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abroad acquired admitted advance advantage afford Britain British capital carried cent cial circumstances cloth coins commerce commodities competition consequence considerable corn cotton coun cwts dealers demand duce duction duties Edward Edward III Edward IV effect employed employment enacted engaged England English equal established exchange expense exportation extent favour Flanders foreign trade France French French wine Gironde gold Henry VII house of Tudor importation improvement increase individuals industry influence injury intercourse interest invention labour land less London manufacture means measures ment merce merchants metals Methuen treaty nations navigation occasioned peculiar period ports Portugal principle produce profit prohibition protection quantity regulations reign render respect restrictions Richard III roads sell ships silk silver sion sort Spain species statute sumers supply supposed tain tion towns treaty wealth wine wool woollen
Page 109 - del Mare,' founded principally on the basis of the Roman law, but interspersed with rules and regulations of a later origin, appears to have been issued at Barcelona somewhere about the end of the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century, and speedily obtained great authority among the nations bordering on the Mediterranean. The collection of sea laws, entitled the
Page 93 - to come into England, to reside in and go through England, as well by land as by water ; to buy and sell without any manner of evil tolls, by the old and rightful customs, except in time of war ; and if they be of a land making war against us, and such be found in our
Page 59 - foreign goods dearer, but to sell our own cheaper, than if there was a more perfect freedom of trade. As defence, however, is of much more importance than opulence, the act of navigation is, perhaps, the wisest of all the commercial regulations of
Page 69 - against every restrictive regulation of trade, not essential to the revenue, against all duties merely protective from foreign competition, and against the excess of such duties as are partly for the purpose of revenue and partly for that of protection, that the prayer of the present petition is respectfully submitted to the wisdom of parliament.
Page 18 - standards of lineal measure seem to have been, for the most part, derived from portions of the human body : as the cubit, or length of the arm from the elbow to the tip of the middle The determination of the specific gravity or weight of different bodies supposes the invention of the
Page 12 - human appetite; yet, if the fisherman will ply his net, or the mariner fetch rice from foreign countries, in order to procure to himself this indulgence, the market is supplied with two important articles of provision, by the instrumentality of a merchandise which has no other apparent use than the gratification of a vitiated
Page 84 - To suppose that any nation was unalterably the enemy of another, was weak and childish. It had neither its foundation in the experience of nations, nor in the history of man. It was a libel on the constitution of political societies, and supposed diabolical malice in the original frame of man.' At the same time, however, we
Page 37 - one artificer has over his neighbour who exercises another trade, and yet they both find it more advantageous to buy of one another, than to make what does not belong to their particular trades.' (Wealth of Nations, ii., p. 283.)
Page 68 - founded were followed out consistently, it would not stop short of excluding us from all foreign commerce whatsoever. And the same train of argument, which, with corresponding prohibitions and protective duties, should exclude us from foreign trade, might be brought forward to justify the re-enactment of
Page 68 - (unconnected with public revenue,) among the kingdoms composing the union, or among the counties of the same kingdom. ' That an investigation of the effects of the restrictive system, at this time, is peculiarly called for, as it may, in the opinion of your petitioners, lead to a. strong presumption that the distress which now so generally prevails is