Photoreceptors and Calcium

Front Cover
Wolfgang Baehr, Krzysztof Palczewski
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 2003 - Medical - 625 pages
1. Calcium and phototransduction. 2 The calcium gradient along the rod outer segment. 3 The time course of light adaptation in vertebrate retinal rods. 4 S-Modulin. 5 Ca2+ Dependent control of rhodopsin phosphorylation: recoverin and rhodopsin kinase. 6 Recoverin and rhodopsin kinase. 7 Pathological roles of recoverin in cancer-associated retinopathy. 8 RGS9-1 phosphorylation and Ca2+. 9 Phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 of the regulation subunit of retinal cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6): its implications in phototransduction. 10 Centrins, a novel group of Ca2+-binding proteins in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. 11 Tuning outer segment Ca2+ homeostasis to phototransduction in rods and cones. 12 Regulation of the rod photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated channel. 13 Ca2+ Channels in the RPE. 14 The retinal rod and cone Na+/Ca2+-K+ exchangers. 15 The complex of cGMP-GATED channel and Na+/Ca2+, K+exchanger in rod photoreceptors. 16 Regulation of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in bipolar cells by divalent cations and polyamines. 17 Site-directed and natural mutations in studying functional domains in guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs). 18 Calmodulin and Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs): variations on a theme. 19 GCAPs: Ca2+-sensitive regulators of retGC. 20 Structure and membrane-targeting mechanism of retinal Ca2+-binding proteins, recoverin and GCAP-2. 21 Target recognition of guanylate cyclase by guanylate cyclase-activating proteins. 22 Mouse models to study GCAP functions in intact photoreceptors. 23 Calcium-dependent activation of guanylate cyclase by S100b. 24 The role of cadherins in Ca2+-mediated cell adhesion and inherited photoreceptor degeneration. 25 Guanylate cyclase activating proteins, guanylate cyclase and disease. 26 Using mutant mice to study the role of voltage-gated calcium channels in the retina. 27 Caldendrins in the inner retina. 28 Calcium channels at the photoreceptor synapse. 29 On bipolar cells: following in the footsteps of phototransduction. 30 Ca2+ regulation of Drosophila phototransduction. 31 Simultaneous roles for Ca2+ in excitation and adaptation of Limulus ventral photoreceptors. 32 Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells. 33 Photoreceptor degeneration and Ca2+ influx through light-activated channels of Drosophila. 34 The TRP calcium channel and retinal degeneration.
 

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Contents

CALCIUMAND PHOTOTRANSDUCTION
1
Calcium and Regulation of Light Sensitivity 1
17
The Calcium Gradient
25
THE TIME COURSE OF LIGHT ADAPTATION
37
How Rapidly can Adaptation Operate?
48
What Underlies the Slow Phase of Adaptation?
54
Model of Light Adaptation During Continuous Illumination
57
Mechanism of Inhibition of Rhodopsin Phosphorylation
63
CaSENSITIVE REGULATORS OF retGC
319
CaDependent Regulation of retGC Activity by GCAPs
326
STRUCTURE AND MEMBRANETARGETING MECHANISM
333
Mechanism of the CaMyristoyl Switch
342
TARGET RECOGNITION OF GUANYLATE CYCLASE
349
Target Regions in ROSGC1
353
MOUSE MODELS TO STUDY GCAP FUNCTIONS
361
Effect of Restoring GCAP2 in GCAPs Photoreceptors
372

CaDEPENDENT CONTROL OF RHODOPSIN
69
Rhodopsin Kinase
76
Recoverin as a CaSensor of Rhodopsin Kinase in vitro
87
RECOVERIN AND RHODOPSIN KINASE
101
PATHOLOGICAL ROLEs of RECOVERIN
109
Molecular Pathology in CAR
115
Conclusion
122
RGS91 PHOSPHORYLATION AND Ca
125
PHOSPHORYLATION BY CYCLINDEPENDENT PROTEIN
131
Previous Studies Suggesting PDE Regulation by Py Phosphorylation
143
CENTRINS ANOVEL GROUP OF CaBINDING PROTEINS
155
Centrins Cellular Localization and Function
162
CentrinTransducin Complex
168
TUNING OUTER SEGMENT Ca HOMEOSTASIS
179
The Maximum Rate of Outer Segment Ca Clearance is Higher in Cones
186
Functional Consequence of RodCone Differences in Ca Homeostasis
192
REGULATION OF THE ROD PHOTORECEPTOR
205
Interaction of the Rod Channel with Other ROS Membrane Proteins
219
CaCHANNELS IN THE RPE
225
The Physiological Role of LType Channels in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium
231
THE RETINAL ROD AND CONE NaCaK EXCHANGERS
237
Chromosomal Localization of the Human Retinal Rod and Cone
243
Analysis of the Rod and Cone NaſCaK Exchanger Sequences
247
Paul J Bauer
253
An Intriguing Problem
259
SelfInhibition of the ExchangerAn Allosteric Regulatory Mechanism?
266
REGULATION OF VOLTAGESENSITIVE Ca CHANNELS
275
Conclusion
284
SITEDIRECTED AND NATURAL MUTATIONS IN STUDYING
291
Naturally Occurring Mutations in GCAP1 Associated with
297
CaRPS
310
Conclusion
383
CALCIUMDEPENDENT ACTIVATION OF GUANYLATE
389
Identification of CDGCAP as S100b
395
Role of Cadherins in Human Disease
403
GUANYLATECYCLASE AND DISEASE
411
GCAP1 and Retinal Disease
422
Conclusion
431
USING MUTANT MICE TO STUDY THE ROLE
439
Conclusions and Future Directions
448
Biochemical Features of Caldendrin
456
CALCIUM CHANNELSAT THE PHOTORECEPTORSYNAPSE
465
VoltageGated Ca Channels at the Presynaptic Terminals
467
Conclusion
473
The ON Bipolar Cells Synaptic Receptors
479
Does Calcium Influence Transient Signals?
488
Ca Control of the Rhodopsin Photocycle
494
CaCalmodulin Control of the LightGated TRP and TRPL Channels
501
SIMULTANEOUS ROLES FOR Ca IN EXCITATION
507
Role of Ca in Excitation
520
Intracellular Ca Elevation Produces Light Adaptation
527
CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN
539
Physiological and Molecular Components Involved in Calcium Homeostasis
545
Form and Function of the Calcium Signals
553
The Molecular Targets of Calcium Feedback in the Microvilli
564
Calcium Signals in the Photoreceptor Cells of Another Insect
570
PHOTORECEPTOR DEGENERATION AND Ca
585
Conclusion
596
The Drosophila TRP and TRPL Channels
604
Conclusion
618
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