Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations
The issue of saints is a difficult and complicated problem in buddhology. This study is the first comprehensive examination of the figure of the Buddhist saint in a wide range of Indian Buddhist evidence. Drawing on an extensive variety of sources, Ray seeks to identify the prototypical Buddhist saint as a "renunciant of the forest". This classical type, Ray argues, provides the presupposition for, and informs the different major Buddhist saintly types and subtypes, including the buddha, pratyekabuddha, arhant, and bodhisattva. Discussing the nature, dynamics, and history of Buddhist hagiography, Ray surveys the ascetic codes, conventions, and traditions of Buddhist saints, and the cults both of living saints and of those who have "passed beyond". He traces the role of the saints in Indian Buddhist history, particularly at the times of Buddhist origins and the formation of the Mahayana. Calling for a reconceptualization of Indian Buddhist history that takes into account the essential role played by the saints of the forest, Ray proposes a new three-fold model of Buddhism, that adds the forest renunciant to the well-known figures of the Buddhist monastic and layperson. Of primary concern to scholars of Buddhism, Indian religions, Asian studies, and religious studies, Buddhist Saints in India will also interest those who study hagiography.
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The Buddhist Saints and the TwoTiered Model of Buddhism
Buddha Sakyamuni as a Saint
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Ananda appears arhants ascetic attainment Bareau behavior bhikkhus bhiksus BHSD bodhisattva Buddha Buddhaghosa Buddhist monasticism Buddhist saints chapter charisma context contrast Conze cremation cult of saints cultic depicted Devadatta developed dharma Dharmaguptaka dhism dhutagunas disciples discussion doctrine dwelling earliest early enlightenment evidence example Fa-hsien fact forest Buddhism forest renunciation forest saint hagiography Hirakawa ideal important Indian Buddhism king laity Lamotte legend living magical powers Mahakasyapa Mahasamghika Mahayana Mahdparinirvdna Sutra Maudgalyayana meditation mentioned monastery monastic monks Mps-p Nikaya Nikaya Buddhism nirvana normative Old Skandhaka original Pali canon particularly person Pindola practice pratyekabuddha present PTSD realization reference reflect religious remarks represents robe Sakyamuni samgha Sanskrit Sariputra Sarvastivadin Schopen seen settled monasticism six versions sixteen arhants Sn-c specific spiritual Sramana story stupa suggests Sutta Suttanipdta teacher teaching term texts textual theme Theragdthd Theravada Tibetan tion tradition translation two-tiered model typically Upagupta veneration vinaya worship