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bubbles do not appear on the surface, if there be Swiss; which, thanks to the intervention of terriany commotion in the deep waters.

tories belonging to neutral powers, will lead to no Spain and Portugal suffer under a horrible

war ;

we have no hostile probabilities of any famine; and even from high priced London, large kind. Europe, excepting Britain, enjoys profound cargoes of wheat have been forwarded to the Pen. peace and quiet. If any nation wants any reform insular ports. The Portuguese have not exhibited whatever, the wish is not expressed. If any proany discontent for many years, and the Spaniards gress be observable it is material progress. It is appear to be cowed by Narvaez. The famine is true, however, to say that Europe merely lives. doubtless considered by the peasantry a judgment America appears to have been completely locked for the sale of the ecclesiastical lands.

up in snow towards the close of January. From The Austrian Emperor has tried the law of that continent we have no intelligence of great kindness in his Italian domains, and has generally interest except General Walker's progress in proclaimed amnesties in his tours or visitations Central America ; but some authorities say that it through the Lombardian and Venetian provinces, is progress backwards, and while America is with marked success, in conciliating the enemies of supposed to enjoy peace, General Walker's little his house, according to the statements of his friends. war on his own account has already cost the lives The same policy is to be tried in Hungary, and it of nearly ten thousand men. is hoped with the same results. The Hapsburghian The expected insurrection of slaves bas not ocmode of government in sugar is more palateable curred, but the death by hanging of two or three than in salt; and thus the young Emperor is a hundred of them has occurred; while the Virginian practical reformer.

sales of this stock during the season have reached Europe bas behaved in a decent and decorous £600,000, or thereby--at an average of £140, manner during the year hitherto, and excepting capable young men fetching £280. the broken promises of the Prussian King to the


Religion in Earnest. Tales Illustrative of Christian "In my private affairs, reverend sir,” said he," no on

has a right to interfere." Life in Germany ; translated by Mrs. STANLEY

You are nistaken, Valpert,” replied the minister, “ if CARR. With a prefatory notice by the Rev.

you imagine this to be your private affair. It concerns the WILLIAM Hanna, L.L.D. Edinburgh : Shep- parish, the Church, and myself most nearly, to endeavour to herd and Elliot. 1 vol., pp. 334.

prevent an unhappy marriage, and to promote a happy one, Dr. Hanna's portion of this volume would literally among us. It is my duty to see to this.”

“ Indeed? This is something new to me," said the angry go into a nutshell . It is a certificate. Mrs. Carr father

, “ and belongs properly to the new doctrines, and all says in the translation that the tales are written the other whirligigs which you are putting into our people's by Baron V. Strauss, but she was unwilling to heads.” introduce his name upon the title page, because he

“ Valpert,” resumed the minister,“ are you really so un

happy that the doctrine of the Cross is to you an offence might be mistaken for another writer of the same

and a folly p” name, and of different sentiments. These tales

“ All a way of speaking, minister ! Your predecessor are strictly evangelical in their tendency, and their used to say, “Good folk, believe what you like, but act upliterary merit entitles them to translation. The rightly ! That is my Christianity, all the rest is supersticentral tale of the three is, perhaps, be more

tion, and calculated to make dolts of the people.'”

The preacher sighed. “Old man,” said he, “ does not pleasant ; but it also has passages, which we

your own conscience reproach you for daring to speak in suppose are disagreeably true. A rich peasant such proud, contemptuous terms of that which the wisest had two children-a daughter and a son. The and best of men, in all ages, have held sacred p” former he determined to marry to a richer land. “I assure you, reverend sir, my conscience is quite easy owner in the neighbourhood. She had made her upon that subject,” said Valpert. “ And the short and own selection-a young carpenter in the village. the long of it is, that you wil as little talk me into another The former minister had been rather easy in his gun, as into another religion. I will hear nothing of either.

So, good day, reverend sir ; I must to my fields." religious views-very loose we should say. A

“ You may turn me away, Valpert,” said the clergyman new pastor had, however, been appointed, and he with great solemnity,“ but you cannot get rid of Him, belonged to a better school. He endeavoured to

whose holiest commands and warnings you are now reject. induce the peasant, Valpert, to change his opinion almighty hand can reach you in the house, and in the field !

ing! The eye of your Judge is bent upon you, and His respecting the destination of the maiden, Sophia, No one has ever braved him with impunity! May he have because he had a very bad opinion of the father's compassion on your unhappy child, and on your own soul ! favourite, Buchman. This is part of their con. | “Fare you well." versation :

The well-meant intervention of the pastor pro

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duced no good at the time. Valpert was a man The event led to a change iu his father's opinions, of this world, entirely and solely, and his creed who became an altered man, sought counsel from was the most common in Germany, we presume- the swineherd, then by far richer in reality, gave “ moncy makes the man.” Valpert was a "re- | him a home in his farm-buildings, and dismissed spectable” person; and so also was Buchman,” “Buchman," who is a bad specimen of German –very respectable; while Sophia, and apparently yeomanry. A little passage in the conversation the author, gave to the fifth commandment an consequent upon the return of Christian, shows a extremely wide meaning in the circumstances. perhaps prevalent opinion in Germany, where The paternally rejected Christian, the joiner, de opinions are very imaginative occasionally, yet we cided to make a rush for fortune, and set out for by vo means say that the following has only an Holland. Before his departure he communicated imaginative foundation :his secret to a herder of swine, “ Dulsman," who Then, looking round as if missing some one, ho asked' is a character well drawn, and worthy of study,

“ Where is little Frank !" not, we believe, over-drawn, or at all too highly started into Sophia's eyes, but Dalsman said, “ Believe me,

Valpert became deadly pale; his wife sigbed, and tears coloured. There are such men in our own coun:

my dear friends, happy as we all are here at this moment, he try; and even if the things of this life be regarded is much happier ! For you see, Christian, our merciful as the summa bona, it can hardly be said that they God has taken him to Himself in heaven, and yet I could do not enjoy them :

almost wager that he is here among us at this moment,

clapping his little hands for joy at all that is going on, Christian greeted him kindly with a cordial shake of the although we see him not! But, note well, this too cometh hand, but the old man bent on him a scrutinising look, and

forth from God, who sees meet to plant a death-garland in asked “what is the matter boy ? what has happened to you ?

the middle of our ripe harvest field of joy. Beside such a “Sophia is to marry the wealthy Buchman, and I am erop the Saviour tarries gladly, and, oh, may He be with as to stand and see !" replied the youth.


Where He is a blessing comes and remains, both for “ Has she then already broken bargain with you ?” asked

this world and the next !" the old man.

Mrs. Stanley Carr is a competent German “Yes," was the answer.

scholar, acquainted intimately with the country; “ Well then,“ rejoined the grey beard mildly, "il it cannot and Baron V. Strauss is a writer whose works in be altered, be cheerful, and thank God !" How, and for what P” cried Christian.

some measure counteract those of his namesake. "Ah you foolish boy !” replied the old man with solemnity. “It is easy to thank God for happiness, and prosperity although this is often forgotten by the godless. But think you that the most High ever does or permits to be done any thing for which we are not bonnd to thank Him on our

Third Letter to J. R. Roebuck, Esq., M.P. By J. knees.”

Gassiot, of the Administrative Reform AssoChristian gazed on the ground, and silently shook his

ciation. Pp. 32. head. “ Boy, boy!” exclaimed the old man in a warning voice, Association in Cannon-street, West, London. The

This pamphlet is published at the office of the " thou hast a hard time of probation to go through, if thou wilt not learn betimes ! Believe me, I was iu my day quite contents will displease those Members of Paras obstinate, and fancied myself always in the right in the liament who shirk the duties, while they wish for sight of my Lord God, so long as I was prosperous, and had the hononrs, of the place, for it contains a list of a house, and land, and money, and cattle, and a good wife, and her healthy children. At that time I could not lose a

the divisions during last session, in which each horse, or a cow, wlthout murmuring and complaining against member las voted. The number of divisions is God. Bat the Lord took me into His school. Two sons

198, and the number of members who have voted were shot in the Spanish war. A third was drowned. Two at one-half or more of these divisions is 97. Only children died in one month of a bad fever. Then came the one member, the invincible representative of Duz. great mortality among the cattle, and I was forced to go dee, has given the full number of votes, beating into debt. Thereupou died my wife, and soon afterwards Mr. Hayter himself by 8 divisions. We cannot my last son. My daughter married, and I had to go upon an annuity: Four years were sacarcely passed, before my say that a good member is bound to vote on every son-in-law had run through all; the land was sold, and they division. Many are taken upon subjects of little even contrived to deprive me of my annuity. At this time moment. Mr. Roebuck himsell is a useful memmy last remaining child died, and I was obliged to take my ber, and he was absent from nearly three-fourths staff, and wander! God knows those were troublons days!" of the divisions. Bad health may explain the cir.

“Well, then,” said Christian, “ and did you thank God for them!”

cumstance, but we presume that he was present “ Assaredly, and that from the bottom of my heart ! | upon the most important occasions. The text of Christian ; when I had nothing but my old Bible under my the letter refers to several other topics, of which arm, and my staff in my hand, I understood what the Lord says by Luke, ' Blessed are ye poor, for your’s is the king- incurred in contesting seats. A pure House of

none are more important than the heavy outlay dom of God.'”

Commons can never be obtained so long as ten The tale goes on through a series of ordinary thousand pounds can be expended in contesting a aecidents, as we call them, except the adventures metropolitan borough. The following interesting of Christian in Holland, which are extraordinary table of expenses allowed by the present reformed and out of the way, to a happy termination. Val- House of Commons, shows how much money is pert's little, and rather wilful boy, fell through the wanted to make up a “corruptiou" in their ice, ard died from an illness consequent thereupon.opinion

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pp. 252.

Lord Ebrington. Jacob Bell, Esq. was asserted, that "he was driven to his ascent by the devil £. d.

£. $. d. and his pack of hounds, but that angels had borne him Advertisements

593 40 305 11 0 safely into the church.” Dunstan's vanity was flattered by Agents for Districts 1067 2 5 196 191 the notoriety this tale obtained for him, and his parents were Canvassers, Messengers,

rather pleased than otherwise at the credence which it Bill posters, clerks,&c. 749 3 4 634 8 6 gained, loving to relate it, with additions and amendments, Committee Rooms

278 3 7 251 9 1 doubtless. Conveyances, Cabs, &c. 365 8 6 296 13 5

Dunstan lived in the reign of eight Saxon Inspectors of Books

56 0 0

45 12 0

Kings. He struggled long for the supremacy of Postages, Printers, Sta.

tionery, &c., &c. 1418 08 886 33; the Church, and used all means, creditable and Returning Officer... 375 0 0 375 0 0 otherwise, to attain that triumph. He was a Election Anditor...

9 140

7 4

mechanic, and while busy at his forge, Satan

attacked him, but the clerical blacksmith engaged £4,941 17 6 £2,929 5 4. Election Auditor, Fee,

the enemy with becoming spirit, and drove him and Commission

94 16 0

57 11 0

from the field. He had all scientific attainments

common to his time, and be employed them, in £5,036 13 £2,986 16 45 the authoress' opinion, in advancing ecclesiastical

interests. One day he leaned his harp upon the wall, while he traced the patterns of some em

broidery for a noble lady ; but the harp continued Glimpses of Our Island Home. By Mrs. Thomas its song, because probably the saint was also a GELDART. Norwich : Fletcher and Alexander.

ventriloquist. The celibacy of the clergy was one

of St. Dunstan's leading objects in life, upon the The Elementary School History of England. By principle of the fox without the tail, for in his

J. J. FARNHAM. Part I. London: Groom- youth he had been prevented from marriage. bridge. Pp. 76.

The history of the quarrels between the Danes, The larger production is a very neat volume, with Normans, and Saxons, are those of civil war, for many illustrations, bringing the early history of whatever distinction existed between them and the Britain from obscurity down to the Normans. original Britons or Celts, it cannot be doubted that The authoress professes to provide something for they were three branches of one race. life out of school, not quite elementary, and yet

Mr. Farnham's “ Elementary School History of not so heavy as regular history. The origin of England," promises to be an intelligent work, and the British tribes is not more fully examined than

one therefore that may be recommended. Generally might have been expected in a volume of this school histories are made upon the principle that nature. The Britons themselves are said to have anything is good enough for children. The nature been, like all Celtic nations, afraid of the dangers of the errors in some of them is provoking. They of the sea, and the Phænicians, it is said, traded are errors for which the junior students of history with them; but the best opinion on those subjects should earn black marks. Mr. Farnham's part now is that the Phæniciaus were Celts, like the appears to us very accurate in its statements and Philistines, Tyrians, and other communities of the instead of a series of circuitous questions and reMediterranean, who left emigrant communities in plies, gives to the learner a clear narrative. He this country, and no doubt left their mode of wor.

despatches Dunstan in these sentences : ship, including especially the service of Baal. We The power of the clergy in those days was very great, and do not recollect any little book in which a young

even the most powerful kings found themselves unable to person may more pleasantly gather glimpses of his

oppose it. In the reign of Edwy lived the famous Dnnstan,

abbot of Glastonbury. He was a very clever, but I fear island home, than Mrs. Geldart's work. The style not a very good man, and assumed the right to control the is very interesting and very pleasant. St. Dun King, who endeavoured to resist him, and to curb his power, stan, who is parochially preserved in London, but he was unable to do so, and only brought great trouble suffers at the lady's hand, and turns out to have

on himself and his kingdom hy bis efforts. been a clever, unscrupulous schemer :

His descriptions of customs and habits in those You know, I suppose, Cowper's distinction between know early days, are useful for people who have left ledge and wisdom :

school :* Knowledge is proud that she has learned so much,

Their honses were built of wood, which was covered with Wisdom is humble that she knows no more."

a plaster of mud and clay, while these rough walls in the Well would it be if some one had whispered that in Dan- houses of the rich, were covered by beautiful tapestry, stan's ear, but perhaps he lacked a faithful friend in youth. worked by the hands of the ladies. The furniture consisted When quite a lad, and still a pupil at Glastonbury school, he of a few rude chairs and tables, generally of oak, which, in was seized with a fit of illness, attended by fever and deli- the houses of the rich, was often inlaid with gold and other riun. Daring a paroxysm of violence, he arose one night rich materials. The upper classes had also bedsteads, with from his bed, and ran out into the open air towards the costly hangings ; but the poor had seldom any better bed abbey church, which was then under repair, and against than a bag of straw, with the skin of some animal to cover which a workman had set a ladder ; by this he ascended to them. the roof, and the next morning was found fast asleep in the The roads constructed by the Romans remained, and church, without remembering how he had come there. The doubtless others had been made, but they were still few; love of the wonderful, and the superstitions of the age, and many villages were situated far away from these chandressed up this story with many additions; among others it | nels of communication, an during the winter the bosnia

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were cat off from all intercourse with other parts, for the

There was a ship the “ Eclair,” which for months and for land was then, in most places, very marshy and swampy, and whenever there was much rain, the villages were mere

Had cruised along the African lagoonsislands in the midst of mud and water. Many parts, too, The terror-as her seamen loved to boast — which are now occupied by pleasant corn fields and thriving Of every slaver on the Western coast ; farms, were then covered with forests, in which were found

All things went well and bravely with ship, wild beasts, which rendered it unsafe to travel by night. Many of the people were in a state of slavery or serfdom, Then corpse on corpse was lowered o'er her side,

Till Fever met her in her homeward ship, even for many years after this. These were nearly in the same state as the negro slaves of the Uuited States of But home she got — how, is a marvel still !

And soon the surgeons sickened too and died, America at the present time. But there was this great Her hands were so reduced--and half were ill ; difference in their favonr, that although they were bought Yet even on English waters nought could check or sold with the land on which they lived, as a part of the The Fever-demon that assailed her deck. estate, they could not be bought or sold in any other way, Who'eer approached the fatal ship was taken so that children were not separated from their parents, or

Ill of the pest--yet was she not forsaken. wives from their husbands, as is now done where slavery exists. The slaves were generally persons who had either In that most fearful hour-for on the roll been guilty of some crime, or had been taken prisoners in Of scientific names, was one brave soul, war, or else they were the descendants of such persons. Who grappled with the foe! Let Britain tell Above them, there was a class called “ freed-men,” these How Sidney Bernard volunteered and fell, were generally employed as servants or labourers, but had The sailor's friend. Can Westminster not spare liberty to change their masters whenever they chose, just A tablet for the “Hero of the Eclair!” as working men have now. A higher class of these were And wherefore, soldiers, to our country's shame, the free-men, many of whom were possessed of large pro

Is there no record yet of Thompson's name! perty. Some of them were lapded proprietors ; others were No stone to mark how that devoted one engaged in commerce, to encourage which Athelstane ordered By the red Alma, when the fray was done, that any merchant who had made three voyages across the

In mercy to the wounded of the o’erthrown, sea, should become entitled to the rank of a Thane or Remained to do his god-like work—alone! bleman, that being the highest rank next to royalty.

Where'er he looked were marks of fire and steel,

Spent shot and shell, dismounted gun and wheel, Slaves were, at a later date, sold at £2 to £3. The broken sabre, and the cloven helm— They were bartered, driven hither and thither, All that could daunt the soul, or overwhelm. and exchanged in every possible way. Even Alfred Corpses in heaps, the dead and staggering steed, and Athelstane, determined and powerful monarchs, And groups ef wounded in their direst need ! were unable to stay the progress of domestic slavery, Yet there the gallant Scot maintained his post, while, long afterwards, the foreign slave trade, as Beside a remnant of the Russian host, an exporting business, prevailed largely. The And soothe the suferers in their mad distress.

Whose wounds—such wonnds ! his orders were to dress country was then populous, or it could not have Foes, to a man. Right pleasant patients theysustained the long and terrible struggles of the Eight hundred Calmucks who had lost the day ! times ; and it was wealthy, or it could not bave But down he knelt, beneath the lowering heaven, paid the quantities of bullion exacted frequently And, in pursuance of the orders given, by the sea kings.

Went to his duty with a manly heart-
Soldier and Surgeon-true to either part !
With only one attendant, who could speak
His country's tongue, amid unceasing shriek,
And groan, and wail, and cry, woful to hear-

The raven and the vulture hovering near-
Physic and its Phases ; the Rule of Right and the There, unappalled by all those sounds and sights,
Reign of Wrong. By ALCIPHRON, the “Modern Nobly he toiled two fearful days and nights,

Limb after limb examined and bound up, Athenian.” London : Simpkin, Marshall, and And poured the cordial balsam in the cup; Co. Pp. 76, sewed.

Desisting only when himself struck down,

The unconscions winner of a world's renowa. We happened to open this poetical attack upon medical practice-we say neither quackery nor

The medical poet praises the army and navy science--at page 14, and there fell upon lines that surgeons, and reproaches bitterly those of the prowe deemed worthy in their subject and themselves session, or the majority of them who enjoy a doof heing circulated widely; and we determined mestic practice. Even science applied to the to help that work. Dr. Thompson's courage at

medical studies is dealt with in this way :Alma has not been noticed sufficiently. He is

With test tube, speculum, or stethescopedead-died probably from his exertions

Three baubles brought by Quackery into vogue. that

upon field; but some farther notice than has yet Patients, he informs us, are kept ill because quick occurred might be taken of bravery far greater cures will not pay. Patients, like professionals

, than is absolutely necessary to charge even on the on that aceount are culpable— because they grudge cannon's mouth. We had the lines set before to pay uuless they experience considerable work. we had read the work itself—a practice of which Why meanly grudge to quick and honest skill we are not frequently guilty; and although they The "cheque" you pay the wretch who keeps you ill ? occupy rather more space than we can easily spare, Dr. Dickson is the hero of this poem. Threeyet they form a tribute, earned well, to two medi- fourths of our notable names are the anti-heroes cal men, who were examples to a doubly hazardous —mean fellows who practise the Dicksonian profession :

science, and cut its inventor or originator. Of

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course such “gentlemen” will not practice honestly. have passed over that part of the land since the A considerable part of the " poem” and the great rebellion. " proofs" is directed against the obstetric art as The volume is written by the Secretary of the practised now - the writer alleges that it is a job Club, we understand, and reflects great credit merely—a way of living—and not commendable, alike for its research and its style. The condition but being a feminine science, should be in female of Scotland, before the commencement of Mr. hands. Dr. Simpson, of Edinburgh, is one object Watt's career, is graphically described in the folof his sarcasm, not refined, but honest-for the lowing paragraph :poet is evidently a medical man. A work some

If the appearance of the great inventor be held, as it what similar, in prose, was sent to us some time must, to form an important epoch in our national annals, it ago, and was put aside, because the discussion is cannot be here altogether inappropriate to remark, somewhat not the most delicate imaginable, and a little out more distinctly than has yet been done, the character and of our way; but we fancy that this rhymester is the exigencies of the period to which the event belongs ; to make a noise in the world, and some of the

illustrating especially, as these circumstances do, many more idealistic professionals may also defend points in our subsequent memorials. The period was one

of amazing energy and enterprise throughout the kingdom. themselves in rhymes.

We have already seen what indications had been given, in the north, of a national awakening to the importance of foreign trade and the value of home commercial enterprise to the country.

Hitherto commerce and industry in feudal Scotland had

been prosecuted rather as a means of existence, than, as now, Memorials of James Watt. By the GREENOCE of princely luxury and refinement. Watt CLUB. 1 vol., with illustrations.

It was the begioning of a new state of things when, after

the Union, the claymore and brand in one part of the country The British people, or their descendants, breast began to be exchanged for the pickaxe and the plough; the currents of the Mississipi and the Missouri; while in another, clauship, with its endless feuds, was all but navigate the central lakes of America, carry com

forgotten in the frequent and peaceful labours of the anvil

and the loom ; when private enterprise felt that it could exmerce up the Magdalena, force a passage through tend itself securely; when ships began to multiply; when Nicaragua ; penetrate into the heart of Africa; the arrival of foreign commodities rendered a reciprocation link together their Indian empire by its magnifi. of trade both necessary and inevitable; when the resources cent rivers, win a way up the Murray that has of the country became the object of attention ; when, instead flowed since the creation until now an apparently their estates could maintato P-a more enlightended and in

of the question of feudal lairds—how many belted men useless stream; and from the arctic to the torrid terested inquiry came to be, what were the agricultural, zones; over all the globe--in every sea; defy mineral

, mercantile advantages of their lands — when terri. wind and tide, and rivers and currents, because tory accordingly began to be cultivated, the bowels of the upon the Clyde, half a century since, an ingenious earth to be explored, and the produce poured into the eager mechanic invented the steam-engine, or rendered then rapidly increased, and as rapidly became concentrated,

hands of the manufacturer and the merchant. Population useful the crude ideas that had existed formerly-in no part of the conntry more preceptibly than in the on the subject. There is no branch of mechanics west and along the shores of the Firth of Clyde, that splendid which has not been revolutionised by Watt. Onrestuary, whose waters, skirting the coasts of Renfrewshire, manufacturing greatness would have been simply and penetrating far into the richest mineral districts of impossible without his, or some similar, invention. Lanarkshire, were soon to become the great artery of foreign

and domestic opulence to Scotland. Harbours then were The advantages that men expect, and those that built or enlarged, rivers and firths were surveyed, roads, they have received from railways are all the work bridges, canals, required by the new inland traffic, were deof his mind. The superior clothing of the living manded; and, ere the lapse of the first half of the century, generation springs from the steam-engine. Tha under the influence of a few sagacious men, general intresuperior cultare of the earth that we are told to pidity in many of the productive arts had begun to mark

out these favoured spots which have since become the seats expect soon will originate in the same potent of unrivalled manufactures, and of all but unrivalled wealth. agency. The last generation produced no man to

The author of the volume has made himself whom mankind are more universally indebted than intimately acquainted with all the details of Watt's James Watt. We are not surprised that Greenock should be but of great interest, which we extract, partly to

and there is a passage of some length,

early life; prond of this illustrious son. Scotland is distin. indicate the nature of the volume, but chiefly guished because he was a Scotsman. It would be from its intrinsic worth, and the information it strange, therefore, if his native town had not an efficient club in honour of his memory-one which

conveys. might induce others to emulate his example. The precocity— by stealth, it is said, lest he should incur the

The child Pascal, the great prototype of mathematical volume recently issued by that body contains displeasure of his father, -worked out at twelve years of many curious particulars respecting the origin and age, with a piece of charcoal on the floor tiles of his chamber, early life of Mr. Watt, the condition of Greenock, the thirty-second proposition of the first book of Euclid, the state of the Clyde, aud the rapid progress of and that before it seems he had ever heard of a triangle, the west. These statements are interesting in all parallelogram, or circle, or knew the definition of a straight

line. But the recluse of Port-Royal would not, to our mind quarters, but they must be especially so in the at least, have been a less great man, though the amiable west-the scene of those wonderful changes that Gilberte had not by her manner of narrating the attendant

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