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emperor his son, and the like; while harshest treatment, like the common their aim is, certainly, not the ad. Naves. vancement of wisdom and virtue, but “ The town of Azafia, not larger the promotion of their own importance than the fourth part of the town of Maand respect, and of an unlimited do- rocco, is handsomely built, and carries minion over the minds of men. Only on a confiderable commerce, which is then they pray with fervent zeal when increasing from year to year. It is they invoke God and the Prophet to computed that between eighty and exterminate infidels, and destroy here. ninety foreign Tips with mercantile tics. They are employed daily, in- goods arrive in the roadstead of this deed, for some hours, in giving lessons place annually.” Vol. ii. p. 271. to youth; but what they teach only tends to suppress in their tender minds the voice of reason, and to inspire XVII. Afatic Researches; or, Transthem, in its ftead, with a servile fear of the Prophet, and an implicit reve

actions of the Society, instituted in rence for them as his fervants.

Bengal, for inquiring into the Hif“ Polygamy is in general practice tory and Antiquities, the Arts, Here; the Moors, in particular, taking Sciences, and Literature of Alia. not unfrequently four, five, or fix Vol. VI. 4to. pp. 600. Il. 55. wives, and often getting rid of them 8vo. pp. 60. 125.6d, Sewell, with equal facility. No inquisition is Debreti. taken when the wife of a Moor happens suddenly to die; nay, if any one offer to bring testimony that she has been murdered, he is immediately sent INHABITANTS of the Pogey Islands. away with reproof for his forwardness. The Burma Conftellations. If a Moor attach himself to the daugh- The Burma lunar Zodiac. ter of a mechanic, she must be given View of the Cave of Jugnath Subba, up to him, if the whole family would avoid the hazard of having their houses Indur Subba.

near Ellora. plundered, or some individual of it View of Indur Subba, in Ellora. secretly made away with. « The women are kept in a very

Indranee. fequeftered ftate, living in rooms apart

Indur, from the rest. Among the primary Mahdew and Purwutteam-Veer Bud. class of inhabitants, comprehending der. merchants, priests, officers, and the The Door of the Temple of Junwaffoc. like, liberal and honeft men are occa Plan of the grand Temple Keylas. fionally found; the greater part, how; View of Ellora. ever, are people of base and fordid Infide View of Bifurma, or Vifwakurminds; but the priests and officers are of a peculiarly wicked stamp. The

ma Ka Jompree. merchant is obliged to give the tenth External View of ditto. of the articles of his trade, in kind, as A Cingalese Temple, &c. a tribute to the emperor or his vice, Images in the Temple at Oogulbudda. roys; but, besides this, he must liken wife, every week, pay capitation-tax,

CONTENTS. war-tax, security-money *, &c. Over and above these ordinary taxes, volun. DESIDERATA, I. A Dif. tary contributions, or free gifts, are course delivered by Sir Robert Cham. demanded in behalf of the emperor : bers, Knight, President.--- II. Narat the same time, every one must fura rative of a journey from Agra to pish a stated sum for the maintenance of the priests. The Jews are not al. Oujein.--Ill. An Account of the lowed to traffic, or to poffefs any pro- Inhabitants of the Poggy or Nassau perty, but are obliged to perform the Illands, lying off Sumatra.--IV. Obmeaneft offices, and submit to the servations on the Theory of Walls,

*“ This money is paid to the governor, for which he keeps a guard of foldiers, who at night are watchmen at the warehouses of the merchants."



wherein sonte Particulars are investi. under part is occupied by poultry and -1 gated, which have not been consider- hogs, and, as may be supposed, much ed by Writers on Fortification.–V. filth is coilected there. The whole of On the Poison of Serpents--Supple- their clothing consists of a piece of ment to the foregoing Paper. ----VI. coarse cloth, made of the hark of a tree, An Account of the Petroleum Wells, across between the thighs; they wear

worn round the waist, and brought in the Burniha Country.--VII. On beads and other ornaments about the the Maximum of mechanic Powers, neck, of which a linall green bead is and the Effects of Machines when in the most esteemed. Though cocoa-nut Motion.-VIII. On the Religion and trees are in such plenty, they have not Literature of the Burmas.--IX. Nar- the use of oil; and their hair, which rative of a Jolirney to Sirinagur- is black, and might grow long and Enumeration of Plants noticed in the graceful, is, for want of it, and the preceding Tour-Letter fro:n Sir C.

use of combs, in general matted and

plentifully supplied with vermin, which W. Malet, Bart, to the President, on he Subject of the following Paper.- but very common among favage peo

they pick out and eat; a filthy custom, X. Description of the Caves or Ex- ple. They have a method of filing or cavations, on the Mountain, about a grinding their teeth to a point, which Nile to the Eattward of the Town of is alio in ufe on Sumatra. Ellora.--X1. Remarks on some An « Their ftature feldom exceeds five tiquities on the West and Souih Coasts feet and a half, and many among them of Ceylon: written in the Year 1796. fall short of this: some of them are ---X11. On Mount Caucasus.-XIII. extremely well made, with fine-turned On the Antiquity oi tie Surya Sidd- limbs and expressive countenances : hanta, and the Formation of astrono. their colour is like that of the Malays,

a light brown or copper colour. The mical' Cycles therein contained.-- Ap. custom of tattooing or imprinting fipendix.-Rules of the Asiatic Society gures on the skin is general among ----Members of the Asiatic Society. them, of which I shall tay more pre


“ The principal article of their food EXTRACTS.

is fago, which is found in plenty on

these islands. The tree, when ripe, is ISLANDS.

cut down, and the pith, which forms “ THE inhabitants of Poggy INands the fago, taken out, and the mealy are but few; they are divided into part separated from the fibrous, by small tribes, each tribe occupying a maceration and treading it in a large finall river, and living in one village. trough continually supplied with frein On the northern Peggy are seven vil water: the meal fubfides and is kept lage's, of which Cockup is the chief; in bags made of a kind of rush; and on the fullern Popey are five. The in this state it may be preterved for a whole number of people on the two considerable time. When they take it isands amounts, by the best accounts from their store for immediate use, I could procure', only to one thousand some further preparation of washing is four iu dred; the inland parts of the neceflary; but they do not granulate islands are uninhabited. Perah or For- it. One tree will fometimes yield two tone I0and is inhabited by the fame hundred pounds of lago: when they race of people, and is said to contain cook it, it is put into the hollow joints as many inhabitants as the two Poggys. of a thin bamboo, and roasted over the When we consider the mildness of the fire. climate, the cale with which toe inha “ Besides this article, they have a tinants procure wholetore nitritive variety of rourishing plants, such as fuce!, and the little restraint laid on the the yam, the fiveet potatoe, the plancommunication between the fexes, i his tain, &c. Their aniinal food confits paucily cí inhalitants seems to indicate of fowls, hogs, and fith ; fhell-fish they th. t the period when the relirence in eat raw. The use of betel, so common t..fe islands commenced, cannoi be in the East, is unknown to them, and very remote. Their houses are built I obferved in many, marks of the fourof Lamboos and railed on poits; the vy in their mouths.

“ 4 Their


« Their arms confift of a bow and Best meafured one of these war canoes, arrows. The bow is made of the nee which was preserved with great care bong tree, a species of palm, which, under a shed; the floor of it was when of proper age, is very strong and twenty-five feet in length, the prow elastic; the strings are formed of the projected twenty-two feet, and the entrails of some animal; the arrow is stern eighteen, making the whole length made of a small bamboo or other light fixty-five feet; the greateft breadth wood, headed with brass, or with ano was five feet, and the depth three feet ther piece of wood fixed to the end of eight inches. For navigating in their the shaft and cut to a point: these ar rivers and the straits of See Cockup, rows, we are told, are sometimes poi- where the sea is as smooth as glass, they soned. Though strangers to the use use a small canoe, made fiom a single of feathers to steady the night of the tree, constructed with great neatness; arrow, they nevertheless discharge it and tho women and young children are from the bow with much strength and extremely expert in the use of the skill. With a mongrel breed of dogs, paddle. probably procured originally from Su “ The religion of this people, if it matra, they rouse the deer in the can be said they have any, may truly woods, which they sometimes kill with be called the religion of nature. A their arrows; they also kill monkeys belief of the existence of some powers by the same means, and eat their felh. more than human cannot fail to be We observed a few among them who excited among the most uncultivated were in pofleflion of creejes or Malay of mankind, from the obfervations of daggers.

various striking natural phenomena, “ Their knowledge of metals is en such as the diurnal revolution of the tirely derived from their communica- fun and moon; thunder and lightning; tian with the inhabitants of Sumatra. earthquakes, &c. &c., nor will there They are still strangers to the use of ever he wanting among them fome of coin of any kind, and a netal coat superior talents and cunning who will button would be of equal value in acquire an influence over weak minds, their esteem with a piece of gold or file by assuming to themselves an interest ver coin, either of which would imme- with, or a power of controlling those diately be hung about the neck as an or super-human agents: and luch notions rament. A sort of iron hatchet or hand- constitute the religion of the inhabitants bill, called parang, is in much esteem of the Poggys. Sometimes a fowl and with them, and serves as a standard for sometimes a hog is facrificed to avert the value of various commodities, such fickness; to appease the wrath of the as cocoa-nuts, coolit coys, poultry, offended power, or to render it pro&c.

pitious to fome projected enterprise : “ We were informed that the differ- and Mr. Bef was informed that omens ent tribes of Orang Mantawee who in- of good or ill fortune were drawn from habit the Poggy Ilands never war with certain appearances in the entrails of each other; to which account we could the victim. But they have no form of readily give credit from the mildness of religious worlip, nor do they appear their disposition. Indeed, the friendly to have the most distant idea of a future footing upon which they appeared to state of rewards and punishments. live one with another was acircumstance They do not practise circumcifion. too striking to escape our notice; during “ The mode of disposing of their our whole stay with them, and while dead bears a resemblance to that of distributing various pretents among the Otaheitans. Very hortly after them, we never heard a single dispute, death the corpfe is carried to a certain nor observed one angry gesture. They place appropriated for the purpose, however informed us that a feud has where it is deposited on a sort of ftage, long subfifted between the inhabitants called in their language rati aki; it is of the Poggy Inands, and those of drefied with a few beads or such ornasome isand to the northward, whom ments as the perfon was accustomed to they called Sybee. Against these peo- wear in his lifetime; and after strewing ple they fometimes undertake expedi- a few leaves over it, the attendants tions in their war canoes ; but it did leave the ground, and proceed to the not appear that they had engaged in plantation of the deceased, where they any undertaking of this kind lately. Mr. fell a few trees of his planting, and re


turn to their homes. The corpse is The state of slavery is unknown to left to rot, and the bones fall to the these people. ground.

« The custom of tattooing is general “ Among a people whose manners throughout these islands. They call are so simple, whose wants are so eafily it in their language teetee. They begin supplied, and whose poffefsions are so to imprint these marks on boys of seven circumscribed, we are not to look for years of age, but they only trace at any complex system of jurisprudence: first a few outlines. As they advance indeed their code of laws may be com- in years, and go to war, they fill up prised in a few lines.

the marks, the right to which depends “ Their chiefs are but little diftin- on having killed an enemy. Such is guished from the community, either by the account they gave us, and it is authority or by property, their pre- probable enough that this custom may eminence being chiefly displayed at originally have been intended as a public entertainments, of which they mark of military distinction; but such do the honours. They have no judi original intention cannot at present cial powers; all disputes are settled, have place, as the marks are common and crimes adjudged, by a meeting of to every individual, and wars scarce the whole village.

occur once in a generation. The fin Inheritance is by male descent; gures imprinted are the same through, the house or plantation, the weapons out, or the variation, if any, is very and tools of the father, pass to his trifling, excepting that, in some of the male children. Theft, when to a con, young men, the outline only of the fiderable amount, and the criminal is broad mark on the breast is traced, incapable of making reftitution, is li- but this is filled up as they grow older. able to be punished by death.

The women have a star imprinted on “ Murder is punishable by retalia- each shoulder, and generally fome tion; the murderer is delivered to the small marks on the back of the hands. relations of the deceased, who may These marks are imprinted with a put him to death. I was however pointed inftrument, consisting of a informed these crimes are very rare. brass wire fixed perpendicularly into a

“ In marriages, the matter is settled piece of stick, about eight inches in between the parents of the young per- length; this piece is ftruck with anofons; and when agreed upon, the young ther small long stick with repeated man goes to the house of the bride, light strokes. The pigment used for and takes her home: on this occafion this purpose is made of the smoke col. a hog is generally killed, and a feast lected from a species of resin, which is made. Polygamy is not allowed. mixed with water; the operator takes

“ In cases of adultery, where the a ftem of dried grass, or a fine piece of wife is the offender, the injured huf- stick, and dipping the end in the pigband has a right to seize the effects of ment, traces on the skin the outline of the paramour, and sometimes punithes the figure, with great steadiness and his wife by cutting off her hair. When dexterity; then, dipping the brass point the husband offends, the wife has a in the same compofition, he with very right to quit him, and to return to her quick and 'light strokes drives it into parent's house; but in this state of the skin, tracing the outline before separation she is not allowed to marry drawn, which leaves an indelible mark, another; however, in both these cases, Mr. Best submitted to the operation on the matter is generally made up, and his leg, and found it attended with the parties reconciled; and we are in some pain. formed that initances of their occur. “ Such are the customs and manners rence were very unfrequent. Simple of the inhabitants of the Poggy INands, fornication between unmarried persons which lie within fight of Sumatra. is neither a crime nor a disgrace; and The many particulars in which they a young woman is rather liked the bet differ from any set of inhabitants of the ter, and more detired in marriage, for latter island, put it, in my opinion, behaving borne a child; sometimes they yond a doubt that they are of a differhave two or three, when, upon a mar. ent origin, but from whence they came riage taking place, the children are it may not be easy, and probably left with the parents of their mother, will not be thought of importance,


to trace. They have no clear tradition which the fuccess of his practice chiefly to affift in such an inquiry. When Mr. depends. I was often tempted by Best was at their village, on asking wonderful stories concerning the efficafrom whence they originally came, cy of these noftrums, in order to inthey told him from the fun, which he duce me to purchase the secret, which understood as fignifying from the east. fome of them pretended to have been ward." P. 82.

handed down from their fathers for

several generations. Indeed I found ON THE MEDICINE, LITERATURE, &c. a great ipirit of illiberality among my OF THE BURMAS.

brethren of trade; nor were they ex« THE Burmas have among them empt from impofing on the weakness many hiftories, containing an account of the fick, by a pretension to superof the lives and actions performed by natural powers. In spite however of the different families of their princes. all these indire& means of influence, I These hiftories are, I am told, very found them deservedly not in poffeffion fabulous; every action being attend- of an honourable estimation among ed by omens and prodigies. Still how. their countrymen. One curious cuf. ever they may throw fome light on a tom relating to the Burma physicians part of the world hitherto so little may be mentioned. If a young woman known; and I am hopeful soon to be is dangerously ill, the doctor and her able to lay before the learned, a trans- parents frequently enter into an agreelation of the Maha-rafa Wayn-gye, the ment, the doctor undertaking to cure most celebrated historical work of the her. If the lives, the doctor takes her Burmas. These people have also tranf as his property; but if she dies, he lated histories of the Chinese and Siam- pays her value to the parents: for in mese, and the kingdoms of Kathee, the Burma dominions, no parent parts Ko-thanpyee, Pagoo, Saymmay, and with his daughter, whether to be a Laynzayn. Of all these I saw copies, wife, or to be a concubine, without a and several of them I procured for Sir valuable confideration. I do not know John Murray.

whether the doctor is entitled to sell « On medicine the Burmas have fe- the girl again, or if he must retain her veral books. They divide diseases into in his family; but the number of fine ninety-six genera, and of these several young women, which I saw in the are subdivided into many species.- house of a doctor at Myeda, makes Their books contain descriptions of all me think the practice to be very comthe ninety-fix diseases, with various recipes for their cure. Of the animal “ In furgery, the skill of the Bura kingdom, mummy is a favourite me- mas, I believe, goes no farther than dicine. The Burmas are acquainted dresling wounds, and setting bones, with the use of mercury in the cure of Of late indeed they have introduced the venereal disease: but their manner from Arakan the art of inoculation for of giving it is neither certain nor safe. the small-pox. This practice has howThey make a candle of cinnabar and ever not become general, as a very some other materials, and setting fire great proportion of the people's faces to it, the patient inhales the fumes are pitted by that disease. with his noftrils. The patient is how « On law, the Burmas have many ever rarely able to persevere long in treatises; both containing the laws of this course, as it always produces a Menu, and copious commentaries on want of appetite, and extreme languor. these. Whether they still have any The greater part however of the Bur- copies of the law, as originally importma remedies are taken from the vege- ed from Ceylon, I know not: but I table kingdom, especially of the aro- was told, that the Damathat-gye, or mátic kind, nutmegs being one of their code in common use, has suffered femoft favourite medicines. They are veral alterations, and additions, made well acquainted with the plants of by the decrees of various princes. their country, and for a vast number “ I heard of no poetry, which the have appropriate names. On the whole, Burmas possess, except fongs. Of however, the practice of their phyfi- these they have a great number on a cians is almost entirely empirical; and variety of subjects, and are fond of almost every one has, or pretends to quoting them on many occasions.have, a number of private recipes, on Their music, both vocal and intru




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