The New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation: A Study of Revelation 21-22 in the Light of Its Background in Jewish Tradition
There is a development between expectation for the rebuilding of the New Jerusalem/Temple in the Old Testament and the coming of the New Jerusalem/Temple in Revelation. In Revelation, there is a dynamic relation between the New Jerusalem and the Heavenly Jerusalem: the New Jerusalem is the descent of the Heavenly Jerusalem. Moreover, there is no Temple building which was expected as the eschatological promise in the Old Testament but rather God and the Lamb is the Temple. How can this shift be explained? Pilchan Lee examines the exegetical tradition which existed between the Old Testament and Revelation. He assumes that as the exegetical tradition, the early Jewish (apocalyptic) literature functions as a key element for forming the idea of the New Jerusalem in Revelation. John's main argument is that the church (which is symbolized by several images) is placed in heaven now (chapters 4-20) and the church (which is symbolized by the New Jerusalem) will descend to the earth from heaven in the future (21-22).
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According angelic group Apocalypse of Abraham Bar Kokhba Bar Kokhba Revolt Baruch Book of Enoch Book of Revelation church Commentary Community Temple context Creation cultic Dead Sea Scrolls described dwelling place early Jewish literature earth earthly emphasized Enoch eschatological blessings eschatological Temple eternal exile Ezek Ezekiel Ezra follows function Garden of Eden gates glory God's throne heaven Heavenly Jerusalem Heavenly Jerusalem/Temple Heavenly Paradise Heavenly Temple holy Ibid idea idem indicates Isaiah Israel Israelites J. J. Collins Jerusalem John Judaism judgment Lord means Messianic figure Moreover Moses nations Noahic Covenant parallel phrase prayer precious stones Pseudo-Philo Qumran R. H. Charles R. J. Bauckham rebuilding reference regarded restoration revolt righteous sacrifice Second Temple sectarian community shown shows Sibylline Oracles symbolizes Temple building Temple destruction Temple Scroll Temple/Jerusalem Testament Tobit translation twelve stones verse vision Volume wall words Yohanan Yohanan ben Zakkai Zion