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ing in grotesque extravagance; yet di Chrifto, &c. composta per Antonio now and then shining with pure and Cornozano. In terza rima. The united rays of fancy and devotion, subject of the fixth chapter of the firt • first gave a new bias to the inagina book is the Temptation : to which is • tion of the English poet, or, to use prefixed a wooden cut, wherein Satan the expressive phrase of Voltaire, first is represented as an old man with a

revealed to him the hidden majesiy of long beard, offering bread to our Lord. the subje&t. The apostate angels of The Tempter indeed is an aged man, * Andreini, though sometimes hideously like the Tempter of Milton, in Vischer's

and absurdly disgusting, yet occa cuts to the Bible, as noticed by Mr. ' fionally sparkle with such fire as Thyer; and in Salvator Rola's fine • miglitawaken the emulation of Mil. painting of the Temptation, as noticed • ton’.” Pol. i. p. 250.

by Mr. Dunfter. The Devil is also represented in a monastic habit by Luca

Giordano, in a picture of the TemptaORIGIN OF PARADISE REGAINED.

tion, which made a part of the Duliel. “ THE origin of this poem is attri- dorp collection. But poetry likewise buted to the suggestion of Ellwood scems to have painted, not feldom, the Quaker. Milton had lent this friend, the gray disimulation of the Tempter in 1665, his Paradise Lost, then com. in the same colours.” Vol. iv. p. xviii

. pleted in manuscript, at Chalfont St. “ There is an Italian poem, which I Giles; defiring him to peruse it at his have not seen, entitled 11 Digiuno di leisure, and give his judgment of it. Chrifto nel Deserto, by Giovanni Niz. On returning the poem, Milton asked zoli, dated in 1611. And I observe him what he thought of it: 'which I also among the works of P. Antonio • modely, but freely told him,' says Glielmo (who died in 1644), enumeElwood in his Life of himfelf; and, rated by Crasso in his . Elogii d' Huo• after some further discourse about it, • mini letterati,' Il Calvario Lauriato, I pleasantly said to him, “ Thou hast 'Poema: a kindred subject perhaps with

said much of Paradise Lost, but what that of Paradise Regained; the mene • halt thou to say of Paradise Found:” tion of which Italian title induces us • He made me no answer, but fat fome to acknowledge, with gratitude, the • time in a muse: thun broke off that existence of a Calvary in our own • discourse, and fell upon another sub- poetry; of which the plan is the fault• je&t.' When Ellwood afterwards lefs plan of Paradise Regained; the waited on him in London, Milton fpirit is truly Miltonic; and the lanfhowed him his Paradise Regained; guage, at the same time, original.”and, in a pleasant tone,' said to him, Vol. iv. p. xix. « This is owing to you; for you put • it into my head by the question you put me at Chalfont; which before I

SAMSON AGONISTES "had not thought of.”

“ IS the only tragedy that Mil“ On this subje& the Muses had not ton finished, though he sketched out been before filent. In our own lan- the plans of several, and proposed the guage, Giles Fletcher had published subjects of more, in his manuscript Christ's Victorie and Triumph, in 1611; preserved in Trinity College, Cam. an elegant and impressive poem in four bridge. And we may fuppofe that he parts, of which the second, entitled, was determined to the choice of this Christ's Triumph on Earth, describes particular subject, -by the fimilitude of the Temptation. To this poem, howhis own circumstances to those of Sam, ever, the Paradise Regained owes little fon blind and among the Philistines, obligation. Perhaps the Italian muse This I conceive to be the last of his might afford a hint. In the following poetical pieces; and it is written in sacred poem, consisting of ten books, the very spirit of the ancients, and ! La Humanita del Figlivolo di Dio. equals, if not exceeds, any of the most • In ottana rima, per Theofilo Folengo, perfect tragedies, which were ever ex

Mantoano. Venegia, 1533, 4.', the hibited on the Athenian stage, when fourth booktreats largely of the Tempt. Greece was in its glory. As this work ation.” Vol. iv. p. xvii.

was never intended for the stage, the ". There had been published also at division into acts and scenes is omitted, Venice, in 1518, La Vita et Pafione Bithop Atterbury had an intention of


Vol. iv. p. 494.

getting Pope to divide it into acts and divided into three acts: 'Mr. Penn's Icenes, and of having it acted at Weft- abridgment exhibits the length of two. minster: but his commitment to the “ It has been obferved by Goldsmith, Tower put an end to that defign. It has that Samson is a tragedy without a fince been brought upon the stage in the love-intrigue, as the Athalie of Racine form of an oratorio; and Handel's music also is, which appeared not many years is never employed to greater advantage, after Samson; and that Maffei, inthan when it is adapted to Milton's structed by these examples, has formed words. The great artist has done his Merope without any amorous plot. equal justice in our author's L'Allegro “ The history of Samfon has often and Il Penseroso, as if the fame spirit employed the pen of poetry. Mr. poffeffed both masters, and as if the Hayley thinks that Milton's Samson god of music, and of verse, was still might' perhaps be founded on a sacred one of the fame. Newton.

drama of that country, to the poets of Samson Agonistes is but a very in which Milton was confeffedly partial : different subject for a dramatic fable. La Rappresentazione di Sansone, per However, Milton has made the best of Alessandro Roselli; of which there is it. He seems to have chosen it for the an edition printed at Florence in 1554, fake of the fatire on bad wives. another at the same place in 1588, and “ WARBURTON.” a third at Siena in 1616: but I have

not been more fortunate than Mr. “ Mr. Penn has printed, in the se. Hayley, in endeavouring to procure a cond volume of his valuable • Critical, copy of this Samson. The accom

poetical, and dramatic Works, 1798,' plished author of the Hiftorical Memoir an abridgment of Milton's Samson; in on Italian Tragedy, 1799, has fuggested nearly which form he thinks it might to me that Milton might have met be acted as an interlude, without dan- with more than one Italian drama on ger of being ill received. The abridg- this subject; for, among the Rapprement is formed with much ingenuity. Sentazioni enumerated by Cionacci, he Yet the classical reader will not per- had observed a Sanfone, from the prohaps accede to the absence of some logue to which an extract is given : fplendid, and some affecting passages. •Ă gloria adunche dell'Altitonante, Mr. Penn also remarks, that Dr. John. "E di colui che più che 'l sol risplende, fon's criticism on this tragedy is severe &c.' only in suppofing, that it contained no and this he conceives to be not the more than the substance of one act; Sanfone of Roselli, but a Rappresentaand that, though still one of Milton's zione of the fifteenth century. I am valuable works, Samson is inferior both informed by the same gentleman, that, to Lycidas, and the Allegro and Pen- in or about the year 1622, appeared seroso. I agree in preferring the earlier the following French drama, which poems of Milton to his tragedy: but I might also have influenced the English may be permitted not to subscribe to poet in the choice of Samson: Tráthe assertion in Dr. Johnson's criticism, gedie nouvelle de Samson le fort; that nothing passes between the first • contenant les victoires, & sa prise par • act and the last, that either haftens « la trahison de son épouse Dalila, qui

or delays the death of Samson ;' lui coupa ses cheveux, & le livra aux which, Mr. Cumberland observes, is • Philistins, desquels il occit trois mille not correct. On the contrary, I ad- à fon trespas: en quatre actes. 8vo. mire the art and judgment with which • sans date. Probably, among the the poet has delineated the various Autos Sacramentales or religious tragecircumstances that, from the first en dies of the Spanish, a Samson may exift. trance of Manoah to the last appearance His hiftory is particularly noticed, and of Samson, progressively affect the part of it 'described in a sonnet, in the mind of the hero, and finally produce celebrated Spanish paftoral, La Conthe resolution which haftens the cata- ftante Amarillis, edit. Lyon. 1614, p. Arophe. Samson, as an oratorio, is 166." Vol. iv. p. 497.




CV. Tooke's History of Ruffia, fure, than to take upon her the weighty (Concluded from p. 534.)

burden of such a government as that of Ruflia. Besides, Elizabeth had very

few intimacies among the great men at SPLENDID EMBASSY FROM

court; and there was not the flighteft

appearance of any party at all devoted "ONE of the most remarkable events to her: she attached herself more to

that happened during the regen- the foldiery, particularly to the guards; су

of the Dutchess of Bruntwick was and there seidom pailed a week, in the arrival at Mofco of an embassy which she did not once or twice stand from Thamas Kouli Khan. After sponsor at the christening of the chilhaving usurped the throne of the So- dren of some of those soldiers. If, phis, and conquered the empire of the therefore, it might occasionally occur Mongoles, Thamas Kouli Khan, who to the Empress Anne that it would be had heard much concerning the beauty preferable to place Elizabeth in such a of the Princess Elizabeth, sent to ask fituation as would render it impoflible her in marriage, at the same time for her to form any design upon her promising to introduce the Greek reli- father's throne, perhaps by sending gion into Persia. His ambassador was her into a convent; every anxiety was attended by fixteen thousand men and soon dispelled by the manner of life twenty pieces of cannon. But this and the whole deportment of Elizaformidable troop was invited to stop at beth: indeed Biren (Duke of Cour. Kitzliar on the borders of the Terek, land) himself was always against the and the ambassador made his entry into idea of attempting any thing to the Mosco with a train of only three thou- prejudice of that princess. It is also fand perfons on horseback. He pre- probable that, under the Empress Anne, sented to the regent, on the part of Elizabeth laid no plan for ascending the Shah,fourteen elephants and a great the throne, and that the proje& first quantity of jewels, among which were entered her mind on the demise of that very large diamonds t. The presents monarch, at seeing an infant Emperor, were accepted, and the proposals of under the tutelage of a foreigner, acmarriage rejected.” Vol. ii. p. 255. cede to the sceptre; and, fhortly after,

the parents of the Emperor, who like

wise were to be regarded rather as IVAN DETHRONED *_ACCESION OF

foreigners than as Rullians, get poffef

fion of the guardianship, and hearing “ ON the death of Peter II. she it even reported that the Princess Anne, (the Empress Elizabeth) might, per- Ivan's mother, had resolved, at the haps, have preferred her pretensions to inftigation of Count Oftermann, to the throne of her father not without declare herself Empress on her birthfuccefs; but at that time she made not day in the ensuing December (1741], the smallest stir in this design. She and to settle the succession in the line even remained quiet during all the of her daughters. reign of Anne, though the Dolgorukies 66 Now it was that the advice of were accused of an intention of advan- Leftocq, Elizabeth's physician and cing her to the imperial seat, continu- favourite, found ready admiffion; and ing to live with that Empress on the he exerted all his zeal and address in most amicable terms, exciting no sur collecting a body of partisans, by whole mises of that nature, either in her or aflistance he might put the reins of her partisans; and as, from her whole empire into the hands of his patroness. behaviour, she seemed more disposed to Bringing together by degrees a number enjoy the pleasures of life in full mea of the soldiers of the guards who were

† “ These diamonds came from the Mongoley. Thamas Kouli Khan brought away from that empire to the value of one hundred and forty-fix millions of pounds sterlirg in precious stones, in gold, silver, and other valuables. The throne of the peacock alone, which he conveyed away from Delhi, was estimated at 202,500,000 francs, or nine kiurures. The kiurure makes a hundred laks, each lak a hundred thousand rupees. The rupee varies in value, but may be generally estimated at 25. 3d. fterling.” * See Monthly Epitome, vol. ii. for 1798, p. 177 et seq.




devoted to Elizabeth, they promised mischief, as the Duke proposed, she to support her in the attempt to feat disclosed to Elizabeth, in full court to herself on the throne of her father, and the whole contents of the admonitory likewise to persuade their comrades to

letter she had received, and the reports engage in the same cause *. The' tłuat were spread. Certainly this was money necessary for the enterprise was not the way to come at the truth. furnished partly by Elizabeth and part. Elizabeth confessed nothing, protested ly obtained by Leftocq from M. de la that she was entirely innocent; and, by Chetardie, the French ambasador at diffimulation and even tears, effectually St. Petersburg, who offered his affift- dispelled all ideas of suspicion in Anne. ance in bringing about this revolution, Leitocq had previously appointed the in hopes that the new Emprefs would, day of the confecration of the waters I from gratitude to 'France, 'no longer for Elizabeth to make her appearance take part with Austria; and as Sweden publicly as claimant of the throne, 'to might, perhaps, likewise on this occa- put herself at the head of her followers, fion be somewhat a gainer. In the to assert her right to the fucceffion by mean time Elizabeth's courage drooped a public declaration, and to cause heras the execution of her plot drew nigh, self to be proclaimed Emprefs. But and the put it off from day to day. no sooner did he learn from Elizabeth The foldiers, moreover, who had been the subject of this conversation, than induced to take up the buliness, 'were he would hear of no farther delays, not people to be trusted with a secret redoubled his activity, got daily more of that magnitude; and there was al- partisans for Elizabeth, by means of ready something of a rumour abroad French gold, and inculcated it more concerning some project of the Princess. forcibly than ever upon her that there It even reached the ears of the Regent; was now no time for hesitation unless and the would not have been to blame the would give up all for loft. He told if he had employed the means she had her that the guards were foon to march in her power of confining Elizabeth. towards Sweden, and that she wonld But Anne, notwithstanding all she had thus lose those on whofe assistance the heard of the business, was unaccount. reckoned most; adding, that this alone ably careless, taking no more steps was reason fufficient for accelerating about it than if nothing was passing to the catastrophe. Elizabeth appearing alarm her security: a conduct, for to be ftill irrefolute, Leftocq the next which, afterwards, when it was too morning pulled out of his pocket-book late to rectify her mistake, the was a card, on one side whereof he had feverely reproached by her husband. drawn Elizabeth in a nun’s habit, fur. But, instead of consulting him on the rounded by a number of gibbets; on beft measures to be adopted on such a the other, that princess with the crown serious occafion, the concealed every on her head, attended by a circle of thing from him. Count Ostermann nobles : a contrivance by which hè warned her of lier danger; the British meant tacitlytofumgeft to her the choice minifter prophesied her certain ruin, of one or the other of these situations unless the took the proper means to for herself and her friends; that all prevent it; she received an anonymous depended on a moment, and if that letter, in which she was conjured to moment were suffered to escape no beware of an approaching shock; and choice would remain, bui the former indeed it was difficult to conceive how would inevitably be their portion. the could entertain the least doubts on Upon this, Elizabeth seemed refolved the matter: yet, instead of resorting to put all to the hazzrd for obtaining to any methods of counteraction, such the crown; and, as the revolution ocas, by the seizure of Lestocq, to deprive casioned by the apprehending of Biren the prime mover and mort Zealous by night had been quietly effected promoter of the plot from all power of without bloodthed,the nocturnalSilence,

* " A broken merchant, now corporal in the Preobrajenski guards, named Grunftein, and one Schwartz, a trumpeter, were the first whom Leitocq prevailed upon to listen to his proposal. The hopes of making their fortune induced these people to enter into the scheme themselves, and to gain accomplices. After the enterprise had succeeded they were both amply rewarded.” † “ On the 4th of December.”

I'« The 6th of January 1742.” : Yol. V.—No. LIII.


4 H

it was thought, would be favourable to promises and rewards on one fide, and the present attempt; and the following on the other by denunciations of cruel night, between the fifth and fixth of punishments in cafe of oppofition: the December, was, fixed upon for the force of surprise, which was increased execution of this important project, in by the distribution of inflammatory which Leftocq undertook the principal liquors, and Elizabeth's affable and part, in the expectation, if all succeed- captivating demeanour, soon brought ed, of honours and rewards, but, in over most of the remainder. A few of case of a miscarriage, of certain death. them, however, absolutely would not He now prepared his accomplices and be either bribed or persuaded to bearadherents, went in the evening and ken to Elizabeth's pretension to the fetched some thousand ducats from the throne, as the young Emperor was fill French ambassador, in order to obviate alive. But, being greatly overpowered or to conquer all opposition and refift- by numbers, they were manacled, and ance by that powerful application, the party proceeded towards the palace money; thenrepaired to the apartments inhabited by the Emperor and his paof the Princess Elizabeth, and entreat- rents. The armed suite by this time ed her to follow him to take possession confifted of feveral hundred men. All of her father's throne. Even now they met on the way were pressed to Elizabeth betrayed her want of forti- join the train, that nothing might be tude; Leftocq, however, at length got betrayed, and in this manner they the better of her fears. She threw reached the palace; where the fentinels herself proftrate before a crucifix, re were easily brought to compliance, as peated a long prayer, got up perfectly the soldiers belonging to the conspiracomposed, after having made a folcmn tors threatened to use violence unless vow that no blood should be shed in they voluntarily furrendered. Elizathis attempt, put on the riband of the beth reiterated her remonftrances, and order of St. Catharine, and placed her. She was obeyed as monarch. felf in a sledge with a chamberlain by “ The Duke and his spouse were her fide, behind which two grenadiers now rudely awaked from the profound stepped up as guards. Lestocg and sleep in which they lay, and dragged Schwartz followed in a second fledge. out of bed-the latter being scarcely They drove directly to the barracks of allowed time to cover berself with a the Preobrajeniki guards. At some gown, while the former, having had distance from the gateway the sledges recourse to weapons, was carried by stopped short, and Elizabeth proceed- the soldiers, wrapped in the beded on foot, attended by her Hedge- clothes, put in the sledge, into which party, that they might excite the less at they then threw some garments, and tention. Holding the cross in her hand both were now conveyed away, as -by which such great things had al- prisoners of Elizabeth, into the palace ready so often been performed-she of that princess, where they were made a speech to the soldiers, in justifi- strongly guarded. Ivan, the innocent cation of her enterprise, to place herself unconscious boy, in whose name already on the throne. She had certainly much so many manifeftos had appeared, of to advance in her behalf; and it must which he could neither understand nor naturally have made great impression on know any thing; who, with no ambithe native Ruflians, when the mention- tion to batter, had been raifed to the ed, that, as the daughter of the immor- imperial purple, and was now without tal Emperor Peter the Great, she had confternation dethroned, was gently resolved to wield the sceptre of her sleeping in his cradle, during this father; and though she had been un- transaction, which doomed him to a juftly forced aside from the throne by life of misery. Elizabeth had given a foreign child, and though there was orders not to disturb his repose, and even a defign on foot to bury her in a several soldiers afsiduously stood watchconvent, yet the faithful guards were ing his cradle; but immediately on his they by whose affistance and support awaking Elizabeth took him with her she now cherished the hope of alcend- to her palace, that she might Mow him ing the paternal throne.--A part of the to his father and mother.-Not only guards were already made acquainted the young Emperor and his parents, but with the bufiness, and had been gained also the two grand promoters of Ivan's overtoefpoufeitbymoney,fairspeeches, succession and the regency

of Anne, Oftermann

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