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Blyth, ML, on distinctness of Indian
cattle, 28.

_ on striped Hemionus, 154.

—— on crossed geese, 225.

Boar. shoulder-pad of, 86.

Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer, 41.

Bury St. Vincent on Batrachians, 336.

Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus, 267.

Boulders, erratic, on the Azores, 313.

Branchise, 176.

Brent, Mr, on house-tumblers, 195.

Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo, 197.

Britain, mammals of, 338.

Bronn, Prof., on duration of specific
forms, 256.

-—various objections by, 122.

Brown, Robert, on classification, 354.

-——-Séquard on inherited epilepsy, 132.

Buckman on variation in plants, 22.

Bugsareingues on sterility of varieties,

‘ 8.

CABBAGE, varieties of, crossed, 94.
Calceolaria, 224.
Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids, 225.
Cape de Verde islands, 341.
Cape of Good Hope, plants of, 124, 322.
Cassini on flowers of composites, 140.
Catasetum, 361.
Cats, with blue eyes, deaf, 22.
———variation in habits of, 88.
— curling tail when going to spring, 184.
Cattle destroying fir-trees, 72.
— destroyed by flies in Paraguay, 72.
—— breeds, of, locally extinct, 103.
—— fertility of Indian and European
breeds, 226.
Cave, inhabitants of, blind, 134.
Celts, proving antiquity of man, 28.
tires of creation, 303.
Cephalopodxe, development of, 375.
lus, 25.
Cetacea, teeth and hair, 140.
Ceylon, plants of, 322.
Chalk formation, 280.
Characters, divergence of, 104.
—-- sexual, variable, 144.
—— adaptive or analogical, 363.

Charlock, 76.
Checks to increase, 68.
mutual, 71.

Chickens, instinctive lameness of, 196.
Chtharnalinas, 251.
Chthamalus, crctacean species of, 267.
Circumstances favourable to selection of
domestic products, 45.
to natural selection, 96.
Cirripedes capable of crossing, 95.
—— carapace aborted, 142.
— their ovigerous frena, 177.
fossil, 265.
*— larva of, 378.
Classification, 351.
Cliff, ML, on the succession of types, 294.
Climate, effects of, in checking increase
of beings, 69.
— adaptation of, to organisms, 136.
Cobitas, intestine of, 175.
Cockroach, 76.
Collections, palmontological, poor, 250.
Colour, influenced by climate, 130.
—— in relation to attacks by flies, 181.

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Colombia livia,
pigeons, 81.
Colymbetes, 831.

Compensation of growth, 141.

Composite, outer and inner florets of, 140.

-—-— male flowers of, 882.

Conclusion, general, 405.

Conditions, slight changes in, favourable
to fertility, 235.

Convergence of genera, 123.

Coot, 171.

Coral-islands, seeds drifted to, 311.

-——— reefs, indicating movements of
earth, 270.

Corn-crake, 171.

Correlation of growth in domestic pro-
ductions, 22.

—— of growth, 138, 182.

Cowslip, 53.

Creation, single centres of, 304.

Crinum, 223.

Crosses, reciprocal, 280.

Crossing of domestic animals, importance
in altering breeds, 2

-——- advantages of, 91.

— unfavourable to selection, 96.

Crustacea of New Zealand, 823.

Crustacean, blind, 134.

Cryptoocrus, 214.

Ctenomys, bl'md, 185.

Cuckoo, instinct of, 107.

Currants, grafts of, 232.

Currents of sea, rate of, 810.

Cuvier on conditions of existence, 188.

Cuvier, on fossil monkeys, 266.

——- Fred, on instinct, 189.

parent of domestic

DANA, Prof, on blind cave-animals, 135.

— n relations of crustaceans of Japan,
320.

—-— on crustaceans of New Zealand, 823.

De Candolle on struggle for existence, 64.

—— on umbelliferaz, 141.

—— on general affinities, 366.

—— Al h., on low plants, widely dis-
pers , 346. _
——on widely-ranging plants being

variable, 57.
on naturalisation, 107.
on winged seeds, 141.
— on Alpine species suddenly
becoming rare, 162.
————~— on distribution of plants with
large Sccds, 811.
on vegetation of Australia, 325.
on fresh-water plants, 381.
on insular plants. 833.
Degradation of coast-rocks, 2-18.

' Denudation, rate of, 249.

—— of oldest rocks, 269.

-——- of granitic areas, 255.
Development of ancient forms, 291.
Devonian system, 289.

Dianthus, fertility of crosses, 228.
Dirt on feet of birds, 313.

Dispersal, means of, 308.

—- during glacial period, 315.
Distribution, geographical, 300.
means of, 309

Disuse, effects of, under nature, 131.
Divergence of character, 104.
Division, physiological, of labour, 107.

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Dogs, hairless, with imperfect teeth, 23.
—— descended from several wild stocks,
29.

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domestic instincts of, 195.

—— inherited civilisation of, 196.

—— fertility of breeds together, 220.

-——-— of crosses, 236.

——— proportions of, when young, 377.

Domestication, variation under, 19

Downing, ML, on fruit-trees in America,
83.

Dragon-flies, intestines of, 175.

Drift-timber, 311.

Driver-ant, 216.

Drones killed by other bees, 185.

Duck, domestic, wings of, reduced, 22.

-— logger-headed, 168.

Duckweed, 330.

Dugong, affinities of, 853.

Dung-beetles with deficient tarsi, 132.

Dyticns, 831.

EAsklé, Mr. W., on the Malay Archipelago,

3 .

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Ears, drooping, in domestic animals, 22.

—— rudimentary, 384.

Earth, seeds in mots of trees, 81!.

Eciton, 214.

Economy of organization, 143.

Edentata, teeth and hair, 14L).

— fosil species of, 296.

Edwards, Milne, on physiological divisions
of labour, 117.

— on gradations of structure, 179.

~— on embryological characters, 356.

Eggs, yous: birds escaping from, 85.

Egypt, pr notions of, not modified, 121.

Electric organs, 177.

Elephant, rate of increase. 69.

—— of glacial period, 137.

Embryology. 372.

Epilepsy inherited, 132.

Existence, struggle for, 65.

—- conditions of, 188.

Extincticn, as bearing on natural selection,
113.

-—— of domestic varieties, 114.

~— 278.

Eye, structure of, 172.

~~—- correction for aberration, 184.

Eyes reduced in moles, 133.

FABRE, M. on parasitic sphex, 198.

Falconer, Du, on naturalisation of plants
in India, 67.

-— on elephants and mastodons, 289.

-— and Cautley on mammals of sub-
Himalayan beds, 295.

Falkland Islands, wolf of,'837.

Faults, 249.

Faunas, marine, 801.

Fear, instinctive, in birds, 196.

Feetlof birds young molluscs adhering to,

33 .

Fertility of hybrids, 223.

-— from slight changes in conditions,
236.

--— of crossed varieties, 236.
Fir-trees destroyed by cattle, 72.
pollen of, 185.

Fish, flying, 109.

j l-‘isltii,7 teleostean, sudden appearance of,

eating seeds, 312, 332.
-— fresh-water, distribution of, 329.
Fishes, ganoid, now confined to frfih
water, 101.
—- electric organs of, 177.
ganoid, living in fresh water, 279.
—— of southern hemisphere, 823.
Flight, powers of, how acquired, 168.
Flint-tools, proving antiquity of man, 28.
Florida, pigs of, 83.
Flowers, structure of,
crossing, 92.
of composites and umbelliferai, 140.
Forbes, Mr. D.. on glacial action in the
Andes, 821.
-—— 13., on colours of shells, 130.
—-on abrupt range of shells in depth,
163.
—— on poomcss of
collections, 250.
—-on continuous succession of genera,
275.
—— on continental extensions, 308.
on distribution during glacial period.
815.
—— on parallelism in time and 5 rice, 349.
Forests, changes in, in America, 4.
Formation, Devonian, 289.
Formations, thickness of, in Britain, 307.
intermittent, 258.
Formica rufescens, 198.
-— sanguinea, 199.
-— flava, neuter of, 21‘.
Forms, lowly organised long enduring, 120.
Frena, ovigerous, of cirripedes, 177.
Fresh-water productions, dispersal of, 329.
Fries, on species in large genera being
closely allied to other spedes, 60.
Frigate-bird, 171.
rogs on islands, 336.
Fruit-trees, gradual improvement of, 43.
-—--— in United States, 83.
—— varieties of, acclimatised in
United States, 138.
Fuci, crossed, 283.
Fur, thicker in cold climates, 131.
Furze, 878.

in relation to

paleontological

GALAPAGOS Aacnmiuloo, birds of, 384.
-—- productions of, B40, 342.
Galeopithecus, 167.

Game, increase of, checked by vermin, 70.
Girtner on sterility of hybrids, 220, 226.
-— on reciprocal crosses, 229.

-— on crossed maize and Verbascum, 238.

-— on comparison of hybrids and
mongrels, 240.

Geese, fertility whm crossed, 225.

-— upland, 171.

Genealogy important in classification, 7160.

Geoffrey St. Hilaire on balancement. 141.

-——-on homologous organs, 368.

——- Isidore, on variability of repeated
parts, 143.

_— on correlation in monstronties,
22.

on correlation, 139.
on variable parts being often
monstrous, 148.
Geographical distribution, 300.

the surface of the globe at long intervals by a distinct act
of creative power; and it is well to recollect that such
an assumption is as unsupported by tradition or revelation
as it is opposed to the general analogy of nature. If, on
the other hand, we view ‘ Persistent Types ’ in relation
to that hypothesis which supposes the species living at
any time to be the result of the gradual modification of
pre-existing species—a hypothesis which, though unproven,
and sadly damaged by some of its supporters, is yet the
only one to which physiology lends any countenance;
their existence would seem to show that the amount of
modification which living beings have undergone during
geological time is but very small in relation to the whole ‘
series of changes which they have suffered."

In December, 1859, Dr. Hooker published his ‘ In-
troduction to the Australian Flora.’ In the first part of
this great work he admits the truth of the descent and
modification of species, and supports this doctrine by
many original observations.

The first edition of this work was published on November
24th, 1859, and the second edition on January 7th, 1860.

INDEX

Ansnnn'r groups, 365.

Abyssinia, plants of, 325.

Acclimatisation, 136.

Afiinities of extinct species, 285.

—— of organic beings, 351.

Agassiz on Amblyopsis, 136.

— on groups oi species suddenly ap-
pearing, 271.

-— on embryological succession, 294.

— on the glacial period, 315.

— on embryological characters, 356.

-— on the latest tertiary forms, 260.

——- on parallelism of embryological
development and geological succes-
sion. 380.

Algae of New Zealand, 323.

Alligators, males, fighting, 86.

Amblyopsis, blind fish, 136.

America, North, productions allied
those of Europe, 315.

boulders and glaciers of, 321.

— South, no modern formations
west coast, 252.

Ammonites, sudden extinction of, 279.

Anagallis, sterility of, 221.

Analogy of variations, 153.

Ancylus, 331.

Animals, not domesticated from being
variable, 27

—— domestic, descended from several
stocks, 28.

-—-— acelimatisation of, 137.

-— of Australia, 108.

-— with thicker fur in cold climates, 131.

—- blind. in mves, 133.

— extinct. of Australia, 294.

Anomrna, 216.

Antarctic islands, ancient flora of, 341.

Antirrhinum, 152.

Ants, attending aphides, 192.

—— slave-making instinct, 198.

neuter, structure of, 212.

Aphides, attended by ants, 192.

Aphis, deVelopment of, 375.

Apteryx, 168.

Arab horses, 41.

Aralo-Caspian Sea, 295.

Archiac, M. de, on the succession of
species, 282.

Artichoke, Jerusalem, 138.

Ascension, plants of, 334.

Asclepias, pollen of, 178.

Asparagus, 310.

Aspicarpa, 356.

Asses, striped, 154.

improved by selection, 47.

Ateuchus, 132.

Audubon on habits of frigate-bird, 171.

on variation in birds‘ nests, 192

--— on heron eating seeds, 332.

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Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Indian
cattle, 28.

-——- on striped Hemionus, 154.

— on crossed geese, 225.

Boar. shoulder-pad of, 86.

Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer, 41.

Bory St. Vincent on Batrachians, 338.

Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus, 267.

Boulders, erratic, on the Azores, 313.

Branchize, 176.

Brent, ML, on house-tumblers, 195.

Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo, 197.

Britain, mammals of, 338.

Bronn, Proi., on duration of specific
forms, 256.

— various objections by, 122.

Brown, Robert, on classification, 354.

———Séquard on inherited epilepsy, 132.

Buckxnan on variation in plants, 22.

Buzzsareingues on sterility of varieties,

‘8.

CABBAGE, varieties of, crossed, 94.
Calceolaria, 224.
Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids, 225.
Cape de Verde islands, 341.
Cape of Good Hope, plants of, 124, 322.
Cassini on flowers of oompositae, 140.
Catasetum. 361.
Cats, with blue eyes, deaf, 22.
——- variation in habits of, 88.
———- curling tail when going to spring, 184.
Cattle destroying fir-trees, 72.
—— destroyed by flies in Paraguay, 72.
—— breeds, of, locally extinct, 103.
—-—~ fertility of Indian and European

breeds, 226.
Cave, inhabitants of, blind, 134.
Celts, proving antiquity of man, 28.

tres of creation, 303.
Cephalopodee, development of, 875.
ulus, 225.
Cetacea, teeth and hair, 140.
Ceylon, plants of, 322.
Chalk formation, 280.
Characters, divergence of, 104.
——sexual, variable, 144.
~-— adaptive or analogical, 363.
Cbarlock, 76.
Checks to increase, 68.
mutual, 71.

Chickens, instinctive tameness of, 196.
Chihamalina, 251.
Chthamalus, cretacean species of, 267.
Circumstances favourable to selection of

domestic products, 45.

to natural selection, 96.

Cirripedes capable of crossing, 95.
——- carapace aborted, 142,
—— their ovigerous frena, 177.
————- fossil, 266.
~ — larva of, 373.
Classification, 351.
Cliff, Mn, on the succession of types, 294.
Climate, effects of, in checking increase

of beings, 69.
—-— adaptation of, to organisms, 136.
Cobites, intestine of, 17s.
Cockroach, 76.
Collections, paleontological, poor, 250.
Colour, influenced by climate, 130.
—— in relation to attacks by flies, 181.

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Colombia livia, domestic
pigeons, 31.
Colymbetes, 831.

Compensation of growth, 141.

Compositze, outer and inner florets of, 140.

-—— male flowers of, 382.

Conclusion, general, 405.

Conditions, slight changes in, favourable
to fertility, 235.

Convergence of genera, 123.

Coot, 171.

Coral-islands, seeds drifted to, 311.

reefs, indicating movements of
earth, 270.

Corn-crake, 171.

Correlation of growth in domestic pro-
ductions, 22.

— of growth, 138, 182.

Cowslip, 53.

Creation, single centres of, 304.

Crinuin, 223.

Crosses, reci rocal, 230.

Crossing of omestic animals, importance
in altering breeds, 29.

—- advantages of, 91.

———unfavourable to selection, 96.

Crustacea of New Zealand, 323.

Crustacean, blind, 134.

Cryptocerus, 214.

Cfenomys, blind, 183-

Cuckoo, instinct of, 197.

Currants, grafts of, 232.

Currents of sea, rate of, 310.

Cuvier on conditions of existence, 188.

Cuvier, on fossil monkeys, 266.

~— Fred, on instinct, 189.

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