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still to the service of his country. When the A heavy affliction however was awaiting Perthes, Crown Prince of Sweden deputed him to administer the heaviest to which bis tender heart could be the large sum he had granted for the relief of the exposed. He was to lose ber, who for twenty-five outcast Hamburghers-expelled in thousands from years had in all his sorrows been his chief solace the city by the cruel Davoust, notwithstanding and the source of his richest joys. Caroline's the pardon
so ostentatiously announced-he nervous system had received a severe shock from repaired without hesitation to Flottbeck, a village the trying scenes of 1813. Cares and anxieties in within nine miles of the town. While there he | the domestic circle gave increased virulence to her discharged his duties with such heroic disregard of sufferings. As her last hours drew nigb, frequent self, that for nearly a fortnight he dragged himself paroxysms of wild delirium and exhaustive struggles over ground covered with snow, with a broken for breath alternated with profound sleep; although bone in one of his feet, occasioned by a fall from in what few lucid moments she enjoyed, love and a carriage. It was nine long weeks before he faith reigned triumphant as ever. When she was recovered from the consequences of his generosity. taken away, Perthes sorrowfully said, that home But relief for all was now at hand. On the 31st had died with Caroline. After her death he of May, 1814, the French consented to evacuate the removed to Gotha, where he established a printing city, and Perthes, with his wife and little ones, press, from which emanated many works that have returned to the home from which they had so long obtained a world-wide reputation. His vast been banished. In an incredibly short space of Hamburgh business was transferred to Besser, who time he succeeded, with his partner's assistance, entered into a new partnership. The latter years in putting bis affairs in order, and once more the of his life were spent peacefully in the midst of a house became known as one of the greatest in numerous circle of children and grandchildren. Europe.
He died on the 18th of May, 1844.
THE INSURANCE COMPANIES.
We published last year a very long analysis of the We may form an idea of the extent of life inreport upon the state of the new insurance surance by the magnitude of the policies issued companies, ordered by the House of Commons to from the offices established since 1846, and work. be printed on 28th April, 1856.
ing for some time under disadvantages as contrasted Tbat report has been followed by another, which with other offices. the House ordered to be printed ou the 27th
The total income of these offices from policies, February last.
as stated in our first column, is £631,894. We insert, in a tabular form, the names of the
We cannot form a correct estimate of the amount insurance companies noticed in our former analy. covered by these payments, as the sums vary much, sis, and their income from premiums only, at the with the age of the assured. date of the accounts registered in time for the re- At £2 per £100, in extreme youth, 50 years' port of 1856.
purchase would give the amount. At £2 10s., The amount from the same source, received in the result would be fouud by 40 years' purchase. subsequent periods, and returned in time for the At 30 years' purchase, which must be within the publication of 1857, is placed in the second mark, the amount covered is £18,956,820; but column.
there is no doubt that it exceeds twenty inillions. A number of the insurance companies made no The following companies have reports in the return in time for this year, and they are left present return, but made none in that for 1856:blank in the second column.
The Achilles, with an income for the year ending The companies whose returns are placed in the the 26th April, 1855, of £4,339 16s. 5d. The second column, have, with one exception, increased Emperor furnished no accounts for the previous retheir business, and some of them to a very turn, but is stated to have received £1,516 7s. 4d. large extent. The proportions are stated in a third from its commencement to December 31st, 1855, column.
which has to be charged with £314 13s. 2d. for Companies which have acquired a large business, re-assurance. The Age makes up its account from may have a greater absolute increase than their the 11th August to the 31st December, 1855, and young rivals, without baving an equal per cent. in that period it had received £2,716 9s. 8d. as age.
premiums ; and estimates the value of its liabiliWe justified the large space devoted to the new ties at the latter date at £104,314 4s, 7d. ; and companies in several numbers last year by the the value of its income at £121,478 14s. 9d. extent of the responsibilities incurred by them. less £11,019 2s. Od. The annual income being
These responsibilities are contingent upon their £7,842 18s. 10d. ; and the amount of the policies, value, or something more, being paid regularly. £218,115.
Ægis Life Assurance
Dec. 31, 1853 £3348 Age Assurance
Aug. 11, 1855 6,325 Anchor Insurance
Sept. 30, 1854 9,347 Sept. 30, 1856 .., £20,067 Inc. in 2 years, 107 per eent. Anglo Australian and Univer.
sal l'amily Life Assurance Dec. 31, 1854 5,637 Athenæum Life Assurance ... Jane 30, 1852 4,419 Beacon Fire and Life Assur. March 16, 1854 808 Birkbeck Life Assurance Dec. 31, 1854 5,252 ... Dec. 31, 1855 4,333 Dec. 1 17 Brewers, Distillers, Licensed Victuallers, &c.
Dec. 31, 1851
69 British Empire Mutual Life Dec. 31, 1854 31,785 Dec. 31, 1855 40,306 Inc, 1
273 British Equitable Assurance... Dec. 31, 1854 746 British Protector July 31, 1854 1,704 July 31, 1856 6,379
375 British Provident Life and Fire March, 1855 3,765
1 323 Briton Life Association ... Nov. 30, 1855 2,065 Brunswick Life Assurance Sept. 29, 1855 1,126 Cambrian Universal Insurance Dec. 31, 1853 7,558 City of London Life Assurance Oct. 31, 1855 15,771 Colonial Life Assurance May 25, 1854 ... 49,056 Consolidated Investment and Assurance
Sept. 30, 1853 5,327
26 Engineers, Masonic, Universal, and Mutual Life Assurance. Dec. 30, 1854 10,048 ... Dec. 31, 1855 ... 10,387
31 English and Cambrian Assur. April 30, 1854 3,431 English and Foreign Life As. surance, &c.
Nov. 30, 1855 3,685 English and Irish Church and
Univerity Assurance, Dec. 31, 1854 3,492 Dec. 31, 1855 4,032 » 1 151 English Widows' Fund and
General Life Assurance Dec. 31, 1853 8,176 Era Assurance
Feb. 28, 1854 3,572 Gresham Life Assurance July 31, 1853
39,568 Home Counties and General Life Assurance
June 30, 1855 847
Assurance and Deposits Feb. 12, 1853 2,748
1 Law Union Fire and Life Ins. Sept. 30, 1855 7,126 Legal and Commercial Life... Dec. 31, 1854 19,005 ... Dec. 31, 1855 19,790
1 4 London Indisputable Life Policy... Dec. 31, 1854 ... 19,360 ... Dec. 31, 1855 21,847
1 184 London Mutual Life and Gua. rantee
Dec. 31, 1854 12,487
Sept. 13, 1852 11,661 Dec. 31, 1855 ... 21,222 31 82
Dec. 31, 1855 ...
1 714 Medical, Legal, and General Mutual Life Assurance Mar. 25, 1855 10,928 March 25, 1856... 12,034
1 104 Mentor Life Assurance Dec. 31, 1853 8,709 Dec. 31, 1854 9,437
8} Merchants and Tradesmens
Mutual Life Assurance Jan. 31, 1853 7,405
neral Life Assurance, An-
50% Mitre General Life Assurance,
Annuity and Family Endow. ments
April 17, 1855 9,519 National Guardian Insurance Society
Dec. 31, 1856 . 13,277 National Industrial Life As.
gurance and General Deposit and Advance
Sept. 30, 1855 164 National Provincial Life As... July 31, 1855 15,546 New Eqnitable Life Assurance Dec. 31, 1855 14,444 Oak Mutual Life Assurance and Loan
June 15, 1854 1,141
Official and General Life Ass. June 30, 1854 669
Dec. 31, 1855 11,853
8,030 Royal Insurance..,
Dec. 31, 1854 25,447 Dec. 31, 1855 28,674
April 30, 1855 18,251
General Life Assurance Dec. 31, 1854 8,660 Unity General Assurance June 30, 1855 12,981 Universal Provident Life Dec. 31, 1853 673 Waterloo Life, Edacation, Ca
sualty, and Self-Relief Ass. Sept. 30, 1853 ... 10,018 Wellington Reversionary An
nuity and Life Assurance... Dec. 31, 1854 2,681
THE METROPOLITAN MEMBERS.
There are two classes of members in the new , believe, join in a parting testimonial to this very Parliament--those whose history and notoriety worthy banker, who commands the regard and are far too voluminous for our pages, and those respect of the city. of whom nothing is known; and there is a very
The Conservatives did not name a successor, numerous third class of middle men. This third and the five candidates for the city, in point of class consists largely of persons who have held principle, were very much alike. The Liberal seats in former Parliaments, and whose politics are Registration Committee did not recommend the well known. One hundred and seventy members, election of Lord John Russell. They omitted his or thereby, lost or resigned their seats; and name, and proposed Sir James Duke, Baron Rotlisalthough the gentlemen who now possess them child, and Messrs. Crawford and Currie. Lord are chiefly new to the House, yet old names have John Russell refused this decision, appealed to the come again in some instances before the public. electors, and was carried third on the poll. During
The metropolitan elections of Scotland made no the day of election his committee always reprechange. They were merely repetitions of the past sented him as five hundred a-head of every body without a contest, except in the case of Leith, else. This little bit of fraud had, no doubt, gained where it was a personal matter rather than one of a few votes. As Baron Rothschild and the Jews principle. A number of the electors were wearied supported Lord John Russell, although the former with the habit of always returning the Whig Lord ran with the larger firm, the success of the “House Advocate, and sought a change. They were de- of Bedford”—for Lord John's election was a family feated by the merits of the man. The present matter—was not doubted. If the Liberal RegisLord Advocate is a first-rate Wbig. The Edin-tration Society had started four men earnest to burgh representation, city and county, could not win against all competitors, the result would have have been amended; for the county member could been different. Baron Rothschild was not earnest secure bis own return, and the city members re- to win against Lord John, but would have rather present their constituency.
gone himself to where Mr. Raikes Currie has been The Irish metropolitan elections have passed in sent—into a political eclipse, or the cloud of nearly the same way. A bitter contest arose in private business. Mr. Currie has been long an the county without resulting in any change. The adherent of rather Radical principles; and was city and county of Dublin are represented by the badly used in being invited from Northampton to same men as before-all four Conservatives. be defeated in London. That movement admitted
The metropolitan elections, that is those for Mr. Charles Gilpin to Northampton, who was London, its boroughs, and its special county, were recently a bookseller of Bishopsgate-street, and is more lively. Mr. Masterman, the solitary Conser- now chairman of the National Land Society. Mr. vative member for the city, retired. He left the Gilpin is the only n.ember of the peace at any House of Commons of his own free will, at an price party who has done well by the dissolution; age within that of the Premier; although no per. and we are not certain that he has not abandoned şou could have taken his seat, all parties, we
some of these mistakes. Mr. Gilpin will have a
companion in Mr. Pease, whom the electors of more religious, a result, we hope, stated truly and South Durlam have sent into Parliament, because likely to be permanent, although an unusual conwe are told he has a great amount of influence in comitant of a contested election. He also apolothe county. Mr. Pease was one of the friends gised on account of his youth, unnecessarily, who waited upon Friend Nicholas during his life, indeed, for, as he remarked, he was always becom. upon a very useless mission.
ing older. Also, he endeavoured to excuse his Returning to the metropolis, neither Marylebone wealth, by declaring that he would find abundant nor Westminster made any change, or any effort employment for it among the two hundred and to change-although in the neighbouring borough fifty thousand inhabitants of Lambeth; which he of Finsbury three candidates sought one seat, for might have done without being elected to repre. Mr. Thomas Duncombe's place was deemed unas- sent them in Parliament. Mr. Wilkinson threatsailable. Major Reed, the late member for Abing.ened that Nemesis would come upon Mr. Roupell, don, and a sturdy opponent of the Income tax as it in the shape of a still richer man, when he also stood and as it stands, was one of the three-the would be jilted by mammon loving Lambeth. It last in the field, and defeated, we believe, before will not be easy, however, to find the richer man; one half of the electors knew who he was, or what yet this wealth has been chiefly collected in Lam. were his services. Major Reed is therefore out of beth itself within two generations, from twopence, Parliament, and we regret it, because he is a pro- which the first Mr. Roupell—the present being mising and a rational Radical, whose services may the third-at one time accounted his entire capibe wanted, to whom we should have looked for a tal. Mr. Roupell tertius is not only deeply iathorough opposition to the wickedness in the In. debted to primus for his wealth, bu' even more so come-tax, and we trust that some constituency to Mr. Roupell secundus, his father, for the may be soon found better acquainted with his manner of its employment, and the character merits, or more interested in this obnoxious tax- earned by that gentleman in the borough, which, less able to pay it, perhaps, than the men of Fins. we havo no doubt, has helped his son's return. bury. Of the other two candidates for their re- Wealth is nevertheless not a recommendation to a presentation, Mr. Cox beat Serjeant Parry by a representative of the public; although we regret hundred votes or so. In this case the richer man to observe that it is more esteemed as a qualifica. won. Serjeant Parry is known without the bo- tion by constituencies now than before the Reform rough boundaries, but Mr. Cox is a solicitor, rich, Bill. and was flanked by a host of canvassers.
Greenwich performed a similar feat to Lambeth Southwark rejected Mr. Apsley Pellatt, who in turning off one of its former members, Mr. M. voted against the Ministry on the Chinese busi- Chambers, in favour of Mr. Townsend, a trades. ness. Notwithstanding the Royal British Bank, of man of that borough, in the timber trade and un. which he once was unfortunately a director, and a dertaking line. We hardly believe that Mr. Towns. very well-meaning one, Mr. Pellatt was a useful end was very serious in his proposal to Greenwich member, although one French paper, irritated by in the first instance; but "faint heart never won the graphic description of bis defeat by Dumas fair lady," and this gentleman, who has made bis the younger
--a rival contributor or editor-de-position in Greenwich trade, is now the companion clares that Pellatt is a myth, and will not believe in its representation of the late Commander-inin him on any terms. Nevertheless, he is probably chief of the army in the Crimea. The character the best glass manufacturer in England. Mr. of this and other elections depends upon its results. Locke, who has taken his seat, is simply a lawyer If Mr. Townsend has the metal for the place, he
-a city pleader—who will be able to help the is the right man to represent his friends and city corporation as a member for the borough. neighbours. No opposition was offered to Sir Charles Napier. Middlesex is eminently the metropolitan county
The father of the metropolitan members lost of London, although several other counties are the Tower Hamlets by carelessness. The licensed influenced by the great metropolis. Mr. Osborne victuallers secured the election of Mr. Butler, and sought a quieter field, or a harbour of refuge, in Sir William Clay, who has represented the borough Dover, and will be very useful to the chalk borough, for twenty-years, was turned out by Mr. Acton if he be not transplanted from the Secretaryship Ayrton, an East Indian solicitor, better known in of the Admiralty to that of all Ireland. Mr. Bombay than anywhere else.
Hanbury, Jun., of the firm of Trueman, Hanbury, Lambeth presented, according to Mr. Wilkinson, Buxton, and Co., the largest brewers in the world, an appalling example of the power of money. was requested to stand for the county; and his Mr. Williams, who confesses naively to the tempt. election was never a matter of uncertainty-from ations thrown around him in the lobby of the the influence of the Licensed Victuallers. That House by that arch-tormentor of honest members circumstance is remarkable, because Lord Robert -Mr. Hayter, or others—was second on the Grosvenor, who has represented the county for a poll; and Mr. Roupell, a young man—or a young considerable time, has ihe Westminster interest to lawyer--polled more votes than any person during commend him in addition to many good conduct the election, approaching closely to ten thousand. stripes in a political sense. Mr. Hanbury is the third Mr. Roupell declared that this event made him | member of his firm in the present Parliament ;
and thus they have one half per cent. of our legis- | difference existed on the foreign policy of the lation within their house--a bad prospect for the country, although on other subjects there was sufMaine Liquor Law; but on all matters of social fcient vitality : and there also it is said that the and political reform, unconnected with the tem- licensed victuallers, as they would be styled in an perance movement, they are unexceptionable men. English town, by some strange incongruity, carIt is even said that this firm declined to sell their ried their man. One of their new members, Mr. are to an old customer after he had taken the Walter Buchanan, is an old merchant and politiEagle—a notorious house-being determined not cian--the other, Mr. Dalgliesh, is also old as a to supply their beer for what they considered im- manufacturer, but has to make a political character. moral purposes.
Liverpool is metropolitan in its department, The entire representation of London is now and there, after a lively effort to take a seat from Liberal or Radical-Lord John Russell is the most a Conservative, the old members were returned Conservative member for the metropolis. The re-opposed politically on general politics, but agreed presentation of the Irish metropolitan city and upon foreign politics. county is entirely Conservative, and of the Scotch Birmingham is the centre of the hardware mixed—three Liberals to one Conservative. trade, but no opposition occurred there to the old
Manchester was the most important election in Radical members, who supported the Government England, out of London. Mr. Bright was absent on the Chinese question, and have always stood and sick. Mr. Gibson has represented the town in clear of any alliances on foreign politics with several Parliaments, but he is not a Manchester their friends to the north. man. Sir J. Potter and Mr. J. A. Turner are Leeds in the woollen trade, like Liverpool, local men of great influence. The contest clearly divides its representation, so as to represent turued on foreign policy. Messrs. Bright and uothing, but we believe that on the foreign policy Gibson were beaten by a majority of fifty per cent., of the Government, both members are to be on in a constituency that polled out more closely than good behaviour. Sheffield is the capital of cutlery any other of similar dimensions in the three king, and, in spite of its trade in edge tools, it voted doms. The feeling on that subject is opposed to against the Government at this point ; although the policy of the late members.
it is certain to be in the fire, if not the furnace, A similar victory was gained in Salford by Mr. on some similar question immediately. The Massey, an Irish gentleman, the Under-Secretary twenty metropolitan members who are elected by of State for the Home Department, but a compa. large constitutencies support the foreign policy of tive stranger in the place.
the Government, in proportion of nine to one. Mr. Cobden's defeat at Huddersfield has been Those English constituencies that have a central ascribed by his friends to the votes of the licensed influence on particular trades, uphold that policy victuallers; but the majority against him was larger in the proportion of nearly three to one. The than the total victualling votes in the borough. Scotch constituencies named take the same view His opponent is a gentleman of considerable local in the ratio of five to one. The Irish metropolitan influence, and that tells in a small borough ; yet members go against it in the per centage of all to there can be no doubt that the reasons prevalent nothing. in Manchester were also prevalent in Hudders- The opinion of the urban population is well field.
defined on that topic; and not less clearly exGlasgow is our commercial metropolis in Scot. pressed on the large measures of domestic reform land, and there again we do not know that any that have become necessary.
THE GENERAL ELECTION
to a suspense account; as St. Alban's and SudGives the Cabinet a larger majority than any burg-each returning two members--were disMinistry of recent times has enjoyed. The differ- franchised for bribery and corruption; not on the ent sections of the majority committed a sad mis- part of the people, who did not bribe, but were take in their Chinese division. They have all bribed. The last election had, therefore, to return suffered diminution by being cast on the country. 654 members. It has returned one more, being Lord John Russell described truly the dissolution a double clection ; and one the O'Donoghoe for as a penal measure. It has turned out a penal Tipperary, who has not declared his opinions. proceeding to the movers of the adverse resolution Viscount Palmerston expressed some indifference in the Commons, to the Derbyites, and to the to political reform before the dissolution. He was Peelites.
neither for bit by bit nor comprehensive reform. The House of Commons at the Reform Bill That notion must be abandoned now by the Preconsisted of 658 members. Four seats are carried mier. No question ever exhibited greater strength