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into these words : “ By God's death, these are but inventions against this young man, and all his sufferings are for being able to do us service, and these complaints urged to forestal him therein. But we find him to be a man fit to be employed by ourselves; and we will employ him in our service: and Wallop and his adherents shall know that it shall not be in the power of any of them to wrong him. Neither shall Wallop be our treasurer any longer.” She gave orders not only for Mr. Boyle's present enlargement, but also for paying all the charges and fees his confinement had brought upon him, and gave him her hand to kiss before the whole alfembly. A few days after, the queen constituted him clerk of the council of Munfter, and recommended him to sir George Carew, afterwards earl of Totness, then lord president of Munster, who became his constant friend; and very soon after he was made justice of the peace and of the quorum, throughout all the province. He attended in that capacity the lord president in all his employments, and was sent by his lordship to the queen, with the news of the victory gained in December 1601, near Kinsale, over the Irish and their spanish auxiliaries, who were totally routed, 1200 being slain in the field, and 800 wounded. “ Í made,” says he, “ a speedy expedition to the court, for I left my lord president at Shannon-castle, near Cork, on the Monday morning about two of the clock; and the next day, being Tuesday, I delivered my packet, and supped with fir Robert Cecil, being then principal secretary of state, at his house in the Strand; who, after supper, held me in discourse till two of the clock in the morning; and by seven that morning called upon me to attend him to the court, where he presented me to her majesty in her bedchamber."

Upon his return to Ireland, he allifted at the fiege of Beerhaven-castle, which was taken by storm, and the garrison put to the sword. After the reduction of the western part of the province, the lord president sent Mr. Boyle again to England, to procure the queen's leave for his return; and having advised him to purchase fir Walter Raleigh's lands in Munfter, he gave him a letter to fir Robert Cecil secretary of state, containing a very advantageous account of Mr. Boyle's abilities, and of the services he had done his country; in consideration of which, he defired the secretary to introduce him to fir Walter, and recommend him as a proper purchaser for his lands in Ireland, if he was disposed to part with them. He wrote at the same time to fir Walter himself, advising him to sell Mr. Boyle all his lands in Ireland, then untenanted and of no value to him, having, to his lordship's knowledge, never yielded him any benefit, but, on the contrary, stood him in 20cl. yearly for the support of his titles. At a meeting between fir Robert Cecil, fir Walter Ra


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leigh, and Mr. Boyle, the purchase was concluded by the mediation of the former [E].

In 1602, Mr. Boyle, by advice of his friend fir George Carew, made his addreiles to Mrs. Catherine Fenton, daughter of fir George Fenton, whom he married on the 25th of July 1603, her father being at that time principal secretary of state. “I never demanded,” says he, “any marriage portion with her, neither promise of any, it not being in my confiderations; yet her father, after my marriage, gave me one thousand pounds in gold with her. But that gift of his daughter to me, I must ever thankfully acknowledge as the crown of all my bletings; for the was. a most religious, virtuous, loving, and obedient wife to me all the days of her life, and the mother of all my hopesul children.” He received on his wedding day the honour of knighthood from his friend fir George Carew, now promoted to be lorddeputy of Ireland : March 12, 1606, he was sworn a privy counsellor to king James, for the province of Munster: Feb. 15,1612, he was sworn a privy counsellor of state of the kingdom of Ireland : Sept. 29, 1616, he was created lord Boyle, baron of Youge hall: O&t. 16, 1620, viscount of Dungarvon, and earl of Cork. Lord Falkland, the lord-deputy, having represented his services in a just light to king Charles I. his majesty sent his excellency a leiter, dated Nov. 30, 1627, directing him to confer the honours of baron and viscount upon the earl's second surviving fon Lewis, though he was then only eight years old.

Oct. 26, 1629, on the departure of lord-deputy Falkland, the earl of Cork, in conjunction with lord Loftus, was appointed one of the lords justices of Ireland, and held that office several years. Feb. 16th following, the earl lost his countefs. Nov. 1631, he was constituted lord high treasurer of Ireland, and had interest enough to get that high office made hereditary in his family. Nevertheless he suffered many morțilications during the administration of fir Thomas Wentworth, afterwards earl of Strafford, who, before he went to Ireland, had conceived a jealousy of his authority and interest in that kingdom, and determined to bring him downl; imagining that, if he could humble the great earl of Cork, no body in that country could give him much trouble. On the breaking out of the rebellion in Ireland in 1641, the earl of Cork, as soon as he returned from England (where he was at the time of the earl of Strafford's trial), immediately raised two troops of horse, which he put under the command of his sons the lord viscount Kinelmeaky and the lord Broghill,

[ɛ] Sir Walter Raleigh's estate con- Boyle's diligence, that it was not only fitted of twelve thousand acres in the coun. well tenanted, but in the most thriving ries of Cork and Waterford (Cox's Hift. cundition of any estate in Preland. Cox's of Ireland, vol. i. p. 352.) which was so Hutory of Ireland, vol. ii. Pses. much improved in a few years by Mr.

maintaining them and 400 foot for some months at his own charge. In the battle which the English gained at Liscarrol, Sept. 3, 1642, four of his fons were engaged, and the eldeit was Nain in the field [F]. The carl himself died about a year after, on the 15th of September, in the 78th year of his age; having spent the last, as he did the first year of his life, in the support of the crown of England against irishı rebels, and in the service of his country. Though he was no peer of England, he was, on account of his eminent abilities and knowledge of the world, admitted to fit in the house of lords upon the woolpacks, ut consiliarius. When Cromwell saw the prodigious improvements he had made, which he little expected to find in Ireland, he declared, that if there had been an earl of Cork in every province, it would have been impollible for the Irish to have raifed a rebellion [G].

He affected not places and titles of honour until he was well able to maintain them, for he was in the 37th year of his age when knighted, and in his 5oti when made a baron. He made large purchases, but not till he was able to improve them; and he grew rich on estates which had ruined their former poffeflors. He increased his wealth, not by hoarding, but by fpending; for he built and walled several towns at his own coít, but in places so weil situated, they were foon filled with inhabitants, and quickly repaid the money he had laid out with interest, which he as readily laid out again. Hence, in the space of forty years, he acquired to himself what in some countries would have been esteemed a noble principality; and as they came to years of discretion, he bestowed estates upon his fons [11], and married his daughters into the best families of that country. He outlived most of those who had known the meanness of his beginning ; but he delighted to remember it himself, and even took pains to preserve the memory of it to pofterity in the motto which he always used, and which he caused to be placed upon his tomb, viz. “ God's providence is my inheritance [1].”

[F] Cox's Hilt. of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 59. can give. The earl had the fatisfaction of

(c) Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, seeing three of the tive fous who survived p. 203. Introd. to the second vol. of the him, namely, Richard, Lewis and Roger, History of England.

made peers before his death. Budgell. (H) He had no less than seven fons and [1] In June 1632, he committed the eicht daughters by his lady. At the sime moit memorable circumstances of his life his last child Margaret was born, he was to writing, under the title of " True Re. in the 64th year. Of his fons, Richard membrances,” which are published in Dr. the second son fucceeded in the earidom of Birch's “ Lite of the hon, Mr. Robert Cork; Lewis was created baron of Bandon Boyle :” in thele he remaks, that though and viscount Kinelmeaky; Roger was he railed such a fortune as left him no baron of Broghill and earl of Orre.y, and room to envy any of his neighbours, yet Francis was lord Shannon. Robert, his he did it without care or burden to his seventh and youngeit, refused a peerage, conscience. but acquired a greater name than kings

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BOYLE (ROGER)[K), earl of Orrery, fifth son of Richard earl of Cork, was born in April 1621, and created baron Broghill in the kingdom of Ireland when but seven years old. He was educated at the college of Dublin, and about the year 1636, sent with his elder brother lord Kinelmeaky to make the tour of France and Italy. After his return he married lady Margaret Howard, fister to the earl of Suffolk [L]. During the rebellion in Ireland, he commanded a troop of horse in the forces raised by his father, and on many occasions gave proofs of conduct and courage. After the cehation of arms, which was concluded in 1643, he Caine over to England, and so represented to the king the irish papists, that his majesty was convinced they never meant to keep the ceffation, and therefore fent a commission to lord Inchiquin, president of Muniter, to prosecute the rebels. Lord Broghill employed his interest in that county to allift him in this service; and when the government of Ireland was committed to the parliament, he continued to cbserve the same conduct till the king was put to death. That event thocked him so much, that he immediately quitted the survice of the parliament; and, looking upon Ireland and his estate there as utterly lost, embarked for England, and returned to his feat at Marfton in Somersetshire, where he lived privately till 1649[M]. In this retirement, reflecting on the distress of his country, and the personal injury he fulered whilft his estate was held by the irish rebels, he refolved, under pretence of going to the Spaw for his health, to crof, the seas, and apply to king Charles II. for a commission to raise forces in Ireland, in order to restore his majesiy, and recover his own estate He desired the earl of Warwick, who had an interest in the prevailing party, to procure a licence for him to go to the Spaw. He pretended to the earl, that his sole view was the recovery of his health ; but, to some of his friends of the royal party, in whom he thought he could confide, he discovered his real design; and having raised a considerable sum of money, came to London to prosecute his voyage. The committee of state, who spared no money to get proper intelligence, deing soon informed of his whole design, determined to proceed against him with the utmost severity. Cromwell, at that time general of the parliament's forces, and a member of the committee, was no stranger to lord Broghill's merit; and confidering that this young nobleman might be of great use to him in reducing Ireland, he earnestly entreated the committee, that he might have leave to talk with him, and endeavour to gain him before they proceeded to extremities. Having, with great difficulty, obtained this permission, he immediately dispatched a [x] Earl of Cork's True Remem- Orrery.

[m] Budgell's Memoirs of the Boyles, [1] Morricc's Memoirs of the earl of p. 41.



gentleman to lord Broghill, to let him know that he intended to wait upon him. Broghill was surprised at this message, having never had the least acquaintance with Cromwell, and therefore desired the gentleman to let the general know that he would wait upon his excellency. But while he was expecting the return of the messenger, Cromwell entered the room; and, after mutual civilities, told him in few words, that the committee of state were apprised of his design of going over, and applying to Charles Stuart for a commillion to raise forces in Ireland; and that they had determined to make an example of him, if he had not diverted them from that resolution. The lord Broghill interrupted him, and assured him that the intelligence which the committee had received was false; that he was neither in a capacity, nor had any inclination, to raise disturbances in Ireland; and concluded with entreating his excellency to have a kinder opinion of him. Cromwell, instead of making any reply, drew fome papers out of his pocket, which were the copies of several letters sent by lord Broghill to those persons in whom he most confided, and put them into his hands. Broghill, finding it was to no purpose to diffemble any longer, asked his excellency's pardon for what he had said, returned him his humble thanks for his proteclion against the committee, and entreated his advice how he ought to behave in so delicate a conjuncture. Cromwell told him, that though till this time he had been a stranger to his person, he was not so to his merit and character; that he had heard how gallantly his lord ship had already behaved in the irish wars; and therefore, since he was named lord lieutenant of Ireland, and the reducing that kingdom was now become his province, that he had obtained leave of the committee to offer his lordship the command of a general officer, if he would serve in that war: that he should have no oaths or engagements imposed upon him, nor be obliged to draw his sword against any but the irish rebels. Lord Broghill was infinitely surprised at so generous and unexpected an offer : he saw himself at liberty, by all the rules of honour, to serve against the Irish, whose rebellion and barbarities were equally detested by the royal party and the parliament: he desired, however, the general to give him some time to consider of what he had proposed to him. Cromwell briskly told him, that he must come to some resolution that very inftant; that he himself was returning to the committee, who were still fitting; and if his lordship rejected their offer, they had determined to send him to the Tower. Broghill, finding that his life and liberty were in the utmost danger, and charmed with the frankness and 'generosity of Cromwell's bee haviour, gave him his word and honour, that he would faithfully serve him against the irish rebels ; upon which, Cromwell once more affured him, that the conditions which he had made B 4


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