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SIR JOHN MALCOLM. *

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The Malcolms of Eskdale were a fortunate and a wide circle of friends, notwithstanding his calanumerous family. Four of the sons attained mities. The Johnstones of Alva, a far distant knighthood in different professious, and with them, family, who bad, however, possessions in Eskdale honours, fame, and fortune, although their origin of which the farm of Douglan formed part, were was of the middle class, and their nativity a sheep among the number. The late Sir Harry Moncrieff farm. One hundred and fifty years since, that is wrote subsequently of the farmer of Burnfoot in in 1717, the Lord President of Scotland recom. terms which would lead us to suppose that he had mended the Earl of Dalkeith to present Robert ranked

among

the

upper yeomen of the land. Mrs. Malcolm, a young preacher, of Fife, to the parish Malcolm's brothers, Dr. Gilbert Pasley, of Madras,

, of Ewes, in Dumfriesshire. The presentation was and Mr. John Pasley, a merchant of London, were issued five years after the date of Queen Anne's useful to the sons of the family, who only required Patronage Bill; and must have been one of the to have a foot put in the stirrup in order to get earliest, if not the first, presentation of the Dal- upon the horse. So when John, or, as he was keith family. The appointment endured for forty- commonly called at Burnfoot, Jock, Malcolm was four years, the full average of Scotch incum- barely turned of eleven years he had obtained, bencies, even in a healthful, ventilated parish, as through Mr. Johnstone, a nomination to the milithe Ewes was, is, and probably ever will be- unless tary service of the East India Company. He was some change occur in Eskdale, where the popula- little more than twelve years of age when he left tion do not increase rapidly; for all the families Burnfoot for London, on his way to the Indies ; are not so productive as the second generation of and his biographer says that, on the morning of his Malcolms in Burnfoot. This Burnfoot was a farm departure from home, for London, with Mr. John rented by the Earl upou easy terms to the Minis- Pasley, the merchant of the metropolis, and broter of Ewes. The name and the staple produce ther of his mother, his old nurse delivered to him of the farm agreed admirably; for the district was the following charge—“Now (we assume it had chiefly pastoral, and the pasture was principally been Noo'), Jock, my mon, be sure when ye are occupied by sheep. Antiquarians expend much awa, ye kaim your head, and keep your face clean ; criticism over the origin of names. Probably the if ye dinna, ye'll just be sent hame again.” The parish of Ewes will not give them long labour in old nurse may be fairly acquitted from any charge that research. Ewes are its most numerous ani- for this commingling of English orthography with mals, or they were in the last century; and we do Scotch pronounciation. John Malcolm lived in not suppose that cultivation has materially eaten London for eighteen months, and arrived at Mainto sheep farming on that Eskdale yet. We have dras when not quite fourteen years old. four considerable Esk Rivers in Scotland.

They These were the days of Warren Hastings and of all intersect excellent arable land for many miles Sir Eyre Coote ; of Hyder Ali and Tipoo Saib. before their meeting with the ocean, and they all In those days there were French in India, and the originate in pastoral regions, of which the Southern Indian empire was beginning merely to gather Esk has the more extensive, but not the higher or strength. Thus, the life of one man, and that not the wilder runs.

a long life, connects Hyder Ali, of Seringapatam, Mr. Robert Malcolm, Minister of Ewes, died in with Mehemet Ali, of Egypt; and three genera1761—and his son George, who was, in the ma- tions bring us from the Fifeshire boy, thinking of ternal descent, the grandson of Principal Camp. the Ministry, shortly after the revolution of 1688, to bell, succeeded to the farm of Burnfoot; which the Anglo-Indian author, statesman, and soldier, rehe had managed for some years, because a defect in gretting, for a short time, our Reform Bill. To the his articulation obliged him to abandon the pulpit memory of Jock, the boy who left Eskdale in 1780, for which he bad been educated. He added to the with instructions from his nurse “ to kaim his head farm of Burnfoot the farm of Douglan; but his and keep his face clean"-fifty-five years afterdealings were not altogether prosperous; als wards, the people of Eskdale and Langholm though he was distinguished by stern honesty and assembled, under the guidance of Sir James Grarigid principles; or, probably, because he was pos- ham, not a sentimental politician, to lay the

a sessed in an eminent degree of these obvious dis. foundation of that obelisk which now overlooks qualifications to prosperity as a cattle breeder and Langholm, into the English border. salesman at the close of the last century. Even The family of Burnfoot were fortunate in the Dandy Dinmont, sharp man as he was, had diffi. world. Four of them, we have stated, were knighted, culties to encounter which overcame George Mal. or obtained baronetcies, for their public services. colm; who had moreover ten sons and seven Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm was better known daughters, and they all grew up to man and wo- in Britain than his brethren; but, perhaps, Sir manhood among the heather of Burnfoot.

John Malcolm's services were more distinguished, George Malcolm was known and respected by more useful, and they were more varied. He

* “Life of Sir John Malcolm." By J. W. Kaye, in 2 vols. London : Smith, Elder, and Co.

THE ANGLO-INDIAN OFFICER.

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was his own master at fourteen years of age, in a learned in India, at a time when the Britishstrange land, where the natives are always willing European army was not distinguished by the to give considerable credit to the English Officers. genius of its chiefs—for Abercrombie and Moore We are not astonished, therefore, to read the fol- had both fallen in fight. lowing confession by his biographer. It is exactly The necessities of the late war wrought a change what might have been expected :

of that wretched system. Although nearly all I am afraid that he was not a prodigy of youthful virtue.

our leading officers, like Sir Colin Campbell, Sir He was a fine, free-spirited, active, excitable boy-fonder of James Simpson, who was, we believe, much play of all kinds than study—a good horseman, a crack shot, maligned, and Sir Richard England, had seen accomplished in all gymnastic exercises. In his regiment, severe service in the East—especially the two forand wherever he was known beyond his regiment, he went

mer—yet the error of depriving the country of by the name of “boy Malcolm"--a name which he retained

assistance from the most effective subordinate many years afterwards—there was something so open and jogous in his manner, so active and so frolicsome. Of course officers in the service became obvious ; and Lord he was beset by all manner of temptations. What he re- Panmure, in a few quiet lines, revolutionised our sisted, and what he did not, I do not particularly know; but military system. The Queen's commission in the he was soon immersed in debt, and surrounded by all its attendant difficulties.

possession of an Anglo-Indian officer now carries

the same weight as a similar commission in our The Anglo-Indian military officers had in those home regiments. The appointment of General days the excuse of poverty for getting into debt, Grant to the chief command of the Madras army unless they possessed private means of support. was the first consequence of this change. The For the withdrawal of this temptation they are in selection of Sir James Outram to the chief comdebted to Sir John Malcolm, who was, doubtless, mand of the army in the Persian war is a more rendered more active in the cause from a recollec. striking result. Lord Panmure has done much tion of his own trials. He had written to his good to the army since his entrance into public uncle, Mr. John Pasley, of London, for assistance, life; and we shall regret his resignation of the and that relative transmitted to him a sum of two War Office, if that event be to occur soon, with hundred pounds; but it was stopped, in transitu, which some people threaten the service. The by his elder brother Robert, then in the Civil Ser: progress of reform is far from rapid, but it is vice of the Company, at Madras, and who thought steady; and those who know best the difficulties that Jobn should be allowed to work out of bis of the road are disposed to the belief that the troubles by his own means, in the hope that thereby present Minister at War las endeavoured honestly he would learn not to get into others of a similar to surmount them. kind afterwards. So he was indebted to an old

Early in 1790, Tippoo Sultan recommenced native woman, at the Bazaar, who supplied him hostilities against us by an attack “on the lines of with provisions, without payment, until he should the Rajah of Travancore.” The Nizam brought find the discharge of his debt convenient. He

the forces of the Deccan to our assistance, and the never forgot her kindness; for the grateful debtor

Mahrattas joined the war against Tippo. Sultan. paid the principal ; and pensioned his native friend Few years-sixty—a short period in history, have by way of interest. The Indian military service is now superior to passed since then, and all these great names are

well-nigh forgotten, and the nationalities fused into the Royal army for officers of more energy than the general confederation of the Presidencies wealth. The provision made for them may meet forming the Anglo-Indian empire. The 29th bat

Promotion in the Eastern is talion of Native Infantry, the corps to which more secure than in the Western service.

The

Malcolm was attached, were ordered to join the reward is ultimately larger. The opportunities of Nizam contingent, which, less overwhelming in the obtaining distinction are greater. The manner of field than on paper, was equally feared by friends life is altogether more adventurous, more chival

and foes. Mr. Kaye describes them as cowards rous, more pleasing to a rough-and-ready enthu: to the strong-tyrants to the weak—they made siast than the club life of a guardsman. But

enemies, without

any

local distinctions, of all who until the late war, the commission of an Anglo- had no power to resist their merciless aggression, Indian officer was limited to the east of the Cape. It is pleasing to read how even at that early When he reached the Atlantic or Europe, he was

period the discipline of the British army, and the a civilian, or nobody. This arrangement was intolerable, for not even his own manor

presence of British officers, had changed the charac.

ter and conduct of the Sepoys ; and Malcolm, in a served to the soldier of the East. He could only rise to a given position, and there he was stopped; paper on that march, says of one village plundered

by the while a gentleman from the British army of Europe superseded him even in Indian warfare. Whenever the guard paraded to march to the ill-fated The late Sir John Malcolm was an intimate friend village I have mentioned, they made a collection of as much of the Duke of Wellington, and from the corres

rice as each man could afford to give to the starving inhabitants. This was distributed where they went,

Such conpondence, in these volumes, we learn that this

duct (which was not confined to this single instance) was absurd regulation deprived the great commander of deemed folly, and excited a smile of pity on the countenances aid, in Spain, from officers whose worth lię had l of the unfeeling, plundering horsemen of the Nizam’s army,

their expenses.

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but made a different impression on the inhabitants of the John Malcolm, who was employed and encouraged country.

by the noble Governor-General both in diplomacy Farther on he says

and war.

Sir Pulteney Malcolm, while captain of Reputation for justice and humanity preceding an army, is the Fox, conveyed Colonel Wellesley, who became of more consequence than an advanced guard of 10,000 men. afterwards the Duke of Wellington, to India, The force to which he was attached succeeded

and even this slight circumstance may have contri

buted to increase Malcolnı's intercourse with the in reducing the strong forts Behaudur-Bundur, and Copoulee ; and this was the only service rendered Wellesleys ; but however it originated, it was of a by them in that short war. During its existence, close of that year, he was appointed Assistant Re

very close and confidential nature. Towards the however, young Malcolm extended his acquaintance, and formed the desire to engage in diplomatic brother of the former Resident, Colonel Kirkpa

sident at Hyderabad. Captain Kirkpatrick, the services. He began the study of the Persian brother of the former Resident, Colonel Kirkpa

The Nizam employed a language in the hope that an acquaintance with its trick, was his senior.

numerous force, trained by French officers, who mysteries might advance his purposes. He sought

A French party one diplomatic appointment a few minutes too inclined to the French interest.

were established the Court. In 1799 this force late. The delay was providential to bim. He

was disarmed and disbanded without resistance ; had a long life's work to do, but his request would have been conceded had it been made in time. It

but the proceeding required address and skill on was too late ; and the officer who obtained the office colm had then a lesson of tactics in Indian life

the part of the British Resident; and Mal. was assassinated, soon after, at the court where he

that served him well afterwards. was resident, not from private but from public the Governor-General the colours of the “annihi

He. carried to motives. The next few years of Malcolm's life were free from incident. He became sick, and lated French force," and he was again ordered to went to the sea coast. He got well and returned juin the Nizam's contingent when war was declared to grow ill again, and finally obtained leave for against Tippoo Sahib. The greater part of the England, sometime in 1794. In this visit he native soldiers

, belonging to the old French force,

were employed by the Nizam, and belonged to his wrought hard to secure those advantages to the Indian officers--not quite equivalent to justice army. The Sepoys, deprived of their old officers,

became disorderly or mutinous on the march. Capwhich were then conceded to them. He arrived in England in July, 1794, and he was again at and when afterwards an European regiment was

tain Malcolm was employed to command them; Madras in February, 1796, having been only two years absent, at a time when one year must have joined to this division of the contingent, the 33rd been occupied in the voyage here and back again, first time Captain Malcolm was brought into con

was selected by General Harris; and thus for the He spent his winter at home with his family and nection directly with Colonel Wellesley. They in Edinburgh. The promotion of Pulteney to be Captain of the Fox, the success of James, and an

were upon the march against Seringapatam. The opportunity of becoming Secretary to Sir Alured capture of that celebrated fortress, and the death

of its owner closed the war upon the 4th May ; Clarke, who had been appointed to the chief command at Madras, induced him to shorten his stay

but during the summer, Captain Malcolm was enat home. He arrived with General Clarke and the gaged in diplomatic arrangements, either in that

In the forces under that officer at the Cape of Good quarter or at the Court of the Nizam. Hope, in time to participate in the operations ambassador to the Persian Court, at Teheran, in

autumn, the Governor-General decided to send an against the Dutch, which led to the capitulation of the hope of exciting the Persians to deliver us Cape Town and the establishment of our South from the fear of Zemaun Shah, who was then the African Colony. The military proceedings were

ruler of Affghanistan, and who threatened to inunimportant; and at their close he wrote :

vade India. I have got an honourable, but troublesome employment in We are now at war with Persia in defence of recruiting men out of the prisoners of war for the service of Affghanistan. So late as 1799, Malcolm was sent the Company in India. A set of finer fellows I never knew

to Persia in search of help against the Afghans. -all Germans. I have been very successful. I have hitherto acted together with Lieutenant Owen from Bengal, but as he

As the British people had not been represented sails to-morrow, the whole business falls on my shoulders. in Persia for two centuries preceding that date, I expect in a month to have upwards of 200 for Madras. Lord Wellesley wished to give an air of Oriental Nearly 300 are already embarked for Bombay and Bengal.

magnificence to the mission, and he could not have Lieutenant Malcolm's life in Madras was des. selected an officer more ready to second this policy titute of excitement, over a period of peace passed than Captain Malcolm. His expenditure and prein the family of Sir Alured Clarke. The Marquis sents during the Persian embassy were extremely Wellesley landed at Madras on his way to Cal. profuse. They probably contributed to establish cutta early in 1798, and he met Malcolm, now a a certain influence at Teheran for a time; but Captain, who submitted to him papers he had drawn only for a short time; and it was overthrown by up on the condition of the native states. This the adroitness and tact of the French Embassy, seems to have been the origin of an intercourse which, soon after Captain Malcolm's departure, was which was in the last degree serviceable to Sir | rendered resident ; so that his stipulations against

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any intercourse with the French went for nothing. I cial relations with Persia were never extensive. He embarked at Bombay, on the 29th December, | The political treaty was one of enmity towards the 1799, for the Persian Gulf, in one of the Com Affghan chief and the French Government. pany's frigates, with a suite who might have satis. Zemaun Shah, the Affghan, was soon rendered fied an older diplomatist. The frigate reached incapable of mischief, by the rebellion of bis own Muscat in eleven days, and appears to have been a chieftains ; while the French Government in a slow sailer. The opportunity was seized to im- short time recovered its ascendancy at Teheran, prove our intercourse with the Imaum of Muscat, The islands in the Persian Gulf which Captain and the Arab chiefs have ever since that date Malcolm wished to obtain for the British Govern. proved true friends of the British connexion. Mal- ment were refused steadily; although he made colm did not reach Bushire until the 1st February, great efforts to secure them. It is not improbable 1800. Thien began the usual course of bribery in that now, more than fifty years after his mission, the shape of presents.

Sir J. Outram, another west country Scotchman, The Governor of Bushire, Sheikl-Nusser, with a keen eye also of bumble origin, may take possession of to the coming presents, was profusc in his expressions of them permanently, without much negociation. It respect for the English in general, and the new Ambassador is rather remarkable that our business with Persia in particular. And a day or two afterwards he received his

has always been conducted through Scotchmen, or quota of the wonderful supply of jewelled watches, doublebarrelled guns, achromatic telescopes, huntsmen's knives, and

with very few exceptions ; and astute as coloured broadcloths, with which Malcolm had sagaciously countrymen are, and patriotic, even a little selfish provided himself. Having despatched letters to the Persian in patriotisın, as some of them were, yet they have monarch and his prime minister at Teheran, and to the always had to pull against a current of diplomacy Prince Regent at Shiraz, setting forth the objects of his

at Teheran, occasionally French, and sometimes mission, Malcolm pitched his camp a little way on the road to the latter place.

Russian. The French from some not apparent A month elapsed before he received an answer

motives, hare endeavoured long to influence the even from Shiraz, and upon its arrival it was not Persian Court, and even now French officers have satisfactory, and the middle of May bad come

led the siege of Herat. The Russians have more before a reply was received from the more distant obvious reasons for seeking to rule in Persia, which Teheran. In a month afterwards the Embassy they regard with all that affection that the boareached Shiraz; but they only arrived at Ispahan constrictor may be supposed to bestow upon the on the 23rd September. They found it, though

ox that is straying within the serpent's grasp. fallen from its former greatness, beyond all com

The Shah's love for Malcolm Sahib evaporated pare the richest and most populous city in Persia. in the course of a few ycars; and he even resused

to his friend admission within his dominions. He Cashan, further on, was “a flourishing city, whose silks and carpets are amongst the finest in the returned by way of Bagdad to the Gulf

, and world.” And on the 16th November, Captain reached Bombay upon the 13th of May, after a Malcolm, the son of the Eskdale farmer, was

stormy passage of twenty-one days, over a part of presented to the Shah of Persia, as the representa- in balf that time, and steamers can run in four or

the Indian Ocean that our sailing vessels now cross tive of the Governor General of India. Difficulties arose regarding the manner of his presentation. five days. He received the appointment of priThe Persian authorities insisted that he only

vate secretary to the Marquis Wellesley, and

travelled with him up the Ganges, to complete represented a subordinate official, and not King George of England; and was not entitled, there those negociations in Oude that, in our own time, fore

, to the consideration that might have been bare led, under Outram, to the absorption of that bestowed upon the Governor-General himself.

territory. The travellers earned the gratitude of Malcolm Sahib carried himself with a high head, the villagers at one point on the Ganges

, by and a liberal hand, through these difficulties

, and destroying three tigers, which had taken up their became a favourite at the Persian court by the abode near to them, and killed four of their bul. extent of his largesses. His evgagements among

locks on the previous night. The joy of the the Persians continued until the spring of 1801. villagers over the death of their foes reminds us of

Nimrod's accession to power, and the cause of it; He had several audiences of his Majesty, and at all he was and those facilities which our modern Nimrods received not only with marked respect, but with an affability of manner which was a flattering attribute to the personu neglect of rendering themselves popular since character of the Envoy. He presented Malcolm with a dress tigers still kill bullocks in India, eat up many perof honour, which the English gentleman wore over his sons annually at Singapore, and wolves destroy uniform; on the occasion of his next visit to the Shah, he three to four hundred children per annum, we are gave him a jewelled dagger, and an elaborate portrait of him. told, in the Punjauh. Writing at Patna, the great self, as marks of his royal affection ; and at the last visit region of rice, Captain Malcolm says, on the 3rd which the Ambassador paid him, he said that he "should always consider Malcolm as a favourite, and desire his minis. | October, now fifty-five years since :ters to write to him in whatever part of the world lic inight be."

Nothing can exceed the beauty of the country through Two treaties were negociated, one commercial which we have lately passed. I never saw, in any part of

the world, so much cultivation, or such a general appearance and the other political. The former was of little of comfort and happiness among the home classes, as I have importance to our Government, for our

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And again, at Benares, on the 14th of Novem- | the mountains in a pastoral village, he was released, ber, he writes :

but the chief paid a heavy fine for his precaution We have, since you left us, passed through one of the

in seizing an English Sahib, who, at this date, had
finest and most highly cultivated tracts of country in this taken rank as a Major. From Bombay he commu.
world.

nicated with the Persian sovereign and his minis.
The letters from which these extracts are taken ters regarding the death of their ambassador ; and
were addressed to Sir George Barlow, who had Mr. Kaye describes the result of his proceedings
been engaged in the settlement of the land tax in in the passage which we extract :--
these provinces, and the writer further states :- All were satisfied, from the King on the throne to the
What adds to my pleasure, in contemplating these scenes,

humblest of the defunct Elchees' retainers. But the magni.
is to hear every man I ask tell how jungles have been cleared, tude of the crisis had been greatly exaggerated. The death
and waste places brought into cultivation. I cannot but

of the ambassador created but little sensation in Persia, and envy your feelings upon this subject. I confess before I

that little soon passed away. I was not regarded as a travelled through your provinces I was not perfectly recon

national outrage, but as a debt contracted by us, which ciled to your systein.

money payments might promptly discharge. And it was

said soon afterwards, at Shiraz, that the English might kill
A greater man than either the writer or his ten ambassadors if they would pay for them at the same
friend had impressed his system on the soil of
Bengal, before them; and to Warren Hastings that Another ambassador was not, however, sent; from
country is chiefly indebted for its land system, which we conclude that the Persian noblemen were
which has been instrumental in maintaining the not so willing to be killed as Mr. Kaye supposes.
quiet of the country, and in providing against those The Persian sovereign may not have been inclined
periodical famines that have wasted other parts to resent a calamity which was accidental, although
of India.

he may have entertained a different opinion ; but
In December, Captain Malcolm was despatched we know that five years afterwards he welcomed
upon a secret mission to Madras, with the view of General Gardanne, the Ambassador of France, and
counteracting the appointments at home, by retain. submitted to his influence.
ing some of the officials then in Madras in their

In October, 1802, a great battle was fought
places. It was one of the contests which the Gover-

near Poonah, between the armies of Holkar and nor-General had to conduct both with the Court of Scindiah, who was assisted by Badjee Row, but was Directors and the Home Government; an exercise defeated. In his discomforture, he sought assistof intellect, and occasionally of intrigue, in which ance from the British. Their help was obtained, nearly all the Governor-Generals of these days but Poonah became soon after one of our principal were practised; for it should be remembered that stations, and is now a familiar word—the title of a the course of post between Calcutta and London leading town in Anglo-India. Major Malcolm was was then nearly twelve months, instead of the named to the residency at Mysore, but the Gopresent three, which we trust will be reduced to vernor-General, acquainted with his diplomatic one before the world be much older. The mission tact, detained him to deal with Holkar, Scindiah, was successful.

and their subordinates. Although no official was At this period a great calamity occurred, which probably more acquainted with India, yet he had tended, undoubtedly, to render nugatory the ex. altogether miscalculated the strength of the ertions of Malcolm in Persia, and all the expendi. Mahrattas ; for he wrote, now exactly fifty-four ture of his mission to Teheran. Hadjce Khalib

years ago, or upon New Year's Day of 1803, to
Khan had been appointed by the Shah of Persia to

one of his correspondents, Kirkpatrick, a political
return the visit, and he had landed at Bombay, agent of the Government :-
early in the summer of 1802. He halted there, to

I anticipate every success from an armed negociation, and
arrange the forms of his presentation at the Court

I trust that the affairs of the Mahratta empire will be settled
of the Governor-General. During that delay, a without blood. The present appearance is favourable to
“quarrel arose between the Ambassador's retainers such a result; but should it be otherwise-should we be
and the English Sepoys forming the guard of required to repel attack, or to puuish perfidy—can there be

a doubt of success ?
honour.” Hadjee Khalib Khan interfered to quell
the disturbance, and was killed by a casual shot. Ten days afterwards, he wrote to General
The occurrence caused very great grief to Malcolm, Lake, who was then Commander-in-Chief, in a
who was upon terms of friendly intercourse with similar style of confidence, not only as to the
the Persian nobleman, who had been selected for result of a battle, but also of a negociation which
this honour; to meet a deplorable fate. Malcolm would render unnecessary any hostile proceedings :
was instructed by the Governor-General to commu-

As I consider hostilities to be very improbable, I shall not nicate with the Persian Court. He repaired to

take up your time with speculations upon the likely result Bombay for that purpose, and an amusing illustra- of such an event-I shall only express my full conviction of tion is given of the state of the road, by his cap- a prosperous issue. The British arms would meet with little ture on the highway, between Bombay and Poonal. opposition from even the combined efforts of the weak and

discordant branches of the Malıratta Empire, and one short A chief wanted a hostage in the troubles that

campaign would for ever dissipate the terror with which the loomed in the distance, and he seized Malcolm.

Indian politicians in England are accustomed to contemplate After a short confinement and a happy one, among the power of the Mahratta nation.

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