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be understood as an addition to Roldan's name, but merely as a participle, expressing that he was enchanted, or made invulnerable by enchantment.

But this is a small matter. And perhaps encantador may be an error of the press for encantado. From this digression Dr. W. returns to the subject of the old romances in the following manner. “ This driving the Saracens out of France and Spain, was, as we say, the Jubject of the elder romances. And the forji that was printed in Spain was the famous Amadis de Gaula." According to all common rules of construction, I think the latter sentence must be understood to imply, that Amadis de Gaula was one of the elder romances, and that the subject of it was the driving of the Saracens out of France and Spain; whereas, for the reasons already given, Amadis, in comparison with many other romances, must be considered as a very modern one; and the subject of it has not the least connection with any driving of the Saracens whatsoever.-But what follows is ftill more extraordinary. When this fubjet was well exhausted, the affairs of Europe afforded them another of the same nature. For after that the western parts had pretty well cleared themselves of these inhofpitable guests; by the excitements of the popes, they carried their arms against them into Greece and Afia, to support the Byzantine empire, and recover the holy jepulchre. This gave birth to a new tribe of romances, which we may call of the second race or class. And as Amadis de Gaula was at the head of the first, fo, correspondently to the subjeti, Amadis de Græcia was at the head of the latter."-It is impossible I apprehend, to refer this subjet to any antecedent but that in the paragraph laft quoted, viz. the driving of the Saracens out of France and Spain. So that, according to one part of the hypothesis here laid down, the subject of the driving the Saracens out of France and Spain, was well exhauited by the old romances (with Amadis de Gaula at the head of them) before the Crusades; the first of which is generally placed in the year 1095: and, according to the latter part, the crusades happened in the interval between Amadis de Gaula, and Amadis de Græcia; a space of twenty, thirty, or at most fifty years, to be reckoned backwards from the year 1532, in which year an edition of Amadis de Græcia is mentioned by Du Fresnoy. What induced Dr. W. to place .Imadis de Græcia at the head of his second race or class of romances, I cannot guess. The fact is, that Amadis de Græcia is no more concerned in supporting the Byzantine empire, and recovering the holy sepulchre, than Amadis de Gaula in driving the Saracens out of France and Spain. And a ftill more pleasant circumstance is, that Amadis de Gracia, through more than nine tenths of his history, is hiinself a declared Pagan.

And here ends Dr. W.'s account of the old romances of chivalry, which he supposes to have had their ground-work in Turpin's hiftory. Before he proceeds to the others, which had their groundwork in our Geoffry, he interposes a curious solution of a puzzling

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question concerning the origin of lying in romances.--" Nor zero the monstrous embellishments of enchantments, &c. the invention of the romancers, but formed upon eastern tales, brought thence by travellers from their crusades and pilgrimages; which indeed have a caft peculiar to the wild imaginations of the eastern people. We have a proof of this in the Travels of Sir J. Maundevile.”—He then gives us a story of an enchanted dragon in the isle of Cos, from Sir J. Maundevile, who wrote his 'Travels in 1356; by way of proof, that the tales of enchantments, &c. which had been current here in romances of chivalry for above two hundred years before, were brought by travellers from the Eat! The proof is certainly not conclufive, On the other hand, I believe it would be easy to Mow, that, at the time when romances of chivalry began, our Europe had a very fufficient ftock of lies of her own growth, to furnish materials for every variety of monffrous embellishment. At moft times, I conceive, and in most countries, imported lies are rather for luxury than necessity.

Dr. W. comes now to that other ground-work of the old romances, our Geoffry of Monmouth. And him he dispatches very Mortly, because, as has been observed before, it is impossible to find any thing in him to the purpose of crusades, or Saracens. Indeed, in treating of Spanish romances, it must be quite unnecessary to say much of Geoffry, as, whatever they have of the British Arthur and his cose jurer Merlin,is of so late a fabrick, that, in all probability, they took it from the more modern Italian romances, and not from Geoffry's own book. As to the doubt, Whether it was by blunder or design that they changed the Saxons to Saracens," I Tould wish to poftpone the consideration of it, till we have some Spanish romance before us, in which king Arthur is introduced carrying on a war against Saracenso

And thus, I think, I have gone through the several facts and arguments, which Dr. W. has advanced in support of his third pofition. In fupport of his two firft positions, as I have observed already, he has said nothing; and indeed nothing can be said. The reinainder of his note contains another hypothesis concerning the ftrange jumble of nonsense and religion in the old romances, which I thall not examine. The reader, I presume, by this time is well aware, that Dr. W.'s information upon this subject is to be received with caution. I Mall only take a little notice of one or two facts, with which he sets out." In these old romances there was much religious fuperftition mixed with their other extravagancies; as appears even from their very names and titles. The first romance of Lancelot of the Lake and King Arthur and his Knights, is called the History of Saiot Graal.–So another is called Kyrie eleison of Montauban. For in these days Deuteronomy and Paralipomenon were supposed to be the rames of holy men. I believe no one, who has ever looked into che common romance of king Arthur, will be of opinion, that the pare

relating to the Saint Graal was the first romance of Lancelot of the Lake and King Arthur and his Knights. And as to the other supposed to be called Kyrie eleison of Montauban, there is no reason to believe that any romance with that title ever existed. This is the mistake, which, as was hinted above, Dr. W. appears to have borrowed from Huet. The reader will judge. Huet is giving an account of the romances in Don Quixote's library, which the curate and barber faved from the flames.-" Ceux qu'ils jugent dignes d'etre gardez font les quatre livres d'Amadis de Gaule, Palmerin d'Angleterre,

-Don Belianis; le miroir de chevalerie; Tirante le Blanc, et Kyrie eleison de Montauban (car au bon vieux temps on croyoit que Kyrie éleijon et Paralipomenon etoient les noms de quelques faints) où les subtilitez de la Damoiselle Plaisir-de-ma-vie, et les tromperies de la Veuve reposée, font fort louées.”_It is plain, I think, that Dr. W. copied what he says of Kyrie eleison of Montauban, as well as the witticism in his laft sentence, from this passage of Huet, though he has improved upon his original by introducing a faint Deuteronomy, upon what authority I know not. It is still more evident (from the pas. fage of Cervantes, which is quoted below*) that Huet was mistaken in fuppofing Kyrie éleifon de Montauban to be the name of a separate romance. He might as well have made La Damoiselle Plaisir-de-mavie and La Veuve reposée the names of separate romances. All three are merely characters in the romance of Tirante le Blanc.-And so much for Dr. W.'s account of the origin and nature of romances of chivalry. TYRWHITT.

No future editor of Shakspeare will, I believe, readily consent to omit the dissertation here examined, though it certainly has no more relation to the play before us, than to any other of our author's dramas. Mr. Tyrwhitt's judicious observations upon it have given it a value which it certainly had not before; and, I think, I may venture to foretell, that Dr. Warburton's futile performance, like the pismire which Martial tells us was accidentally incrusted with amber, will be ever preserved, for the sake of the admirable comment in which it is now enshrined.

quæ fuerat vitâ contempta manente, Funeribus facta est nunc pretiofa fuis. MALONE.

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* Don Quix. lib. 1. c. 6. " Valame Dios, dixo el Cura, dando una gran voz, que aqui efté Tirante el Blanco! Dadmele acà, compadre, que hago cuenta que he hallado en el un tesoro de contento, y una mina de passatiempos. Aqui está Don Quiricleyson de Montalvan, valeroso Cavallero, y su hermano Tomas de Montalvan, y el Cavallero Fonseca, con la batalla que el valiente Detriante (r. de Tirante] hizo con el alano, y las agudezas de la Donzella Plazer de mi vida, con los amores y embuftes de la viuda Reposada, y la Señora Emperatriz, enamorado de Hippolito su escudero."

Aqui eftà Don Quirieleyson, &c. HERE, i. e. in tbe romance of Tirante al Blanco, is Don Quirielezson, &c.

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MERCHANT OF VENICE.*

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