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THE HIPPOPOTAMUS AND RHINOCEROS.
hundreds of miles, and connected with the Zambese his attention to their masters. They were barely out of his River, which he traced into the Mozambique reach, and by no means exempt from danger, especially as he channel, on the East Coast of Africa, at a subse. assumed a threatening appearance, and seemed intent on
their downfall. After keeping them in dreadful suspense for quent date; but at that time he turned his steps some time, and using some efforts to dislodge them, seeing westward, until he reached the famous river Congo, the sun rise, hs retreated to his haunt, not, however, without which enters the Atlantic in the Western Portu- occasionally casting an eye back, as with regret, at leaving guese settlements; and it is not improbable that a what he wanted the power to destroy. navigable communication could be formed between
Bat the rhinoceros is not dangerous to man alone--all it and the African Mesopotamia, which would be attack this truly formidable animal. The lion, if they
the beasts of the forest dread him, and none venture to carried readily into the lake Ngami and the river chance to meet, slinks out of his way. Even the elephant, Zambese, which is only interrupted by a few falls in should they encounter, retreats, if possible, without hazard. its current to the sea.
ing an engagement. Major Lally stated to the author of Before these discoveries in the centre of
“Oriental Sports," that he once witnessed, from a distant Southern Africa, it was known that cotton-growing and a rhinoceros, in which the former was worsted and fled.
hill, a most desperate battle between a large male elephant lands, of almost unlimited extent, existed along the Amral told me, that one day, whilst himself and party were western coast of that continent. The central engaged in pursuit of an elephant, a black rhinoceros sudlands appear to be better adapted for tropical pro- and men several of whom had narrow escapes from being
denly appeared amongst them, charging madly both beasts ductions--to have no other drawbacks than are
gored by the animal. common to half-cultivated or uncultivated countries
The rhinoceros will also fight his own species. One —and to present a territory capable of sustaining night, when at the “ skärm,” I saw four huge beasts engage a vast population in happiness and peace. The each other at the same time, and so furious was the strife
, conduct of the Dutch Boers towards Dr. Living and their grantings so horrible, that it caused the greatest stone, their destruction of his property, and their consternation amongst my party, who were encamped sone
little way off. I succeeded after a while in killing two of threats against his life, because he endeavoured to them, one of which was actually unft for food, being quite carry his Master's message to nations sitting in rotten from wounds received on previous occasions, and, progross darkness, is a favourable commentary on that bably, under similar circumstances. mawkish sentimentality prevalent in some political
The rhinoceros, though it cannot strictly be called a gre. parties, which continually mistakes the shadow for garious animal, and thouglı most commonly met with singly the substance, and led to the concession of terri. tion. Indeed, as many as a dozen have been seen pasturing
or in pairs, would seem to be of a somewhat social dispository to these persons which they never deserved, and browsing together. except on the common ground of obedience to the The rhinoceros is nocturnal in his habits. At the approach laws.
of dusk he commences his : ambles, and, if not disturbed, Central Africa is the grand menagerie of the generally visits the pool at an early hour of the evening;
afterwards, he not unfrequently wanders over a great extent world, but the formidable animals in its jungles of country. Soon after sunrise he seeks repose and shelter retire before the presence of Europeans. Lions against the heat, under some friendly mimosa, or the projecthave been unknown for half a century within many ing ledge of a rock, where he spends the day in sleep, either miles of Cape Town. They are not, however, the stretched at full length, or in a standing position. Thus sern kings of the forest, as has been generally sup
from a distance he may easily be mistaken for a fragment of
of a rock. posed. The fierce rhinoceros defies the lion, and
The Asiatic species is frequently kept in confinement, but, the latter avoids the combat. The gemsbok, or though generally tractable, his morose and savage nature the onyx, combats the lion in open ground, and makes him rather dangerous. The least provocation often both occasionally perish in the contest. The rhi- puts him into a tempest of passion, when he will not hesi. noceros is the most ferocious of the larger ani
tate to destroy his best friend. In his rage, he will jump mals of the African continent, and, from its im- aod with incredible swiftness, against the partitions of his
about and leap to a great height, driving his head furiously, mense strength and long sharp horns, is even dan- place of confinement. Three or four specimens are at the gerous to the elephant. Mr. Andersson says :- present day alive in England. Colonel Williamson speaks of a rhinoceros in India,
This huge animal displays great affection for its whose ferocity was such as to render the roads impassable, young, and the attachment is reciprocated. Mr. by attacking travellers, or those who passed near his haunts; Andersson once approached a dead female rhinoand he relat-s an attack upon a sporting company by the ceros to examine it, unconscious that its cub was same animal, in the close of the year 1788, as generally mourning the mother
, and narrowly escaped with known to the army and residents of the district. “Two his life, when it rushed from behind the body to officers, belonging to the troops cantoned at Dunapore, near Patna, went down the river towards Monghyr, to shoot and avenge the wrong that had been done. The exist. hunt. They had encamped in the vicinity of Derrzapore, ence of numerous herds of the larger beasts of and had heard some reports of a rhinoceros having attacked Africa is incompatible with the cultivation of the some travellers many miles ofl.
soil in a regular manner. One moning, just as they were rising about daybreak, to
Although unless go in quest of game, they heard a violent uproar; and, on attacked, in fear of attack, or disturbed in their looking out, found that a rhinoceros was goring their horses, pursuits, the elephant and rhinoceros will not both of which, being fastened by their head and heel with assail man ; yet they consume and destroy an ropes, were consequently unable to escape or resist. Their
enormous quantity of vegetation. Even the servants took to their heels, and concealed themselves in the hippopotami, which live mostly in the river, neighbouring jungle, and the gentlemen had just time to elimb ap into a small tree, not får distant, before the furious destroy a vast quantity of crops on the river's beast, having completed the destruction of the horses, turned | banks, and are hunted down by the population now,
as they appear to have been hunted for some thou- , with a curious and searching look, as much as to say, “Why sands of years, not only as a matter of sport, but of this intrusion upon my native haunts, which I have enjoyed flesh also . The hippopotamus makes good eating, in undisturbed tranquility from time immemorial !" Bat
man is cruel, and by his relentless persecutions, a nature and the Africans use up all those wild animals that once so unsuspicious and confiding, is soon changed to that of are also vegetarians.
the most timid and circumspective, causing the animal to When the hippopotamus is located near cultivated dis
take instant refuge in the water on aring the least tricts, it is very destructive to plantations of rice and grain.
noise. Mr. Melly, in his description of the Blue and White Nile, informs us, that the inhabitants of a certain island found The hippopatami are very cunning, have acute themselves so plagued by these animals, that they were memories, avoid dangers that they have once obliged to apply for troops to drive them away, which was
encountered, and appear to profit by experience. responded to be a hundred soldiers being despatched in pur. sait of the marauders. Mr. Backhardt again, in his travels They are gregarious and social animals, living in in Nubia, tells us that in Dongola, the “ barnick” (the coteries, and what is worse for the rice growers, Arabic name for hippopotamus) is a dreadful torment, on eating in coteries also. A considerable quantity account of its voracity, and the want of means on the part of the ivory of commerce consists of the tusks of the natives to destroy it. During the day it remains in
of the hippopotami. Their hides are employed the water, but comes on shore at night, destroying as much by the treading of its enormous feet as by its voracity.
extensively for many different objects. And the The ravages of the hippopotamus would appear to be an
most unfortunate qualification for the hippopotamus old grievance, for Sir Gardner Wilkinson, when speaking of consists in the excellence of his flesh; so that the ancient Egyptians, says—“Though not so hostile to man if he destroys the farmer's crop, it is only by a as the voracious crocidile
, it was looked upon as an enemy, process of cattle feeding that man suffers, since he which they willingly destroyed, since the ravages it committed at night in the fields occasioned heavy losses to the in return eats the hippopotamus. The food of the farmer."
latter is, however, a serious matter. In England Naturalists and others represent the hippopotamus as of the daily ration of single members of the family a mild and inoffensive disposition. It may be so in regions weigh 1 cwt. of carrots, and similar vegetation. where it is unacquainted with man, but from the numerous
The "Lake Ngami" is a large and beautifully unprovoked attacks made by these animals on voyagers, and the very great dread entertained of them by the Bayeye, printed volume profusely illustrated* The notes who, so to say, live amongst them, I am inclined to believe of the Bishop of Cape Town's tour through his they are not such harmless animals as we are given to un- diocese, is a small volume richly illustrated, and a derstand. In ascending the Teoge, I saw comparatively little gem of art and typographyt The one is a little of them, and used almost to ridicule the natives on account of the timidity they showed when these beasts made picture of Africa rough and wild; the other
of its their appearance. But on my return journey I very fre comparatively small spots of civilisation. Recent quently enconntered the hippopotamus. More than once I events will contribute to the extension of civilisanarrowly escaped with life, and found that the men had good tion and Christianity, but the divided state of the reason to fear a contest with this truly formidable animal. native tribes, and their frequent wars, prove that
In regions not much visited by the European hunter and his destructive companion-the firelock, the hippopotamus the extension of the Cape and of other British
these objects will be advanced more probably by appears as a comparatively fearless animal, not unfrequently abiding the approach of man, whom he apparently surveys
colonies than by any other course as yet devised.
PARLIAMENT was opened on the 3rd of February, Serpents inclusive from the influence of the Roby a message per the Lord hancellor from the manoffs. Sovereign. As the absence of the Queen was The Neufchatel affair formed the topic of a expected, few were present. The contents of the do- paragraph. The Swiss had released the Neufchacument were recapitulations of events generally telese Royalists who were charged with treason to known. The letter is the work of the Cabinet, the republic. These persons will be probably although ascribed to the Crown ; and if the Con- provided for by the Prussian people, who stitution would allow the monarch to tell ber own should present them with ten thousand thalers story, it would probably be much more interes- each. The first battle would have cost that ting to the public than the sentences constructed money. The relative rights in Neufchatel of the by the combined cunning, striving to shirk an Prussian King and the Swiss republic are to be amendment. The Ministers, in this official docu- settled, upon the principle that iu Neufchatel the ment, referred to the diplomatic victory gained by Swiss republicans are sovereigns, and the Prussian them over Russia at the second conference at Sovereign is a subject. Paris, whereby Bolgrad was expunged from the Muscovite and transferred to the Turkish empire ;
* London: Hurst and Blackett. while the Danube was entirely cleared—Isle of
† London: Bell and Dalby.
Hostilities with China were regretted. For of working great evil in the land. The ticket of hostilities with Persia sorrow was expressed. leave is merely an anticipation of the certificate of Neither of these wars could be helped now. Ac. dismissal after the completion of punishment. Any cording to the Ministry neither of them ever could evil that has occurred through these tickets is have been helped. Different opinions existed therefore an anticipation of what must have nenecessarily on these subjects. The Earl Grey who cessarily have occurred, not now certainly, but at is practically one of the Peace Party, denounced a subsequent date. these wars exactly as he would have denounced A committee of the House of Commons has any other quarrels, not confined to the debates in been appointed to consider the best means of Parliament. Mr. Disraeli was angry with them converting the vast territories of the Hudson's because he was the cause of the offence. All Bay Company into more use than hunting parties know very well that the same course, right grounds. or wrong, would have been adopted towards China, The House of Commons have already refused to and Persia, if the Earl of Derby and Mr. Disraeli entertain Mr. Locke King's motion to extend the had been in power, that Viscount Palmerston's franchise to £10 householders in counties, by a government have adopted. The affair, however, small majority, and on the same evening they has allowed debates of great length in both refused to repeal the grant to Maynooth by a Houses.
similar majority. Economy was promised in the message, and the No business was done in the Peers on the 20th, necessity thereof was urged everywhere in the except that Earl Stanhope urged the appointment of House of Commons, The Government declared a committee to consider the means by which they that they were to be economical, and the Opposi. might inore accurately record their procedings; and tion insisted that the Ministry should do exactly Lord Dungannon inquired whether the Government that which they had intimated their intention of were prepared to pension infirm Bishops, and the doing. The present Chancellor of the Exchequer Earl of Harrowby was unable to give a definite an. consented to spend as little money as possible, and that very little money should be spent. The ses. In the Commons, a petition was presented from siou began in that respect according to the most Missionaries within the Presidency of Bengal comapproved fashion of past years. A reduction of plaining of the sale of ardent spirits among the the estimates for the Army and Navy formed the native population, and Mr. Layard wanted to text to several speakers in search of power, but know, and could not be told, whether a treaty of a they miscalculate. The nation perceives the danger certain and dangerous kind had been made between of cheap armies and navies, and will rather have Persia and Russia. Mr. Disraeli then introduced them good; even if some less necessary depart. the resolutions of which he had given notice to a ment suffer curtailment. Efficient military and crowded House, in an elaborate speechi, entirely naval forces prevent bloodshed. Their shadows free from the sarcasm which once characterised his seem, as the world is now constituted, the cause of criticism of opponents. The gist of these resolu
tions was that before proceeding farther with the The estimates for the money-mongers are not to budget, the House should have the estimates of be reduced, if possible. The Bank of England expenditure as of income before them; and by a charter, and the whole family of banking acts are wise economy and reduction of outlay should see recommended by Her Majesty for renewal; and their way to the total suppression of the incomeupon the evening of the 4th, the Chancellor of tax in 1860. Mr. Disraeli said literally in these the Exchequer moved the appointment of a select resolutions that it was expedient to examine the committee on this subject, in terms which led his
ways and means so as to provide a surplus for this hearers to understand that the committee were to year, next year, the subsequent one—and he might recommend what he wished, and then lie was to have added through the series intervening between accomplish his object upon the back of their re- ns and the extinction of the national debt. He commendation, Sir George Cornewall Lewis was followed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, could never have enacted the part of a Redpath or w o confessed his inability so to adjust the expena Robson, for he is not a deceptive. His object diture and income of this year as to provide against in this, as in many other cases, is very bad, and a deficiency for both or either of the next two he never acquired the art of concealment. The years. Mr. Gladstone occupied the remainder of renewal of these acts without improvement or the night, till nearly eleven oclock; and the only relaxation, will merely continue our dependeuce other speakers were Mr. Wilson, shortly, for the upon the transactions of foreigu nations for the budget; and Mr. Laing, still more briefly, against means of conducting our home trade. Excessive it. Mr. Gladstone's speech was directly opposite and irregular rates of interest will continue to in spirit to Mr. Disraeli's. He spoke like an angry prevail as for some years past, and domestic busi- Both leaders of these parties appeared wil. ness will be cramped as it has been, and is at this ling to continue an income-tax of ls. 4d. for anopresent time.
ther year, if the duties on tea and sugar were reThe Government have introduced a bill to pealed. And bo:l insisted upon a reduction of change the ticket of leave system, which is accused the expenditure to the standard of 1853. The
House adjourned earlier than is usual in great dis- ruption of amicable relations between Her Majesty's subjects
and the Chinese authorities at Canton, arising out of the cussions. The conviction was general that the in
measures adopted by Her Majesty's Chief Superintendent of come-tax must be reduced to 7d. immediately, and
Trade to obtain reparation for alleged infractions of the supthat the expenditure should be considered on each
plementary treaty of the 8th of October, 1843. separate estimate.
That in the opinion of this House the occurrence of differ. The House of Peers discussed on the afternoon ences on this subject rendered the time peculiarly unfavourable of the 23rd a new Probate bill of the Lord Chan for pressing on the Chinese authorities a claim for the
admittance of British subjects into Canton, which had been cellor's, respecting which Lord Lyndhurst refused to left in abeyance since 1849, and for supporting the same by deliver his opinions, because he said there was only force of arms. present for each bench one-third of a Peer. The That in the opinion of this House operations of actual debate on the budget in the Lower House had hostility ought not to have been undertaken without the exattracted the Members of the Upper.
press instructions, previously received, of Her Majesty's
Government, and that neither of the subjects adverted to in After an exposition of a miserable job in guano the foregoing resolutions afforded suficient justification for upon the Kooria Mooria group of islands, off the such operations. Arabian coast, whereby the Colonial Office had The Upper House was more than usually aniceded guano in value, equal, it is said, to twenty- mated during the evening, but the force of the four millions sterling or as much of it as could noble Earl's speech was very much broken by the be shipped within a given period to a Captain Ord unusual length of the extracts interspersed and his friends, the budget debate was commenced throughout. The pith of his long, sometimes by Mr. James McGregor, followed by Lord John pathetic, and sometimes tedious address, was that Russell, who, to the astonishment of the House, the Arrow lorcha, being only a colonial vessel beand the relief of the Ministry, intimated his inten- longing to Hong-Kong, was not entitled to the tion of voting against Mr. Disraeli's resolutions, privilege secured by treaty with the Chinese for destroying thereby the crisis, for it was clear then an English ship; and that the war commenced in that they could not be carried. Mr. Bentinck Sir John Bowring's monomania for free entrance intimated his intention of moving the adjourument into Canton. The noble Lord described the reveof the debate. Mr. Milnes and Sir J. Tyrell, both lations in the parliamentary papers as disgusting; Conservatives, recorded their intention of voting the results of the operations as deplorable; and against Mr. Disraeli and Mr. Gladstone. Mr. the conduct of the Chinese as exemplary. Wilkinson naturally took the same course.
Mr. The Earl of Clarendon contended that the re. Liddell lectured his leader, Mr. Disraeli, for hinting gistry of the Arrow, and the right of the ship to at a reduction of taxation, to the budget of 1853, a British flag, was as clear as that of any vessel on which he charged the sorrows of 1854 ; yet he belonging to Gibraltar, Malta, Singapore, or any gave against his speech the more valuable consider- other crown colony, and that the conduct of Sir ation of his vote. A short speech against the John Bowring, Consul Parkes, and Sir M. Sey. resolutions by Mr. J. G. Phillimore, and another mour deserved all praise, while the third resolution for them by Mr. Whiteside followed, and then moved by Earl Derby would paralyse all operations again came the Leviathans. Mr. Francis Baring in distant seas, and leave defenceless all our desupported the Chancellor of the Exchequer, while pendencies. Mr. Walpole was clearly for reduction. The ex- Lord Lyndhurst contended that the treaty with Home Secretary of the Derby Cabinet went very the Chinese applied only to English ships, and close to the opinions of the Manchester politicians that Sir John Bowring was “one of the most misin that department. After him Mr. Cardwell, who chievous men;" and the Lord Chancellor replied, has been considered Mr. Gladstone's henchman, that this reasoning was incorrect, and the treaty abandoned his chief, and Mr. Milner Gibson spoke had been violated. Earl Grey then spoke at much upon the duty on paper. Mr. lewdegate spoke length, in proof of the assertion that the Arrow against Mr. Gladstone, as did every other speaker was not a British ship, entitled to the privileges of of the evening, we believe — for the member the British flag, and the Duke of Argyll argued as for Oxford University seems to be unpopu- stoutly that the Arrow was all right, and that Yeh lar. Sir Charles Wood defended the minis- was equally wrong. Then followed a squabble try in a very long address, more animated than his concerning the adjournment of the debate, which usual style, and after short explanations from Mr. was adjourned at twelve o'clock, over Ash WednesGladstone and Sir G. C. Lewis, the Chancellor of day, until Thursday. the Exchequer, Mr. Bentinck's proposal to ajjourn The Commons were informed by Lord John was negatived by 477 to 25, and Mr. Disraeli's Russell that the budget war was not yet over, for resolution by 286 to 206, which, after counting he would move a reduction of the duty on 24 prirs, gave the opinions of 540 members. A tea to ls. 4d., for the present and the next two few Liberals were in the minority, and a larger years, and to one shilling in 1860, and onwards. number of Conservatives in the majority.
Sir Joshua Walmsley moved the appointment On the 24th, the Earl of Derby moved his reso- of a select committee to consider the state of the lutions in the Peers against the late proceedings franchise and the representation. The adult male at Canton. We copy them :
population numbered five and a half millions, while That this House has heard with deep regret of the inter- | the electors were not over one million. One half
of the Commons were returned by 180,000 voters, some capitalists not connected with the Barings, and 800,000, or thereby, returned the other half. who have the getting of the money as far as Lon. A population of eight millions had their property don is concerned. assessed to the value of twenty-two millions, and We consider these Russian railways, in the prethey had three hundred and twenty-three repre- sent state of Russian purposes and Russian soci. sentatives. A population of ten millions had their ety, as army works. The Russian Government is property assessed at forty-two millions, and they a military despotism, aud will employ all the facihad one hundred and forty-four representatives. lities of migration supplied by foreign capital to Mr. Hadfield supported the motion, because the assimilate foreign peoples to the serfery and slavery labouring classes had no representation; and Mr. of their own population. Stafford had no doubt that this attack upon the The French capitalists and speculators will institutions of the country would fail; while Sir mote the scheme, for they have been flattered by George Strickland and Mr. Duncombe, both ardent the Northern politicians, who know the thin spots reformers, opposed the appointment of a committee in the character of our neighbours, and apply the on the ground that no information was needed; probe skilfully to their vanity. Count de Morny, and none may be required by them, although, in the ambassador of France to Russia, and who is courtesy to their opponents, they should suppose half brother to the Emperor Napoleon, has marthat information is wanted by those gentlemen, ried a Russian lady, and purchased in her name by Mr. Stafford for example-otherwise their con- an estate within twelve miles of St. Petersburgh, clusions would be adopted. Mr. Berkeley, indeed, containing so many acres, a chateau, garden, orangehad the bad taste to suggest that if the committee ries, two thousand five hundred serfs, shrubberies, were appointed, and Mr. Stafford were examined, and timber. We direct attention chiefly to the he might afford them some information upon the two thousand five hundred serfs with whom inter employment of Government patronage-bringing alia Count, de Morny has endowed his bride. The to mind the old story of dock depravity. Mr. serfery of Russia appears to be considerably overWarren, the author of “ Ten Thousand a Year,” | looked, and the cotton planters of the Southern stated that he had only to express his surprise at States in the American Union have not fair play ; the proposal to refer the British constitation to a for some thirty millions of white slaves exist within select committee, amid more laughter than the a comparatively short distance of our own shores ; learned gentleman has caused at any place or time for whose deliverance no single society issues a since the publication of the “Lily and the Bee." tract. Mr. Fox supported the motion, because an exten- The young Countess de Morny is said by some sion of the franchise would carry great questions gossips to be a daughter of the late Emperor without out-of-door agitation, or giving occasion Nicholas ; and thus, by a circuitous connexion, the for the rise of demagogues ! Lord Palmerston Buonaparte and Romanoff dynasty are united. The opposed the committee, because it would be story may not however have a deeper foundation against the sense of the House ; and this reason than many other tales respecting the great. seemed to be correct, for on a division 190 voted The Prussian King's promises to the Swiss, conagainst and 73 for its appointment. Thus the sequent upon their release of the Neuchatelese House of Commons will neither extend the fran- prisoners, have not been fulfilled. The Neapolitans chise to ten pound tenantry in the counties, nor continue patiently to bear the absence of the consider any other method, or give any attention British and French Ambassadors, to suffer many to the subject, for the people are said to be severe dealings from their King, and to wait apathetic.
generally for events. Waiting for events is poor A committee was appointed, on the motion of employment for people who want freedom of a Mr. Bentinck, to consider the management of rail. merely personal description. The ruler of Naples ways, with a view to the prevention of accidents manages even the hair dressing and tailoring of to travellers.
his people. He is a paternal sovereign in every
detail except the payment of his children's bills. FOREIGN
That duty he leaves to themselves; and includes The Russian Government has published their his own in the general debit. The freedom of Italy great railway scheme, for which forty-five millions is a far cry. It must be nearer of course than it are wanted during the next two years. The greater was last month or year; but, except from the part of this capital is to be raised in foreign counc necessities of dates, time, and so forth, we can see tries. A large sum is expected from Britain. The no ground for the opinion. expectation will be frustrated, we hope, for the France lives on debentures and credit companies. railways in Russia would be employed as military The press is effectually gagged. One journalist engines against us, while all the money that can be proposed to consider, on medical reasons, whether scraped together, or spared, is wanted for the colo- Verger, that ex-priest who killed the Archbishop nial and Indian lines. The guarantee offered by of Paris, was mad or sane. The authorities told the Russians is five per cent. nominally, but sub- the journalist that he might consider, but he was ject to so many contingencies that it has been cal- not to publish the result of his deliberations. The culated down to three and eight-tenths, or £3 16s., by iron hand keeps quietness in France, and the