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1676, which year therefore we Mould «. The result of this review of the not take in, and goes to April 1684; foregoing five periods is, that, froma in all which time, Flamferd, who was the price of wheat, it seems probable then observing, Saw no {pot in the sun. that some temporary scarcity or defect The average priee of wheat, during of vegeiation has generally taken place, these eight years, was zl.75. 7d. the when the sun has been without those quarter. We cannot juftly compare appearances which we surmise to be this price with that of the preceding fymptoms of a copious emission of eight years, as fume of the former light and heat. In order, however, to years of scarcity would come into that maké this an argument in favour of period; but the right years immedi- our hypothesis, even if the reality of a ately following, that is, from 1685 to defective vegetation of grain were suf. 1691, both included, give an average ficiently established by its enhanced price of no more than il. 175. 1 d. price, it would still be necetiary to The differunce, which is as full five ihow that 2 deficiency of the folar to four, is well deserving our notice. beams had been the occasion of it.

« A third, but very short period, is Now, those who are acquainted with from the year 1686 to 1688, in which agriculture may remark, that wheat is time Caffini could find no spot in the well known to grow in climates much sun. If both years be included, we colder than ours; and that a proper have the average price of wheat, for distribution of rain and dry weather, those three years, il. 155. 0?d. the with many other circumftances which quarter. We ought not to compare it will not be necelary to mention, are this price with that of the three pre- probably of much greater consequence ceding years, as two of them belong than the abfolute quantity of light and 10 the preceding period of scarcity; heat derived from the lun. To this I but the three following years gire the hall only suggefi, by way of answet, average price for the quarter of wheat that those vary circumítances of pro11. 125. 107 d. or, as nearly eleven to per alterations of rain, dry weather, ten.

winds, or whatever else may contribute " The fourth period on record, is to favour vegetation in this climate, may from the year 2695 to 1990, in which peffibly depend on a certain quantity time no spot could be found in the fun. of sun-beams, transmitted to us at pro

This makes a period of five years; per times: but, this being a point for, in 1700 the pots were fun again. which can only be ascertained by future The average price of wlicat, in these oblervations, i forbear entesir.; faihto ruari, was 36. 3.50 31d. the quar. into a difcufliun of it. ter. The five preceding stais, from

“ It will be thought remarkable, 1640 to 1664, give 21. 9. 4$d. and the that no later periods of the disappear. live following years, from 1700 to

ance of the folar spots can be foud. 1704, give 1!. 175. II d. Thale dif. The reaton, however, is obvious. The terences are both very confiderable ; creased number of observers, have pro

perfection of instruments, and the intive laft is not less than five to three.

“ The fifth period extends from duced an aceount of folar spots, which, 1710 to 1713 ; but here there was one

from their im.allness, or their Mort appot fern in 1710, none in 1711 and pearance, would probably have beez 1712, and again one spot only in 1713. Thould in fatare only reckon the

overlooked in foriner tiines. If we The account of the average price of wl.cat, for these four years, is 2l. 175.4d. spots, even that remarkable price

years of the total absence of solar the quarter. The preceding four years, of scarcity which has fallen under from 1706 to 1709, give the price 21. 35. 74d, and the following years, vertheless, I have now and then fera

any own obfervation, in which, Die from 1714 to 1717, it was al. 6s. ed. When the astronomical account of the

à few spots of short duration and of fun for this period, which has been

no great magnitude, could not be Aated above, is considered, these two

adınitted. vifferences will be found very confider

“ For this reason, we ought now to able; the first of thein being nearly as

diftinguish our folar observations, by for to three.

reducing them to fort periods of

fymptoms

LIST

symptoms for or against a copious

OF PLATES, einillion of the folar beams, in which all the phenomena we have pointed Drawn by Turner, and Engraved by out mould be noticed. The moft

Bafire. ftriking of them are certainly the number, magnitude, and duration of the MAP adapted to the Hiftory.

Edes Tovuleiana. openings. The increase and decrease of the oluminous appearance of the

Locus Benedictus de Whalley (three corragations is perhaps full as effen

Views). tial; but, as it is probable that their Ground Plan of the Abbey of Whalley. brilliancy may be a consequence of the Clitheror, from Eadsford Bridge. abundance of the former phenomena, Bromsholme. an attention to the latter, which is Tub- Haritroid. ject to great difficulties, and requires Garetherp. the very best of telescopes, may not The Fali of Radclife Tower, be so necessary. " What reinains to be added is but The Hall at Litrie Vitton.

Stonyhurt. fhort. In the first of my two series of obfervations, I have pointed out a de- The Sherburne Chapel in Milton Churcás fciency in what appears to be the Three Plates of Antiquities. fymptomatic disposition of the fun for Five Plates of Seals. emitting light and heat : it has lasted from the year 1795 to 1800 * That we have had a considerable deficiency in the vegetation of grain, will hardly

EXTRACTS. require any proof. 'The second feries, er rather the commencement of it, for

WILLIAM HEATLEY, I hope it will last long, has pointed

“ BORN at Dunkenhalgh, now out a favourable return of the rich appearance of the fun.. This, if I may lith Benedi&tine Monastery of Lamb.

very aged man, and abbot of the Eng. venture to judge, will probably occafion a return of such fealone as, in the spring, to which an independent prin. end, will be attended by all theirufus cipality is annexed. Having been differtility.

appointed in the necessary information “ The subject, however, being so

with respect to the life of this dignia new, it will be proper to conclude, bry of the present article; yet am unwil

tary, I have to regret the barrenners adding, that this prediction ought not to be relied on by any one, with ling to lose an opportunity of records more confidence than the arguments parish of Whalley, a finail ,eccle

ing, among the living batives of the which have been brought forwards in fiaftical sovereign. For while the great this Paper may appear to deferve.” spiritual electors of Germany have

been borne down by the tempest which now rages over Europe, it is the privilege of the abbot of Lamba

spring, insulated by the barren plains CXV. An History of the original Parish of Westphalia, to have little but the

of Whalley and Honor of Clitheroe, primitive weslth of mast and higs to in the Counties of Lancaster and

attract the plunderers of mankind; and

while the fertile banks of the Rhine York. · By THOMAS DUNHAM

continue from year to year a field of WHITAKER, LL. D. Fellow of

blood, this diminutive prince remains the Society of Antiquaries. 4to. undisturbed, and may end his days in PP. 483. 31. 35. Blackbura printed; the peaceful retirement of his own Hatchard, Loudon.

cloifters.” P. 460.

P. 313.

*“ This period should properly have been divided into two small ones; but, for want of intermediate folar obfervations, I have joined the visible deficiencies in the illuminating and heating powers of the fun, from the year 1795 to 1796, and again from 1798 to 1800, into one.” 4 P %

JOHN

JOHN TOWNLEY,

• Gallos, Linguz Anglicanæ non nihil “ GRANDSON of Richard Town- peritis facetum Poema Hudibras Dicley, Ffq. and younger son of Charlestum, accurate festiveque Gailice coTownley, Esq. by Ursula Fermor, was nuertit Hrc. JOHANNES TOWNEborn at Townley, 1699, and having "LEY, Caroli Towncley, de Towne, been originally intended for the law, ley, in Agro Lancaitrienfi filius. Nawas placed in the office of the famous tus A. D. 1697—Denatus A. D. Salkeld. But his inclination leading '1782. Grato pioque animo peri cuhim to prefer a military life, he entered • ravit Johannes Towneley nepos. into the French service, and was pre- (A.D. 1799?.P. 466. sent at the hege of Philipsburgh, where the Marshal Duc de Berwick was killed. He was afterwards honoured with the ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF DOMESTIC Cross of St. Louis.

ARCHITECTURE. “ Having spoken, in company with “ A GENERAL history of English Voltaire, and other wits of the time, economics, if executed with taste and at Paris, of the English Poem of Hu- {pirit, would be an amusing and indibras, and translated some small por- teresting work. The following obsertions of that inimitable work almost vations embrace only the subject of a extempore, he was induced to attempt fingle, though important chapter in a version of the whole, which he pub- fuch a volume, extend merely over a lished with the following title: · remote provircial district, and are ani

“Hudibras Poëme, Escrit dans le mated by little more than an ardent • Tems des Troubles d'Angleterre ; et desire of investigating every appear• Traduit en Vers François, avec des ance which can illustrate the manners • Remarques et des Figures.-A Lon- of our ancestors. • dres, 1957.

.." Into what recesses of their native “ With what success he achieved a woods, the inclemency of this climate task of such extreme difficulty, may drove the Setantii, what caves they be conjectured from the following ex- fcooped out of the earth, or what can tract, notwithstanding its brevity. bins they framed for shelter, it were

now as idle to inquire, as it would be • An old dull sot, who told the clock

to investigate where the foxes of those For many years at Bridwell Dock, * At Westminster, and Hicks's Hall,

days burrowed, or the ravens built

their nests. Their attempts to lodge • And Hiccius Doctius play'd in all ;

or secure themselves were flight and •Wherein all governments and times • H' had been both friend and foe to of self-accommodation, and at a time

indolent; in fact, they were careless crimes, • Andus’d two equal ways of gaining, voked to rear the massy columns of a

when whole tribes must have been conBy hind'ring Justice, or maintaining :' temple, they seem to have had no cons • Un vieux Sot, qui comploit les heures ception of the use of stone in the con'Constamment près de ces demeures

struction of dwellings, or even for the 1 Ou sont logés fripons et gueux.

purpofes of fortification, Superftition ! A Westminster et d'autres Lieux,

is evidently the first and most active ! Ou la justice se debite,

principle in the mind of a lavage. • Il etoit partout émérite.

“ What was the general style and • La, fous chaque Gouvernement

disposition of Roman villas we know, M'alloit indifferemment

and thole which had been extended • Poursuivre, ou defendre le crime,

round the common centre of Coccium, • Et par cette double maxime,

if any such there were, would only ! I'l gagnoit a Solliciter

differ from thofe of Italy, as the first • Justice, conime a l'empecher.'

erections of a planter in America vary

from the house and offices of an Eng“ The following infcription, under lịth gentleman at home. an engraving from a miniature portrait, “ The Saxons, among us, without in the portellion of his nephew, will even the exception of churches, built fupply the dates wanted to complete universally with wood: it is therefore this short account,

no wonder that after the lapfe of eight 1: 'Ad impertiendum amicis inter centuries, every mcmorial of such

ftru&urca

Aru&ures should have perished. Be in the time of Henry VII. the arch in lides, their houses, with fome excep- ftone-work became broader and more tions, adapted to their general habits, deprefied in the centre, a correspone'would be rude, and low, and small. ent change was introduced in our an

“ After the Conqueft, our native cient timber buildings. Wooden palforests remaining with little diminu. terns indeed ftill descended to the tion, the use of wood in the construc- ground, but they were now become tion of houses continued to be general; perpendicular, and square, and futed; and the first deviation from this prac- from the top of these, elegant and tice was introduced by the practice ornamental springers received horizonof kernelling and embattling manor tal roof beams, while all was still open houses, of which more hereafter. It to the roof above, and the rafters conis difficult to assign with exactness the tinued to reft on a wall plate. Thus æra of buildings which have no in- the idea of a complete frame, indescribed dates, and of whose erection pendently of the walls, was still prethere are no records. But perhaps we served; but the low basement story of may refer the oldest specimens of stone, fometimes to be obterved in our architecture in wood, now remaining most ancient buildings, now advanced among us, to the time of Edward I. to the square, though the cross pikes Instances of this style are found alike are generally of wood. This precisely in the halls of some ancient manor describes the hall of Little Mitton, and houses, and their gigantic barns, which another noble specimen of somewhat are little less rude than the other. The later date, the west wing of Samlesbury peculiar marks by which they are dif. Hall, built by Sir Thomas Southworth, tinguished are these: the whole struc- A.D. 1532, of which the outer wall, ture has been originally a frame of however, is brick, and the earliest fpewood-work, independent of walls; the cimen of that material with which 1 principals confifting of deep flat beams am acquainted in the compass of this of maliy oak, naturally curved, and work. The wood employed in the of which each pair seems to have been construction of this last manfion, must sawed out of the faine trunk. These almost have laid prostrate a forest; and {pring from the ground, and form a while the principal timbers were carved bold Gothic arch overhead; the spars with great elegance, and the compartreft upon a wall plate, as that is again ments of the roof painted with figures sustained by horizontal spurs, grooved of saints, while the outsides of the into the principals. It was then of no building are adorned with profile heads importance that such erections con- of wood, cut in bold relief within sumed great quantities of the finest huge medallions, it is curious to observe ship-timber; and indeed the appeare that the inner doors are without a ance of one of these rooms is precisely pannel or a lock, and have always been that of the hull of a great ship inverted, opened, like those of modern cottages, and teen from within. Specimens of with a latch and string. I am not sure this most ancient style, in perfection, that pannelling in wainscot was introare the Old Hall of the Manor House, duced before the reign of Queen Elizaat Samlesbury, and the Lawling Stedes beth. It is also remarkable, that in Barn, at Whalley *. In the reign of this house the boards of the upper Henry IV. we have a specimen in the foors, which are indeed maffy planks, hall at Radcliff, of a deviation from instead of crofling, lie parallel to the this primitive model; there the princi- joysts, as if disdaining to be indebted pals have two springers, one from the to the other for support. ground, another from a rude capital, “ Iminediately on the disuse of tim, about eight feet from the ground; but ber buildings, the obtuse arched roof the square of the building is confider was exploded, and a flat roof, divided ably raised, and the arch encroaches into square compartments by contigna. less upon the apartment within. The tions of wood, was introduced, and style of architecture in wood evidently continued in halls more than a century kept pace with that in stone; and when after. Here, however, for a time, the

* « Here, instead of walls, there are nothing but oak boards fixed diagonally, like a Venețian blind."

cross

cross timbers were fluted, and the instance of an entire hall honie, of light perforated (pringers occasioned brick and fone, is Stubley, near Rochthe transition to be less obferved. These dale, unquestionably of that period; svere afterwards succeeded by plain and in the reign of Elizabeth, which corbels of stone, and the moulding was a new æra in domestic architecture, omitted.

nuinbers of old timber halls having “ 'The general decay of native woods, gone to decay, were replaced by strong occafioned an universal disuse of this and plain manfions of stone, yet rematerial in buildings about the latter maiming." P. 472. end of Henry VIII.'s time: the furt

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