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dignity of sway enjoyed a thing more than I did may be said to consist of two distinct divisions, this first palanquin journey. All the other palkees the flat ground constituting Tellicherry Proper, were too far apart to inculcate any fear of prying whilst the cliffs and high ground were called eyes or remonstrating voices protesting against Deramapatam ; these two are separated by a con. more biscuit. As for my brother-in-law, I never siderable stream, over which a couple of large set eyes upon him from the hour he mounted, till ferry boats were continually plying. In the latter we arrived at the end of the destined stage of the place there were only two European residences, day. The bearers, through reverence for my know- one of which was allotted to my brother-in-law, ledge of Telagno, respect for the occasional whilst the other was occupied by a dreadful old annas I gave them, and adoration for my interces-circuit judge, a man who was the terror of all the sions for whole sheep to be cut up into curry, surrounding native villages, and who, during his treated me like a young prince, and obeyed my frequent fits of gout, roared like a rabid bull to the wishes to the letter, pausing when I was weary, terror of his whole household, and revenged him. and got out to stretch my legs, or to try and catch self, aller a most grotesque style, by insisting upon some wayside sparrow, helping me to capture but. all his servants being liberally dosed with jalap so terfies, or gather wild flowers, and then making long as he was a sufferer. I shall never forget up for loss of time by redoubling their speed and the fear this old fellow instilled in my breast the overtaking the others long before our absence first day I passed under his roof (for he was a very could awaken suspicion.
prince of hospitality, and insisted upon the whole family taking up their abode with him until our own house, which had been some time unoccupied,
should be properly aired, and ready for our recepCHAPTER VII.
tion). It so unfortunately happened that the TELLICHERRY.
unhappy cook had been rather negligent in the NOTWITHSTANDING the comforts of the palanquin, quality of the eggs he had purchased for breakit may be realily conceived with what unfeigned fast, some of them proving stale; he was forth with delight we all hailed the termination of so long summoned to the breakfast table, and wbilst the and fatiguing a journey. Two months had clapsed fierce old judge, with a giant's grip, forced bis since our departure from the Mount, and during mouth open wi h one hand, with the other he this interval we had traversed an immense extent made him swallow, shell and all, some peculiarly, of country, subject to the heat and inclemency of nauseous eggs, which made the man ill for the rean Indian summer; besides which, in addition to mainder of the week. exposure to cholera (that scourge which invariably Both these houses were perfect palaces, having follows upon the line of march either of troops or grounds attached to them, many miles in extent, of any considerable body of travellers, such as our full of the most delicious fruit trees, abounding caravan constituted), and the perils of jungle fever, in flowering plants and shrubs, producing au and the attacks of wild beasts, the old lady, possi- abundant supply of every kind of Indian vegetable, bly from over fatigue at her advanced age, had and situated upon lofty cliffs, which overhung the latterly become perfectly unmanageable, being more sea, and commanded an uuinterrupted view of the than ever haunted with recollections of the Irish five fleet of China ships trading to and fro from rebellion, and persisting in the strange hallucination Bombay, some of which passed almost within bail that our bearers were desperate rebels, plotting the of our drawing room windows. The intense solioverthrow of the British empire, aud the assassina- tude that reigned around these isolated mansions tion of such liege subjects as ourselves—so much was always agreeably interrupted by the songs of 80, that their every-day chaunt was by her inter. innumerable birds, which flocked orer in legions preted into fiery war songs; and it not unfrequently from the Wynard jungle, and whose beauty and happened, to the alarm of ourselves and the aston variety of plumage could hardly be rivalled in any isbment of her bearers, that she jumped out of her part of the globe. Amongst these there was no palanquin, under a broiling hot sun, and could lack of game; partridges abounded at all seasons barely be persuaded to intrust her life to their care of the year, and during the wet weather immense To such an extent bad this panic worked upon her flocks of wild geese, ducks, teal, settled on the intellect, that it was no uncommon event to find sea just under our cliff, and so prodigious was the poor old soul deeply distressed and in tears their number, that it is a well-known fact that because she had failed in finding either myself or coasting vessels, carrying guns for the express my sisters in the most ludicrous positions imagina. purpose, have loaded these up to the very muzzle ble-such, for instance, as inside of a hat, and with duck and swan shot, and firing in amongst sometimes under a teacup; it was therefore with these legions collected hundreds of birds after no small pleasure we hailed the termination of our each broadside, which they salted down and carried journey.
to the coast for sale. We found Tellicherry to be a pretty little strag. It was here, much to the terror of the ladies of gling town on the sea coast of Malabar, between the family, that first initiated me into the the cansiderable military contonment of Cananore, mysteries of shooting. To possess a gun and and the French settlement of Mahe or Mai. It powder and shot of one's own, was indeed an end
less source of pride and enjoyment, and after one turn the pony's lead, before these infuriated brutes or two such trivial incidents as blowing my own were close upon us; and the pony, urged on by eyebrows off, and very nearly shooting an old terror, had seized the bit between its teeth, and black woman, whose head, passing along the other become quite unmanageable, taking a side of a hedge, I had mistaken for a crow, I country route, which was its nearest way home, settled down into a juvenile sportsman, and, if I over freshly ploughed ground that was liberally did not always kill, I frightened the birds amazingly. strewed with stones, and intersected with dykes. In addition to this, Tellicherry afforded a vast A sudden leap took me quite unawares, and the field for sport of a more healtliy and enlivening next instant I found myself at the bottom of a character. Besides jackals, hyenas, and even wolves, deep ditch, an easy prey to the voracious brutes foxes and wild cats were exceeding numerous, that were following on our track. To my great and it seldom happened that we allowed three days delight, however, the hyenas, taking not the to intervene without getting up a hunting party, slightest heed of my perilous position, but leaping which afforded much amusement and good healthy over the ditch, continued in hot pursuit of the exercise. As far as Europeans were concerned, our pony, who managed to distance them in the long numbers were usually limited, comprising, besides run, whilst I extricated myself from my unenviable C- and myself, the young officer commanding position, and succeeded in reaching a neighbour. the detachment of pative infantry, and a hareming village, without any further adventure. scarem son of the old Judge before alluded to, Thus, with very little variety, passed some of who possessed all his father's disqualifications, the pleasantest and happiest days of my early with the advantages of youth and strength to back youth; and although my studies were often interhim.
rupted, and sometimes wholly neglected, I had no It was on one of these occasions that I encoun- cause to afterwards regret the same ; for my contered a hair-breadth adventure, which for a period stitution, naturally of a delicate turn, was con. effectually stopped my sporting propensities. Hav. siderably benefitted by the manly sports and ing one morning come suddenly upon a couple of exercise I so freely indulged in; and, from mingling hyenas, and being mounted upon a restive and with the natives, and conversing with them daily, fleet Pegu pony, I at once gave them chase, I soon acquired a perfect knowledge of their lanthough unaccompanied by any of my friends, and guage, which was of great benefit to me in after armed with no better weapon than a common years. Moreover, I imbibed a great and lasting hunting whip. The chase continued for several taste for everything that was picturesque, at the miles, until, indeed, I had distanced all signs of same time that free access to C-'s library human habitation, and entered upon a perfect inspired me with a taste for literature ; and I desolation. Here, to my horror and surprise, the learned to look upon and appreciate the bounteous byenas stopped short, and, turning round, confronted works of nature, which were so plentifully strewed me with a savage growl, giving evident indications round my pathway in that quiet but much loved of a wish to attack me. The movement was home of my younger days, on the distant shores of sudden that I could barely check the reins, and the Indian ocean.
O spring! my heart rejoices much to see
In the cold arms of winter to have died.
SU GA R.
Next to the supply of food and cotton, perhaps were no owners. In order to guard his successors the one whicl chiefly occupies the attention of all from extravagance, and to form a fund from which classes is that of sugar.
The revenue from it all claims might be satisfied, the remainder was forins a most important item in the budget of the left to so remote a successor as to prevent the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the price, a still possibility, iu the common course of nature, of the more important amount in the weekly expenditure heir being stripped of his patrimony. The care of every artizan. The question enters even into which Chancery takes of its wards may be learned the value of arboricultural produce, since, when by a fact which was mentioned some few years the article is cheap, fruit realises a higher rate, since, in the course of one of the many suits then from the double demand for it for immediate engaging the attention of the Chancellor, arising consumption, and for preserving. Without going in this cause--that the accumulated addition to the into the vexed question as to whether sugar was property did not exceed twelve thousand per ananm, known to the ancients, it will be sufficient to ob. very far below the calculation made by the tesserve that it was introduced first into Europe from tator. The story of the hundred green monkeys the East. The best authorities agree that China, is not so apocryphal as is generally imagined; it the parent of so many of what are now termed really occurred to a West India merchant, a neighEuropean inventions, is the country from which it bour of Mr. Thelusson, in the vicinity of Philpotwas originally brought by the Saracens, and by them lane. This gentleman had a method of writing and transmitted to the Western African Islands, and speaking peculiar to himself. The former appafrom thence to the West Iudies, whence the whole parently somewhat a foundation for the phoof the supply was derived. Portugal, from its netic system lately current, with a strong objection South American colonies, furnished Europe with a to wasting ink in crossing t’s and dotting i's. To considerable part of its consumption, and in the oblige a lady, he ordered his Jamaica correspone various recipes to be found in works treating of dent to send him 100 green monkeys, or, as he culinary matters, "Lisbon sugar” is invariably di- intended to have written. “ too "_but the absence rected to be used, which was of a crystallised de- of the horizontal stroke to the first letter produced scription, the same as that from the Brazils at the a consignment of fifty animals, with an apology present time.
This was in contradistinction to that time did not permit any more to be caught, " raw,” or mojst usually received in England and a promise that the remainder would be forfrom Jamaica and the other islands, and which had warded the next opportunity. The same party not undergone the semi-clarifying process which made a similar mistake in transmitting a request the other had. For nearly a century the “West to Birmingham for black tacks, or coffin nails, India interest,” was of paramount importance in in place of which black jacks, or japanned tin drinkEngland and Scotland. Glasgow in the latter, ing jugs were sent. But all these glories of the and Bristol in the former country owed a large por- West India trade were destined at last to succumb tion of their importance to the trade between the to the course of time and the new order of things islands and those ports. In London a West India which have arisen within the last forty years. The merchant was really a great individual; witness impetus given to the cultivation of the cane by Beckford, who remoustrated with George III. upon other countries, and the impoverishment of estates occasion of presenting an address from the corpo- by heavy settlements made upon them, by nonration, and to whom a monument was erected in resident proprietors, reduced the West India Guildhall, which has been lately literally shelved Islands much to a condition similar to that in by the civic potentates to make room for the Duke of which Ireland was before the Incumbered Estates' Wellington. And Thelusson, whose extraordinary Act was passed; but the final blow was given by will was of such moment as to cause Parliament the Emancipation Bill. Though this measure met to pass a special act to abrogate it, and to prevent with universal approbation, and is at the present such another from being made. At the present time pointed to with pride, a clause was struck moment, much misapprehension is extant as to the out which would have tended to ameliorate the real object of Peter Thelusson, in thus limiting condition of the slaves themselves, and to have the ultimate disposal of his property. He was
somewhat preserved the cultivation of the estates originally of Swiss extraction, and from a long re- for the owners; namely, the plan of apprenticeship. sidence in France had deservedly obtained the cou. The immediate effect of sudden emancipation was fidence of a large number of proprietors in the to reduce the production of sugar more than oneFrench West Indian Islands, becoming agent for hall, and what with low prices, caused by competithe sale of their produce, and the transmission of tion, and the high value of imported free labour, the the proceeds. During the progress of the “Reign receipts from the West Indies now form but a of Terror," many of these fell victims to the re- small part of the total production of the globe, volution, leaving either no descendants, or no docu- though no part of the world is so well adapted to ments by which the estates could be derived, and its growth as are the West India Islands. Within hence an accumulation of property for which there the last few years, however, a new race of planters
have sprung up, who, with the assistance of machi. control the resources of the country are becoming nery and capital, are greatly increasing the yield of rapidly and profitably developed. One great cause the crop, and who are bringing many of the of the rise of this colony bas been one of the abandoned estates again into cultivation. At the chief reasons for the decline of the West Indies ; time when the West Indies were thus decaying, namely, the greater facility of procuring labour by the small island of the Mauritius was becoming immigration. The distance between Calcutta and important. The soil of this originally barren rock the Mauritius is not so formidable as to deter the has been literally made, and is only kept upon the Hindoo coolies from going there for a limited time, surface by being placed in fissures of the rock, in more particularly as a large trade is carried on in which the cane is planted ; were it not for this rice, and other necessaries, all the supplies for the precaution a hurricane would sweep away the island being derived from extraneous sources whole. The sugar from hence approaches so nearly vegetable food from India, animals from the Cape to that of Jamaica in appearance as to deceive an of Good Hope, and so on ; while to send them to uninitiated eye, and forms a large item in the con- the West Indies the voyage is considerable, the sumption of the grocers; the refiners, however, mode of return uncertain, and the rate of passage still adhering to West India in general, on account to or fro high, from the necessity of chartering of its superior strength. When the Mauritius was ships expressly for the purpose. first brought into notice, more capital was lost by For a long series of years the East India Comits trade than perhaps in any other in a similar pany encouraged the growth of the sugar cane in space of time, it being the custom to purchase the various districts of India, but it is hardly more crop before even the cane was planted, by advancing than a quarter of a century since East India sugar the money necessary for its cultivation, and trusting bas become an article of real importance in comto the quantity produced, and the prices realised for merce. Previously to that time it was particularly it , for repayment and profit. It is a singular fact, fine and soft, of a clayey texture, without a parthat there was no one firm who had this trade for ticle of crystal, of a fine colour, and suitable only years, but who retired from it either with considera. for mixing with the darker sorts from other ble loss, or was obliged to succumb. No other in- countries, imparting appearance and strength to stance of this need to be adduced than the disas. the mixture. To its general use also there were trous failure of Messrs. Reid, Irving, and Co., two drawbacks—one in the flavour of sulphur when the princely realised property of the indivi. which always accompanied it, the other to a rate of dual partners was totally lost, together with an duty charged upon it, higher than from the favoured enormous sum belonging to creditors, by advances colonies. When a more liberal policy was adopted which had been made upon estates in the Mauritius by the Company, by which the employınent of and in the West Indies. It has been said that an capital was encouraged, several tracts of land were Act of Parliament can do anything; this has been planted, and manufactories established, by which proved in reference to the island in question, when sugar was brought into its present prominent was once declared by the Legislature that hence. position among the more important productions of forth the “ Mauritius to be one of his Majesty's India. sugar colonies in the West Indies." Absurd as It was predicted some years since—then thought this may appear to be, it was positively acted on to be a fallacy, but now appearing to be in the to the serious pecuniary loss of a large mercantile course of fulfilment—that before long India would house in regard to cloves, the production of the be able to supply the whole world with sugar. neighbouring small island, “Bourbon,” from which Since the difference in duty wis abolished, the they arrived in England via the Mauritius. Before increase in the quantity shipped from Bengal and the Act was passed, geographers, and all other Madras has been enormous, and in the latter preinterested parties, considered the Mauritius to be, sidency the natives have taken up the manufacture what it really is, a British possession within the as well as Europeans, and produce a large quantity limits of the East India Company's Charter, and -inferior, it is true-which is chiefly consumed on as such its produce or its exports, except sugar, the continent. In the neighbourhood of Bombay were placed in the same category as if they had also it is being cultivated ; and now that railroads, come from India proper ; but by this law the tram roads, and river towing.steamers are begincustoms were empowered to demand a certificate ning to be brought into operation, it is impossible of produce before accepting the lower, when there to conceive a limit to the quantity which will be might be a differential, duty. And thus in the brought to the shipping ports. instance of the cloves, which were sold at ten- In no country have finer qualities been made, pence per lb. in bond, subject to, and were delivered and were it not for the petty but serious obstacles to the consumer, at a duty of one shilling per lb., imposed by custom-house regulations perhaps in the merchant in the absence of the certificate, was none would greater improvements continue to be made to pay an extra shilling, or in other words, made in the manufacture. At present it would to give his property away, and to pay twopence appear as if the official regulations were specially per lb. for so doing at the present time this framed for the purpose of compelling the consumpparticular sugar trade is in the hands of one of tion of an inferior article, since the better it is, the merchant princes of London, under whose the higher is the charge laid upon it. A mer
chant in India, when shipping sugar there, is com- | The experience thus gained seemed to show that pletely in the dark as to what duty he will have the country of Siam was extremely fertile, the to pay upon its arrival in this country. The con natives patient, industrious, and docile, and anxious signee here is equally at a loss, and not until it has to assimulate themselves to European manners. A been compared by inexperienced, and perhaps commercial treaty has been lately negociated with ignorant custom-house officers with what are that kingdom, and from the manifest change now termed "standard samples," is the amount progressing, in breaking down Eastern prejudice of duty to be levied fixed. It is a matter of against foreigners, it may be expected that Siam every day occurrence for a parcel of sugar to be will before long contribute a great portion of its sent from India alike in quality, no one bag differ. sugar toward the consumption of other countries. ing from another, but upon its arrival here, from While every Eastern nation, termed "barbarians," the heat of the hold of the ship, the nature of the in the west, are yielding their exclusive feelings, surrounding cargoes, and other causes, a slight and tending toward a junction with the one great difference in colour may be occasioned, and so, many commercial family, the Dutch, with the Island of different rates of duty are charged upon perhaps Java, alone stand still. Years ago, it was custoone or two hundred bags. One of the earliest mary to root up the spice plants, and to destroy English factories was established in the neighbour a certain portion of the produce, in order to prohood of Calcutta, and from the amount invested mote an artificial scarcity in Europe ; to this day in it, and the probability of its extension, particular their nutmegs come over powdered with lime, in attention was paid to it by the agent here. This order to preserve them against the ravages of the classification was made on the first importation, worm, in consequence of keeping them over to and being aware of the absurdity, great trouble was obtain a higher price. This same narrow-minded undertaken to obtain a change in the regulation, policy pursues every step of the Java trade. “If but notwithstanding the analysis of several che- the island produce more than we, the Dutch, can mists, and a long vivá voce examination of the consume, nobody else shall derive any advantages late Dr. Ure, who demonstrated that every bag from the land," is the motto of the Dutch East was alike in quality, four rates were charged, India Company, in which, by the way, the late King varying from equal to refined, to raw or Musco. of Holland was the largest proprietor in his indivi. vado. Since the rapid intercourse now existing dual capacity. We have a commercial treaty with between the various parts of the kingdom bas Holland by which it is agreed that no higher rates been established, and bonding in inland towns of duty shall be levied upon British manufactures, permitted, large quantities of sugar are forwarded when imported into Java, than fifty per cent. * in bond,” and grocers avail themselves of the pri. above that which is charged upou goods when vilege, and are frequently at as much loss between landed there from uuder the Dutch flag. The two English places, as the merchant may be at be- stipulation has been violated for years ; and despite tween England and India, as the dicta of the the energetic remonstrances of our several amofficials as to the quality of sugar may vary at bassadors at the Hague, no redress bas been Bristol from London, or Glasgow from Liverpool. obtained, the reply having invariably heen, “If
Throughout the whole of Eastern India, sugar you will point out any particular grievance, we will is largely cultivated, but chiefly for home use. apply a remedy." The next evasion is to be But little comes from China, the natives appearing found in the fact that the whole of the eastern to require all they make. The Siamese export a trade is one of barter, and that produce must be little, with a fine crystallised grain, seeming'y taken in payment for manufactures, and that an either manufactured by a particular method, or enormous duty is levied, the greater part of which produced from a somewhat different species of is returned to natives of Holland. Under this cane. In the Archipelago, from Java, a large system the extensive and fertile island of Java quantity is exported almost solely to Holland, and remains more closely sealed to enterprise than any upon which a large part of Europe depends for its one of the neighbouring countries to which Eurosupply. In the little island Penang, the growth peans have hitherto been denied access. China of sugar is rapidly increasing, and the colony pro opened some of its ports to other nations. Japan, mises to become very valuable to the mother for centuries the great riddle of the world, has country in respect to this article.
welcomed foreigners; and Siam, until now almost Some thirty years, since a member of an English as exclusive as either of the other two is welcomfirm had an opportunity of rendering some service ing civilization, while Holland stands alone, like a to the then King of Siam, who in return accorded dog in á manger, prevents any one but herself him the privilege of trading with the country, communicating with Java proper, and by means of which had hitherto been denied to Europeans. treaties, excludes them from many of the surroundThese parties, while the individual partner resided | ing islands. in the country, carried on an exceedingly lucrative The great sources of supply in the Western barter, by exchanging British goods, chiefly Man- Hemisphere are to be found in Cuba and the chester, against Siamese produce, and had health Brazils. The first of these labours under the bane permitted, the gentleman in question would doubt- of slavery, the production seems to be stationary, es have fixed his establishment upon a firin basis. I without any effort to increase it. If the weather