

, for a cow in a meadow under the ' and not come near him by forty « fame. A butcher of the town, owner feet, nor by any means to hinder the 6 of one of the bulls, fet a great mar (minstrels, but to attend to his or * tiff dog upon his own bull, who their own fafeties, every one at his • forced him up into the town; when 'peril; he was then put forth, to be • all the butchers' dogs, great and small, caught by the minstrels, and none • followed in pursuit of the bull, which other, within the county of Stafford,

Ly this time made ftark mad with the between the time of his being turned ! noise of the people and the fierceness out to them, and the setting of the

of the dogs, ran over man, woman, fun, on the same day; which if they 6 and child, that stood in his way. cannot doe, but the bull escapes from ? This caused all the butchers and • them untaken, and gets over the river vihers in the town to rise up, as it into Derbyshire, he continues to be

• Lord

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