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American Slavery and Colour. By WILLIAM population, whom the trade impoverishes, be en
CHAMBERS. London: W. and R. Chambers. slaved, as the slaveowners modestly propose. 1 Vol. 8vo. Pp. 216.
Taking the slaves old and young as they stand, MR. CHAMBERS has written this book in order their pecuniary value, at present, is estimated at to give in this country a calm view of the history £256,029,140, and the figures do not seem to be of American slavery, which may be read and may exaggerated. The price is more than twelve times be useful in the States, Mr. Chambers has long the money paid for our West Indian slaves. The been known among us as a faithful friend of civil number in 1850 was a little more than four times liberty. He is acquainted personally with the the negro population of the West Indies at the condition of the United States, He may be cor- date of the Emancipation Act., The United rectly described as an enthusiast, but not as a States have greater difficulties now than we exfanatic, on this or on any other topic. He is, of perienced twenty-seven years ago. Their slaves course, an abolitionist, but one of those men who
free population of would rather advise and counsel, than scold the greater numbers and strength. The slaves of States out of their great difficulty. This the West Indian Islands formed the majority of country would exbibit many more men of that the people, and the owners or their representatives class than can muster courage to state their were a governing, but not comparatively a numerous opinions ; while the free people of the States. class. The money required for the States to in a large majority, either resist the invasion of emancipate their negroes upon the preceding sanew northera or western territories by slavery, or luation would be one-third of our national debt. support it as a laudable and necessary system. They could obtain it with ease, and have a large We admit the magnitude of the mess wherein our discount; but the statements of this dispassionate trans-Atlantic friends are sinking. The popula- work confirm our fear that no party in the States tion of the United States, in 1750, was 3,929,872, wish to accomplish this national heroism in money. and of the slaves, 697,897, or seventeen and The volume contains some interesting statethree-fourths per cent.; while, in 1850, the popu- ments regarding the free coloured inhabitants of lation was 23,121,876, and of the slaves, 3,204,313, the Union, who form nearly two per cent. of the or rather over thirteen and three-fourths per cent., whole population :so that the free population had increased faster
Despite the various restrictions on emancipation and the than the slaves on this general view; but the
settlement of free negroes, there have grown up throughout statistics require closer examination, and the
the slave States a certain number of free persons of colour population of the slave states in 1800 was -some black, others as nearly as light in the complexion as 2,621,300, of the slaves, 893,041 ; while, in 1850, whites. In Louisiana, in particular, free persons of colour the total population was 9,664,576, and of the
own large possessions, though labouring under social dis. slaves, 3,204,313.
abilities. The number of free coloured persons in the
whole of the slave States in 1850, amounted to 228,128. Ia The number of freemen in the slave lands was,
the free States, at the same period, there were 196,016 free at the beginning of the century, 1,728,252, and persons of colour; the total namber in the Union being the number at the completion of the first half of 424,144. the century was 6,460,263. The slaves had thus
The free coloured population are, however, exincreased more rapidly than their superiors in posed to the most painful inflictions. They are colour, property, aud rauk; for while the latter not free. In some states they can only hold are not multiplied by three and three-fourths, the property under the guardianship of a white man. former are multiplied by almost four. The pro- | In other States—such as Virginia—it is a penal gress has been nearly equal, but in favour of the offence to teach the children of free coloured pernegro race.
sons to read. Their evidence is never taken in a The United States cannot, however, expect an
court of justice against a white man. They are emigration for the next fifty equal to the last fifty nominally free, but both in the Northern and the gears. Africa at its southern end, Australia par- Southern States, they are an enslaved race. ticularly, and New Zealand, attract emigrants to
Mr. Chambers, in the following extract from the far south. Canada competes successfully for
page those who go west. The East absorbs annually of a remark that slavery in the United States is
19 of his volume, concedes partially the truth increasing numbers of the energetic, the more en chargeable to the British Government or people :terprising class of emigrants, especially among the young. The United States cannot expect, there- At the opening of the revolutionary war, there were fore, to draw the same proportion of British slaves in all the revolted colonies ; even in Massachusetts, emigrants in the future who have gone there in the land of the “ Pilgrim Fathers,” there were slaves, and past years, and the bondsmen may increase faster sales of slaves, too, though it is proper to add that Massa
chusetts was the first to set the example of passing au act for than the free, especially if the African slave- general emancipation. trade be revived, or the outcasts of the white England, of course, must be charged with the crime of
having introduced, in the first instance, the Africans as an —was not pursued in our insular colonies. Faarticle of merchandise into the plantations, against the milies were not divided, and the geography of repeatedly expressed wishes of the settlers, and of having fostered slavery till it took its root as a social usage. Law the islands, which are not of great magnitude, yers might now speculate upon the question—whether, at shows they could not be far separated. The children, the period of the revolutionary troubles, slaves could be if we correctly remember—but it is now a long legally held in the colonies? A short time preriously it while since we were done with all that--followed had been decided by courts of justice, that a slave landing in the condition of the father, instead of, as in the England became free ; and as the common law extended United States, the mother; and thus a planter had over all parts of the realm, it is demonstrable that the main. tenance of slavery in distant dependencies, was, to say the no opportunity of selling his own progeny. When least of it
, open to challenge. The question was not, how the United States adopt the regulations that ruled ever, tried; and, as is well known, a vigorous slave trade British slavery in our flowery isles, they will have was carried ou for many years afterwards with the West kodies and other possessions, much to the profit of Liverpool progressed in the right road.
Mr. Chambers on the first page of this useful and Bristol, and apparently to the satisfaction or indifference of all, except the few individuals who deigned to feel an
book, warns the States against the coming of interest in the anhappy objects of rathless deportation- " white slavery,” and on the last against a war of which individuals, as is asual in such cases, were set down revolution, which must also come, if first there as visionaries, crack-brained enthusiasts, who had no proper come not a revolution of peace. regard for national greatness.
The attempt to implicate us in the guilt of United States slavery, on this ground, is an erroneous proceeding. We might be as well blamed The Currency Laws and the Bank Charter Act. for the existence of the republicans of the States ; By Jonathan Duncan, B.A. Sewed, pp. 194. and at a subsequent page, and in the appendix- London : D. F. Oakey. in the latter place, while referring to “Who is to
The Bane and Antidote of our Monetary System. blame?" by Mr. John Graham, published five
By Hamer STANSFELD, Esq. Sewed, pp. 90. years ago*-Mr. Chambers does us justice. The
London : Webb, Millingto:, and Co. colonists were never bound to accept or buy the The currency question has dropped out of sight slaves imported by the Government, even if the Government did import any other slaves except has done good service to the bullionists in giving
during the present election. Commissioner Yelı those miserable felons who were condemned to a the people a foreign topic. Mr. Cobden said penal residence in districts that once served the before the dissolution of Parliament, that the purpose for which Australia now too moral. The slavery of the United States is apparently high rate of interest common for some time past,
was caused by the expenditure of money in the the most terrible in existence. We copy from
Russian war. page 117 :
Without either assenting to or
dissenting from this statement, we can add, that In Brazil, as was the law in the British West Indies, every penny invested in foreign securities must slaves are hamanely entitled to certain holidays, which are have a similar result. We might be as well at at their own disposal, by which arrangement they are
war still as making railways for half the powers of enabled to cultivate small patches of land, and accumulate wherewith to buy their freedom. In the United States Europe, so far as money is concerned. the slaves can legally claim no holidays, though a week at The teachers of currency laws and systems, as a Christmas is nsually granted, and, in most quarters, they general rule, run into something else. A plaiu are allowed to be at rest on Sunday. This denial of the subject is thus inextricably wrapped up in foreign power of labouring to buy themselves from their owners forms a feature in American slavery which distinguishes it substances. The following extract from Mr. Dun. frora aaght in ancient or modern times. The slavery of can's pamphlet explains our meaning : Russia is liberty itself in comparison.
The process of Government ia this nefarious fraud, unThe negroes of our West India islands were paralleled in the annals of crime, was this. During the
war they contracted permanent loans, the lenders receiving, slaves, but they were never so completely and
on an average £60 in three per cent. stock, the Government cruelly enslaved as their kinsmen are now, and binding themselves not to pay it off until that stock reached have been, by our kinsmen in the United States. £100. This alone inay be deened an ample bonus, even Their emancipation must always have been a had it been paid to a foreign enemy, for it wears all the chaquestion of time from the day that it became any
racter of a "ransom." But their generosity or injustice kind of question with our Statesmen. They were
went further. These loans were contracted in paper, not weither debarred from chapel nor school. The in paper was only equal to £40 iu bullion. As the ounce
in gold, and the paper was depreciated 33 per cent., for £60 Bible was not diluted for their use into catechisms of gold at present prices is coined into four pounds sterling, to be learned only by rote from our missionaries. minus a small fraction, £40 represents ten oudces of gold. Even slavery itself loosed its bonds on one day in That was what the fundholders had; and by the resumption A portion, or the whole of
of cash payments they became entitled to receive 25 ounces
of gold for those 10 ounces. Saturday, was also saved to them. The cul. tivatiou or growth of human beings what
Two subjects are involved in this extract. The we miglit call the grazing trade in slaves resumption of specie payment, and the value of
Government Stock during the war. The latter London: Smith, Elder, and Co.
seems to have been 60, in the currency of the
time, at: 3 per cent. If the Government had the Rhine, and produced the currency, which brought the
war to a successful issue. Here was an evidence of the given 5 per cent. the bonds would have been at The Chancellor of the Exchequer preferred security, supports credit and supplies the want of specie at
manner in which a paper circulation, based on a proper par. a low rate of interest and gave a premium to se- the decisive moment. Whereas, according to the present cnre it. He was mistaken, in our opinion, but if system, the paper would of necessity have been contracted, Parliament will issue securities now bearing in- when the specie became scarce ; credit would have been terest at 6 per cent. the nominal debt will be ruined at the critical period ; and the vast armament of the reduced one-half. The resumption of cash pay, their support.
allies would have been dissolved for the want of funds for ments, so far as the borrowings in depreciated
Paper-money enabled Frederick the Great to raise Prussia, paper went, was only a swindle to the amount of exhausted by wars, from a state of prostration to wealth and the depreciation, and a very cleverly managed one, power. That monarch issued land mortgage notes, called which would not have occurred if Parliament had pfenbriefe, bearing interest, but unconvertible so long as the
interest was paid. With these monetary instruments he borrowed money at the market rate, and reduced forced or fostered Prussian agriculture, and caused it to grow their payment as the market fell. However, the in strength, and riches beyond any country in the world, exaffair is past, and cannot now be remedied; but the cept the United States. The prenbriefe were so good a currency laws remain like whaleboue stays on security, that they were readily negotiable even during all
the wars of Napoleon. lady's waist, pressing in the ribs of commerce.
Paper-money built every town and village in Scotland ; We copy a paragraph on the exchanges :
constructed all its docks, harbours, roads, factories — opened This section of our inquiries affords a convenient oppor
out all its mines, and reclaimed the whole of its soil from its tunity for speaking of the Balance of Trade, and the doc. primitive barrenness. The Scotch note is not only current in trine of the Foreign Exchanges, on both of which subjects all the Scotch marts of trade, but penetrates into the remotest much deplorable ignorance has been spoken and printed. glens of the Highlands. I: is received where the sovereign is Our ancestors, in common with the people of other coun.
rejected. Peel's Act of 1845 now compels the banks of tries, imagined that gold and silver alone constitated wealth.
Scotland to hold gold, when the note circulation exceeds Hence the export of those commodities were rigidly prohibited £3,000,000; the gold is deposited in the cellars, and rarely under severe penalties. Neighbouring nations adopted the unpacked from the barrels in which it is transmitted from
the London mint. There is no demand for it, and the shop. same error, so that there was a constant struggle to obtain, and hold permanent possession of what were, and still stupidly keepers shuu it, lest it should be short of weight or counter
feit. are, called the precious metals, for in point of usefulness,
They have faith in their own paper—a faith based and as agents of civilisation and social happiness, gold and
on one hundred and fifty years' experience. The monetary silver are dross compared with coal and iron. The gradual panics that have so often shaken the commercial establishdecline of Spain, which at one time commanded all the gold
ments of Eugland to their centres, have passed innocuously and silver of South America, and the industrial rise of Hol.
over North Britain. land, which possessed neither in any large amount, were Mr. Duncan has attained a high character in practical proofs of the current mistake, and induced reflect this class of discussions, and we hope for his work ing men to examine into the verities of a doctrine trans
that large circulation which should also be secured mitted by their ancestors. The result was that the old law
Stansfelds, who describes, in the subjoined was repealed, and the free export of raw ballion was per. mitted, though that of coin was still prohibited. Then paragraph, a now common operation, and its arose the dogma of the “Balance of Trade,” which was
results :based upon the supposition that the excess of exports over India and China will only take silver in payment of the imports was always to be paid to the exporting country in balance due to them ; both empires have a silver standard, the two metals, or in one of them ; from which it was in.
and gold, from its greater supply having fallen relatively to ferred that the annual wealth of a nation, derived from silver, India dare not pay her troops in a depreciated carforeign trade, was increased by the excess of its es ports over
rency; and China, being in a state of rebellion, prefers silver its imports.
to goods, as being more easily concealed. The balance will The annual wealth of a nation, we presume, probably be, in round uambers, from £15,000,000 to means, in the last line but two of this paragraph, £20,000,000 a-year, due from the west to the east, as we
must take into the account the amount paid through Londoa its annual profits, and while cash on hand belong; for the United States, aud other countries. Gold we have
, ing to the nation would no more show its annual but it is silver we want, and we can only obtain it by forcing profit or loss than a balance at a banker's would coantries possessing a silver currency to convert them into show a trader's proflt or loss, yet, in conjunction gold. This transmutation has been going on and continues,
and was predicted three years ago in a letter I published with stock it would have that result. Moreover,
and addressed to Mr. Gladstone, of which I append an ex. as in this country we can only obtain representative tract. money over a fixed quantity upon bullion in hand, The countries with silver currencies cannot help themtherefore we are interested in keeping bullion in selves; they find they are carried along by a current they hand, merely as the means of permitting us to
cannot resist-a higher price in the east will draw it from
the west, make what laws they will, and so long as the con. use our own. This is one fault of the currency vertibility of their silver currency into gold continues, and laws of which we want the end.
until completed, or the east can be tempted to take more The following description of the power of paper- goods from the west, the drain will absorb not only our money is correct, and shows the motive power Australian supplies, but press on our own resources of gold; that we idly waste :
and as the rate of discount depends mainly on the amount of
thie Bank reserve, the commercial community must look Paper money broke the power of Napoleon at Leipsic. rather to an increase than a dimination of pressure in the According to the historian Alison, by a decree on the 30th money market, unless our restrictive laws be repealed. And, September, 1813, from Peterswaldau, in Germany, the allied let them never forget, that in drawing from our own gold resovereigns issued paper notes, guaranteed by Russia, Prussia, serves, we are contracting our circulating medium, depre. and England, which soon passed as cash from Kamschatka to | ciating prices, disturbing every pecuniary engagement, and
draining the life blood of the commercial community upon capital to enrich other countries, to the impoverish. which their existence depends.
ment of your own, for the purpose of obtaining a Notwithstanding all these statements, if the high rate of interest, you must bear the risk. It balance of trade be in our favour, the stock of would be too bad to call upon the nation at large bullion should increase, and probably would in- to pay the expense of war, and perhaps embroil crease at present, except for foreign investments. the whole of Europe, to enforce the payment of
The Russian Government are again putting out a your debts; you should have looked to your sefeeler, to introduce their system of national rail. curity.” At the instance of his lordship, however, ways to the capitalists of Europe, and, by way of the British minister at Madrid did obtain some. offering a bait, have made a more liberal conces. thing for the claimants. sion to the shareholders of the Riga and Duna- The “ Dean of Richmond," the first vessel berg Railway than they had originally granted. from Chicago direct to England, is to be followed Thirteen millions and a half of pounds sterling, by several others this season. By the same route the the anjount offered to England, seems to be too produce of Canada may be brought here at once large for British capitalists to take, even with the without employing the circuitous route of New plethora of money! So it would appear that, for York, thus making the land near the lakes, rivers, the present, this scheme is impracticable.
or railroads, far more valuable in itself, and be. M. Mirès, after having paid two or three instal. neficial to the immigrant. ments of the Spanish loan, finds that silver is not In India the East India Company have guaranso easily obtainable in the northern cities of Eu. teed an interest upon twenty millions sterling for rope, as it is for better customers who have gold the formation of railroads, and are raising conto exchange for it instead of promises, and there siderable loans in money for public works of fore puts in his claim upon the purses of the En- general utility. With the assistance of the legisglish. The tempting offer of about eight per cent. lature, similar operations are taking place in interest seems to meet with recipients no more Canada, and when some four years since the home eager for investment than do the Russian railways. Government issued four per cent. Canadian debenIt is a very old saying as to the inviolability of tures, there was so active a competition for them, Spanish honour; were there any doubt as to the that six times the amount would have been readily fact of its existence, the disbeliever might form an absorbed at a premium of three per cent. To reacquaintance with steel too intimate to be pleasant. suscitate the West India Islands, the Government The fact, however, is not only uncontradicted but have also undertaken to indemnify the sharehold. acknowledged. Some years since, the Spanish ers in forming tramroads. Australia seems to be Government raised a loan, a certain portion of independent in itself
, and to be far outstripping which was to be periodically redeemed, the bonds the parent country in developing its resources. for that portion cancelled, and deposited in the And yet, with the increasing requirements for Treasury at Madrid. All this was performed capital at home on remunerative rates, and upon selon les regles, except that, instead of paying off certain and equally safe interest for investments the ballotted documents at par, a certain amount as are the funds, foreign speculators persist in was purchased at the then heavy depreciation, but offering their various schemes, in the chance of still the floating debt was lessened. Queen Chris. entangling ignorant cupidity, tina, or perhaps it would be more correct_to say the Government acting on behalf of Queen Isabella, found itself straitened for want of money, nothing uncommon then, nor indeed since. A decree was The Monetary System of Great Britain. By James accordingly issued, making a due parade of the sanc- Miller. 2nd Edition. Pp. 40.° Edinburgh : tity of Spanish faith, and commanding the great. Murray and Gib. est economy to be observed, in order that the sav. This is a calm and concise view of the working of ings in the several departments might be appro- the currency laws, with arguments for a change in priated to the foreign creditors. Prices rose, and their nature. Having in another sheet inserted an iben Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer Mendizabel article on the subject, important though it be, we disentombed from the treasury vaults about a cart- can only here commend the arguments used by load of cance!led bonds, which were privately dis- Mr. Miller for reform, especially as from the posed of in Amsterdam, Paris, London,—and in Scotch view of the question. His pamphlet confact wherever purchasers for them could be found. tains some notices of articles in favour of bullionWhat became of the proceeds it would be difficultism, which appeared in the Scotsman, and were to conjecture.
ascribed to Mr. George Combe. They are more These two competitors, Russia and Spain, will curious as being, according to Mr. Miller, almost serve to introduce an answer returned by Lord the only, if not the only, arguments for bullionism Palmerston, somewhere nearly twenty years since, that have appeared in the Scotch press. We are to a deputation, who modestly requested that war astonished that the party who seek justice to might be declared against two or three countries, Scotland do not make the currency laws one of wbo had failed to pay their arrears of interest. their chief grievances, which they are, however, “ If gentlemen,” said he, "you will lend your / whether they will or not. The autbor denies that
there existed any ground for interference with the travels. Mr. King has all the qualifications of
while from 1797 to 1844 very nearly five hundred history of Gavazzi. He is an ardent friend of commissions of bankruptcy had been issued against bis hero, and has visited with him all the princicountry banks inn Egland and Wales, during the pal places in which the Barnabite mouk lias told same period in Scotland, only six banks had sus- in England the oppression that he suffered in pended paymeut, and from these failures only Italy, and the wrongs of that his own fair land. partial and local inconvenience had been expe- Calm and sedate criticism may befit well the rienced The state of the banks, when the late biographer of Julius Cæsar, or his rival Pompey Sir Robert Peel determined to stereotype them, is the Great in these times, but if the biography of thus briefly described :
a living man be well written, the author deeply
hates or greatly loves his subject. Enthusiasm In 18tö, when Sir R. Peel forced on Scotland his obnoxious Bank Restriction Act, there were eighteen banks of for the man, and information respecting him, are issue, all, it may be said, of accredited good management, Mr. King's qualifications for narrating Gavazzi's and enjoying the entire confidence of the community, with a life; and as the volume is cheap, the adipirers of paid up and well employed capital of €11,230,000, princi- the Italian will read it for themselves; while, as it paily owned by Scotchmen, and holding deposited money is good, they will meet no loss in securing this belonging also principally to Scotchmen, to the amount of thirty millions sterling.
pleasure. A conversation between two remarkFor the five years immediately following the Union, the able men, is all therefore that we shall quote from average yearly revenue of Scotland was £122,825. In
the book :1845 it had risen to £3,557,908, paid into the British Es.
Now comes the important point, the most important of chequer.
all-important to the Reformer, and to his mission. Im. In 1727 the Excise duties amounted to £51,758. In
mediately these first sermons in the little chiapel are adver. 1845 they had risen to £2,294,175. In 1727 the Customs were 457,928. In 1845 they England. And therefore, not too fast, ex-Chaplain General,
tised, Gavazzi gets the first taste of the Papal Inquisition in amounted to £1,909,767. At the Union the populatiou of Scotland was 1,100,000. of Rome, and of the Pope. Before you put on the habili.
not too fast. Remember that you are still (1850) a subject In 1851 it had increased to 2,888,742.
ments of a gentleman open that missive which the post man In 1748, the estimated rental, or annual value of real
has just handed in. For with that comes the lug of war. property in Scotland, amounted to 822,8571. It had risen,
We shall see what you will do with it. Dr. Wiseman, according to the real property assessments for property and
Bishop of Melipotamus, and not yet mock Archbishop of income tits, 1848-1849, to 10,715,3851. ; and it was ascer. tnined by the recent Lands Valuation Act to be 11,700,934. Gavazzi, which prohibit him from opening his mouth in the
Westminster, presents his delegated commands to Father in 1855.
chapel at Soho, or elsewhere. This letter mast be answered We must not, however, ascribe all this progress personally, and at once. There are not many links in the
old gall-chaiu remaining. There will be less before noon. to banking, yet nobody acqnainted with the
And so ex-Chaplain General, now in English costume, post country doubts that it had a share in our national
away to the diplomatic office in Golden-square. prosperity.
G.: Why, am I not to preaclı, how, when, and where I Mr. Miller's remedy is one which been often please in England P proposed in our Magazine, namely to take ample W.: You must have a spiritual license from the Pope.
G.: I will not ask it. security for the payment of issues, and then leave
W.: You are excommunicated ! the bankers to provide how and when they please
G. : For what? for the fulfilment of their promises, to pay in gold W.: Fighting against the Pope. when it is demanded.
G.: I did not fight against the Pope, but against FrenchThe pamphlet deserves to be well circulated at men! Then I am excommunicated, also, for assisting the
wounded and dying upon the field of battle ? the present time.
W.: No. Not for the last.
G.: I will not accept it.
G.: Then I will war with you.
And the defiant monk leaves his gauntlet on the floor of The writer of this sketch of a very wonderful the Golden-square cabinet, and walks forth Alessandro Gamau las been the companion of Gavazzi's English | vazzi, orator and patriot.