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inquisitor into the fortune of all, in inhabitant of the village, who dares ceffantly occupied in setting the inhas not refute her. It is ailerted, that it bitants at variance, in fomenting hatred is uncommon for a Greek woman not ainong them, the foubachi is the most to be flattered at sharing the bed of her mischievous being that Turkish policy lord, young or old, whatever may be. has created for the misfortune of the the Chame which the men attach to it; Greeks. The aga makes use of him and the fate that she must experience for punishing the smallest faults, real sooner or later; fo true is it that here, or fuppofed, by arbitrary fines, by as elsewhere, authority is feductive, and imprisonment, and not unfrequently vanity not to be refiited. even by the baftinado.

“ Married men are not permitted to “ The Greeks appoint among them- quit the iilard, unless they are mariners felves a capitan, or primate, charged or merchants. There has been seen to conciliate people's minds, and to hanging to the mast of his boat a kara: terminate in an amicable manner the vokéri *, who had dared to infringe differences which may arise among this law, and who had, by stealth, them. He is a justice of the peace, to carried unhappy beings to the Gulf of whofe opinion the wifeft always sub- Ephesus. Bachelors are; nevertheless, mit, in order to avoid the formidable permitted to go and work in the Morea claw of the cadi, to whose tribunal all and elsewhere; but a tax of fixty parats litigious affairs are carried as a last re or two pialtres a head is required of fort. The primate also watches over them before their departure. the interest of all. To him it is that “ If a murder happen in the village, the aga addresses himself when he has or on its territory, and the delinquent orders to give, or requests to make; be 'not known, the aga must pay to when he requires labourers for the cul- the pacha a sum of money, which he ture of his fields, or for works of public levies on all the inhabitants. He reutility. The Greeks also appoint a tains a part for himfelf: this is the dafcalos, or writer, who keeps a regis, custom in Turkey; never does money ter of the names of the inhabitants, of pass through the hands of a man with the sums at which they are taxed for out his keeping a portion of it. their karatch, and of those which they Taxes here are always arbitrary, and are to pay the aga after each harvest. more or less heavy, according to the

“ No Greek can marry without the population and the circumstances of permillion of the aga, a permission the inhabitants. If it be a Muflulman which he must purchase by a present, who has been found dead, the sum such as a sheep, a lamb, or a few fowls. demanded is exorbitant, because reliIf the fair one please the aga, he fome- gion has been outraged in one of its times keeps her for himself, without members. Such an affaflination, beany one daring to oppofe it. The fides, is almolt always followed by the cudgel is always ready to strike the re- death of several Greeks. The relations luctant Greek; and woe be to the au. and friends of the deceased think it dacious man who ihould prefira com- their duty, and that their honour is plaint to the pacha or to the Porte! interested, to affattinate, in their turn, He would pay with his fortune, and the first inhabitants that happen to fall frequently with his head, for such a in their way; and though the law does step. The aga, in this case, marries, not authorize them to do this, and in the kapin manner, with the free ought even to punish them, they are confent, or what is understood to be almost always abfolved by popular fuch, of this woman. Ottoman man- opinion. ners oppose his living with her; and if “ If a Greek have committed a feri. The persisted in refuling to receive his ous offence, or if he be accused of any, hand, however powerful the aga might which amounts nearly to the same be, he would be obliged to detist from thing, the pacha intervenes, and dehis pretensions. Not unfrequently, mands the delinquent, in order to after having kept this Greek worran have him tried and condemned. For two or three years, he turns her off for this purpose he must apply to the aga, another, and marries her to some Greek who gives him up immediately, or de. * “ Master or captain of a bark, boat, or vessel.”


fends him till after the sentence of the

THE SPHACHIOTS. cadi. The Greek often gets out of a “ THE inhabitants of the high fcrape, by means of the arrangements mountains situated to the south of which he enters into with his aga, and Canea and Retimo, are confidered as of the facrifices which he makes to the real descendants of those famous wards him and the pacha. 'He who Cretans so long masters of the country. has nothing, pays with his head; he Known at the present day under the who poilelles fomething, is incessantly name of Sphachiots, they are diftinexpoteci to lose it, as has been shown: guished from the other Greeks by their this dipends on the will of the pacha, tall ftature, by their handsome look, and fiequently too on that of the fou- by their love of liberty, by their coubachi.

rage, their skill, and, above all, by the “ With all the means which the law hatred which they have vowed againft of the strongest has put into the hands the ufurpers of their island. of the aga, it may well be fuspected .“ Mountains have been at all times, that he never fails to abuse them, and and among all nations, the last asylum to squeeze as much as he can the un- of liberty, as they have always been fortunate cultivators. For instance, he the abode of strength and health. A purchases, at a low price, their com- rugged untractable foil, which affords modities (with the exception of wine), little fubfiftence, which compels man which he generally does not pay for to a long and obstinate labour, which till after he has sold them, and derived fubjects him to fobriety, and condemns from them confiderable profit.

him to all sorts of privations, scarcely “ All that I have just said is applica- tempts conquering nations; when every ble only to the Greek villages subject rock, besides, is transformed into a to the agas. Those which belong to fortress; when it is necessary to fight mosques, or to the sultana-mother, at every step vigorous, energetic men, are fomewhat less oppressed than the who defend with obstinacy the soil others, because the cultivators may which has given them birth, and the have their complaints heard by the ful- independence which it procures them. tan or the inspectors of the mosques, “ Under the Romans, under the who are interested in protecting them Saracens, under the Venetians, and against the agents that they employ under the Turks, the Sphachiots had for the recovery of their rights. The found means to preserve their laws and Turkish villages, like those of the their customs. They annually appoint. Greeks, are fubject to the police of ed their magistrates in the general althe ag... Owners of efates pay in the semblies of the people. Obliged by fame manner; but they are all exempt the Turks to transport, in fummer, from gratuitous labour, and the aga from the top of their mountains, the would soon be displaced and pu- ice necesary for the consumption of mished, if ail the inhabitants preferred the inbabitants of Canea and Retimno, at once their complaints to the pacha, they paid no tax, no import; they had or to the Porte, against any injustice no agas; they never saw among them of too revolting a nature.

the agents of the Turkish govern“ It is unneceflary to repeat here ment; they formed, in a word, a rethat the Greeks can neither occupy public in fome measure independent, employments: emanating from the when, in 1769, some Ruffian emillaries government, nor can be admitted came to difturb the peace, and iminto any corps of troops, unless they pair the happiness which these prihave embraced the religion of Mao vileged Greeks enjoyed on their moun. hoinet.

tains. (6 Thus it is that the island, which “ Whether Catharine had really con. fo' long prospered under the laws ceived the project of expelling the of Minos, is at this day, governed; Turks from Europe, and of placing thus it is that the inhabitants of a her grandson on the throne of Cone country, where liberty in a manner stantine ; whether the wished only to took birth, are bent under the yoke of call the attention of her enemies to a the inort Ihameful slavery, notwith- distance from the places whither she standing the sea which surrounds them, was going to carry her principal forces; and the mountains by which they are it is certain that, on the unexpected defended.” P. 202.

appearance of some Ruflian tine-of


battle ships, in February 1770, in the who might be tempted to imitate environs of Coron and of Navarin, all them. The Turks always ready to the Greeks of the Morea, those of fight when they are persuaded that Macedonia and of Epirus, and the there are Christians to be killed, towns greater part of those of the Archi- to be plundered, boys and girls to be pelago, rose at the fame instant, flew violated, and saves of all ages and of to arms, and manifested a courage of both sexes to be fold, were loon united which they were not thought capable under their colours. Scldiers and culAt this period twenty thousand muf- tivators, traders and workinen, all kets distributed opportunely, and ten wished to take a part in this expedithousand Russians commanded by ex tion. Fifteen thousand men, armed at perienced generals, would certainly all points, arrived in a few days at the have produced, throughout European nearest mountains, on which they found Turkey, a revolution which would not one inhabitant. The women and for ever have delivered the Greeks of children of the Sphachiots, accompathose countries from the Ottoman nied by the old men and the infirm, yoke.

had gained the moft elevated ipots, and “ The Sphachiots, in these circum- the most inaccessible places. Those ftances, were not the last to take up whose age allowed them to handle a arms. Some hundreds of the bravest mulket or a sword, to the number of among them went and joined the Mai- upwards of two thousand, potted with nots their friends, and proceeded to- intelligence at the second chain of their gether to offer their services to Count mountains, disputed with courage every Orloff. A greater pumber were pre- rock, stopped for a long time at every paring to set out, when they received gorge the Turks by no means habituan account that the Ruffians, who had ated to this manner of fighting; and but three ships of the line and two when a passage was forced, or a rock frigates, which were destitute of mili- carried, the Sphachiots, lightly clothed, tary stores and land forces, had raised and lightly armed, accustomed to climb the fiege of Coron, and deserted the mountains, disappeared in a moment; Greeks, who had already made them while the Turk, who knows not how selves masters of Navarin, Patras, Mi- to fight but on horseback, who is both fitra, and some other towns less im- heavily clothed, and heavily armed, portant.

could not follow his enemy across the 4 The Albanian Musulmans, against rocks and precipices, which it was whom no precaution had been taken, neceffary to clear, in order to reach either by fea or by land; they, who a him. few batteries on the Isthmus of Corinth, “ During the whole summer the and a few vefsels of small force in the Turks displayed a great deal of perGulfs of Lepante and Athens, would severance in fighting the Sphachiots; have prevented from coming into the but being afiervards surprised at a reMorea, immediately spread themselves fiance which they did not expec, difover that peninsula, beat every where appointed in their hopes, frightened at the Greeks, disheartened by the unex the approaches of the cold, and tired pected retreat of the Rullians, and of a painful and disagreeable war, they inade among them a horrible Naughter. loudly demanded to return home. The The ravage which these Albanians com- Sphachiots, on their fide, found them. mitted on that unfortunate land, will felves reduced to the last extremity : never be repaired as long as the Turks almost all their villages had been set on 1hall be masters of those countries, and fire; a great number of their women the caprice of a few rulers shall be able and children had been carried off; to dispose of the fortunes and the lives they had lost their flocks; their proof the inhabitants.

vilions were exha'ifted; and the earth, “ The pacha of Candia, informed which they could not cultivate, no of the conduct of the Sphachiots, re- longer afforded them any thing; fo folved, in the fame year 1770, to march that they received with pleasure the against them with all the forces of the first proposals that were made to them: illand. He wished io exterminate them, they consented to pay the annual triand by thore means afford a terrible bute to which all the Greeks are subcxample of severity to all the Greeks ject; and, by these means they were

enabled ,




enabled to return to their habitations, Richard Chenevix, Esq. F.R.S. &c.' and continue their barter with the ma- VIIICase of a young Gentleman ritinie towns.

who recovered his Sight when fesen “ As the Turks, on this occasion, Years of Age. By Mr. James Ware, had not been able to take with theni horses, and to cause themselves to be Surgeon.-IX. Account of some Gal? followed by beafts of burden, they had vanic Combinations formed by single thought of loading three or four thou metallic Plates and Fluids. By dir. fand-Greeks with their baggage; and Humphry Davy, Lecturer on Chein the different battles which they had mistry in the Royal Institution.--X, to fight, they placed these Greeks in Experiments and Observations on the front of them, in order to make them- Light emitted from various Bodies. felves a rampart of their bodies.

By Nathaniel Hulme, M. D. &c.“ This trait of barbarity and cow- Xi. Experiments on the chemical ardice, which was related to us by a great number of Sphachiots, was

what By William

Hyde Wollaston, M.D.

Production and Agency of Electricity, most affected these brave mountaineers, and what most contributed to reduce &c.-7. Observations on the Dethem to a deplorable condition. Fre-struction of the Membrana Tympani; quently they durst not fire on their with an Account of an Operation enemies, for fear of hitting those whom for the Removal of a particular they considered as their brothers, ftill Species of Deafness. By Mr. Aftley more unfortunate than themselves.” Cooper, Pol. ii. p. 209.


ON THE NATURE OF THE SUN-ON ÇXIV. Philosophical Transactions of

DISAP the Royal Society of London, for the PEARANCE OF SOLAR SPOTS. Year 1801. 4to. Part II. Pp. 213. “ THE influence of this eminent With 17 Plates. 175. 6d. Elmly.. body on the globe we inhabit is so

great and so widely diffused, that is becomes almost a duty for us to ftudy the operations which are carried on upon

the solar surface. Since light and I. HISTORICAL and anatomical heat are fo effential to our well-being, Description of a doubtful am

it must certainly be right for us to look phibious Animal of Germany, called into the source from whence they are by Laurenti Proteus Arguinus. By derived, in order to see whether fome Charles Schreibers, M.D. of l'ienna. material advantage may not be drawn -Il. Observations tending to inves: from a thorough acquaintance with tigate the Nature of the Sun, in the causes from which they originate. Order to find the Cauf:s or Symptome Egyptians formerly to study and watch

“ A similar motive engaged the of its variable Emillion of Light and the motions of the Nile; and to conHeat, &c. &c. By William Herschel, firul instruments for meafuring ita L.L.D.F.R.S.-II. Observations rife with accuracy. They knew very on the Structure, &c. of the grinding well, that it was not in their power to Teeth of the wild Boar, and animal add a single inch to the flowing waters Incoynitum. By Everard Home, &c. of that wonderful river; and so, in F.R.S.-IV. Account of some Ex- the cate of the sun's influence, we are periments on the Ascent of the Sap likewife fully aware, that we shall never in Trees. By T. A. Knight, Esq.

be able to occafion the least alteration V. Additional Observations on the in the operations which are carried on

in the folar atmosphere. But, if the Nature of the Sun. By William Herschel, L.L.D. F.R.S.-VI. On

Egyptians could avail themselves of

the indications of a good nilometer, an improved reflecting Circle. By what should hinder us from drawing Jofeph de Mendoza Rios, Esq. F.R.S.

as profitable consequences from folar VII. Observations and Experi- observations. We are not only in pos ments on Dr. James's Powders. By fellion of photometers and thermome



ters, by which we can measure from this we know is liable to be affected time to time the light and heat actually by many fortuitous circumstances. received from the sun, but have more However, although an argument drawn efpecially telescopes, that may lead us from a well ascertained price of wheat, to a discovery of the causes which dif- may not apply directly to our present pose the fun to emit more or less co- purpose, yet, admitting the fun to piously the rays which occasion either be the ultimate fountain of fertility, of them. And, if we should even fail this subject may deserve a short inin this respect, we may at least succeed vestigation, especially as, for want of in becoming acquainted with certain proper thermometrical observations, symptoms or indications, from which no other method is left for our some judgment might be formed of the choice. temperature of the seasons we are likely “ Our historical account of the dis, to have.

appearance of the spots in the sun, “ Perhaps our confidence in solar contains five very irregular and very observations made with this view, unequal periods *. The first takes iti might not exceed that which we now a series of tiventy-one years, from place on the indications of a good 1650 to 1670, both included. But it barometer, with regard to rain or fair is so imperfectly recorded, that it is weather; but, even then, a probability hardly safe to draw any conclusions of a hot fummer, or its contrary, would from it; for we have only a few obseralways be of greater consequence than vations of one or two fpots that were the expectation of a few fair or rainy seen in all that time, and those were days." P. 265.

only observed for a short continuance. “ With regard to the effects of the However, on examining the table of influence of the sun, we know already, the prices of the quarter of nine that in the same latitudes the seasons bushels of the best or highest priced differ widely in temperature; that it wheat at Windsor, marked in Dr. Adam is not hottest at noon, or coldeit at Smith's valuable Inquiry into the Namidnight; that the shortest day is ture and Causes of the Wealth of neither attended with the severest Nations t, we find that wheat, during frosts, nor the longest day with the the time of the twenty-one years above most oppressing heats; that large fo- mentioned, bore a very high price; rests, lakes, moralles, and swamps, the average of the quarter being affect the temperature one way; and 21. 105. Stpd. This period is much rocky, sandy, gravelly, and barren fitu- too long to suppose that we might ations, in a contrary manner; that the safely compare it with a preceding or seasons of islands are confiderably dif- following one of equal duration. Beferent from those of large continents, fides, no particulars having been given and so forth.” P. 312.

of the time preceding, except that “ Refpecting the contemporary fe. spots in the sun, a good while before, verity and mildness of the seasons, it began to grow very scarce, there might will 'hardly be necessary to remark, even be fewer of them than from the that nothing decisive can be obtained. year 1650 to 1670. Of the twentyBut, if we are deficient here, an indi

one years immediately following, we rect source of information is opened to know that they certainly comprehend us, by applying to the influence of the two short periods, in which there were fun-beams on the vegetation of wheat no spots on the fun; of these more in this country. I do not mean to say, will be said hereafter; but, including that this is a real criterion of the quan- even them, we have the average tity of light and heat emanated from price of wheat, from 1671 to 1691, the fun ; much less will the price of only 21. 45. 4şd! the quarter. The difthis article completely represent the ference, which is a little more than as fcarcity or abundance of the absolute nine to eight, is therefore ftill a proof produce of the country. For the price of a temporary scarcity: of commodities will certainly be regu “ Our next period is much better lated by the demand for them; and ascertained. It begins in December

* « See Astronomie par M. Dė la Lande, s 3235."

+ “ See Book I. Chap. XI.VOL. V.-No. LIV.


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