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G.: I won't let you talk like that, Skyblue. ticket porters, railway guards, and so on. It does Look at the vices of ancient times—the orgies of you credit, Skyblue, as a man of taste, and wothe festivals, and all that.
men of taste and—modesty—will thank you for S.: Bad enough, bad enough; and let us sing your aspirations in their behalf. our Magnificat heartily, for the pure standard of S. : Laugh away! I do want women to be eduwomanhood recognised in Christian ethics. But cated, and I do want them to develope healthily and let us not attempt to serve God with a lie, or heartily, in mind, body, and soul. I want them to slander any section of the grand procession of grow up to noble and womanly uses; but not to humanity. Did the worst vices of ancient times grot with an incessant interrogative reference to make up so appalling a picture as that of our uses ; because I know so conscious and catechised world's capital, here, with its eighty thousand a growth can only be feeble and stunted. Let mercenary women “ who only smile beneath the women grow gas," as Mrs. Browning says ? Let us be G. : Well, let 'em grow! Let 'em, I say ! just. In Rome, an outrage to oue maiden was $. : True, let them; but, what if not only partial enough to overthrow a dynasty; and people laws, but false ideals stand in the way ? go by thousands, to this day, to see enacted G.: I don't know anything about over again the story of Virginius. I confess I ideals ;" it is’nt in my line. Mrs. Granite is cannot look without a degree of awe upon the a pattern wise ; she makes me happy; she tends finest classic embodiments of female beauty. I say, the children ; she souses mackerel beautifully; as I gaze—“I could not conceive that human the butcher can't cheat her of an ounce of suet. form divine' insulted ; I could not conceive a That's my ideal. As to laws, I'm ready to do lover sending that woman a message by a wag- anything I can to mend them, if they're bad. goner; I could not conceive her allowing her S. : Then Remember Sir Erskine Perry's Married father to bring an action per quod servitium amisit, Women's Property Bill this session, if it should or for breach of promise." But when I pass, need support by petitions. in the Crystal Palace, to which we are going, from G.: Very good. Only I hate your Women's Diana with the Fawn and the Milo Venus to Rights men, and especially your Women's Rights Bell's Dorothea and Houdon's Bather, I find I have women; they're nasty, coarse, biglost the subtle charm of dignity and poetry which 8.: Never more out in your life, Sir! They are before held me in awe. These women have more for the most part dainty, gossamery, and small. intellect, more self-consciousness, but they have less G.:I _" little and loud.” native vigour of soul; and, upon the arrival of S.: Little and not loud. Still, they would not self-consciousness, their noble courage of innocence be even “ little," if they could help it. A woman seems to have taken flight. Not only the free ought to be as tall as she can. Mrs. Granite is mountain footstep, and the forehead lifted ad astra, tall. but the wholeness of the feminine nature is gone. G.: You want women to be tall in mind as well They might be ballet-girls, might be nuns, might as budy. be drawing-room toys, might be domestic drudges S. : Certainly. Hear what a woman says about —but they are, to my eyes, hardly women. I that : could conceive women, such as the classic ideal
Snppose some small philosopher declared presents to my mind, unhappy ; but not meanly,
"Man is a creatnre framed to such an end, timidly, trucklingly miserable.
And this is his ideal, which attain'd G.: Do not be absurd. Our domestic institu. He will not top; this is the possible tions are our just pride, and the envy of the Of his capacity, perhaps a fact world. We have, of course, some poisonings and
At which ambitious strugglers will rebel, stabbings.
But none less true for that, let him sit down
And swallow it in silence.”— Witness all,
They limit hers, unseeing where it tends.the world, whether its envy or not. But what I
Girdle with iron bands the sapling tree,
It shoots into deformity, but He inquire for is not the list of stabbed and poi.
Who first its feeble breath of life inspired, soned—but the far drearier statistics of the
Ordain’d its growth by an interior law smothered lives ; the lives of women who are To full development of loveliness, domestically stifled, or snuffed out. The Registrar- Whereof the planter wots not till he leaves General takes no count of them, Granite. We
It to the kindly care of elements
And the free seasons' change of storm and shine. camot reckon them up, like our poor branded
Not for a moment would I underrate unfortunates. It is in thinking of them that I some- That sweet ideal which has charm'd the world times invoke modern womanhood the spirit of For ages, and will never cease to charm. a healthier, freer, more vigorous life.
Fair as the creatures of an apper sphere, G.: I see what you want. You can't deceive Women among the charities of home an old stager like me. I'm a practical man, Sir.
Walk noiseless, undefiled; ah! who would wish
To turn from this green fertilising course You want women to be blue stockings, lectureis, par- Such rills of promise ? let each amplify sons, doctors, barristers-and, of course, soldiers, In its own proper measure far and wide,
According to its bounty ; sacred be
G. : Of course not; women are not equal to
men in the respective departments.
S.: I agree. I think they never will be. I
think they never were intended to be. But I do This loveliest life to hidden music set,
think we have no right to deny them one inch of Must be a blossom of spontaneous growth, natural development; and that the standard of Must spring from aptitude and natural use
female education must be raised. In these stirring, Of gracious deeds, not hardly forced on all, As the sole good and fit, lest it decay
exhausting times, men want “true yoke-fellows,' Under the pressure to a loathsome thing,
not playthings, or mere housekeepers. Things A thing of idleness and sensuous mind,
take time, however. In the meanwhile the best At which the angels weep.*
policy the ladies can adopt is--work and silence-G.: Rant, rant, Sir; rant and fustian! Let and I thank heavengirls keep to their place.
G.: I thank heaven - here are the extinct S. : With all my heart. But let them have animals! I wonder whether Lord Derby's among full leave to find it, just as you and I have. G.: Women ought to be women.
S.: He's extinguished, Sir, not extinct. S. : They ought; no more-but, also, no less.
G.: Wbat's the difference ? Why should we dictate ! They can no more overpass the boundaries set by the Divine hand than
S. : What's the difference between distinguished you and I. Let be! Hands off ! A clear stage and distinct ?--Ah, bere we are ! and no favour! That is all I say, and what all
[Exeunt ambo. Mr. S. resolves to revenge himself noble-minded men will say sooner or later. Edwin
for the loss of his meditative half hour in Landseer is not jealous of Rosa Bonheur ; nor Mr. Thackeray of Mrs. Gaskell; nor Mr. M'Culloch of
behalf of T. 7. by printing the discussion
verbatim.] Harriet Martineau.
Gentle Reader, have you seen the Smithfield propensities of the worthy citizens of Londou Cattle Show? If not, you must either be a very involved in the question of fat bullocks, sheep, and busy man, or you have not the true English taste swine. The exbibition itself has become an for Christmas fare. You have missed a great institution-a part, as it were, of the constitution opportunity ; for a right royal exhibition it was this for testing the progress made in the application year, and must have gladdened the hearts of the of science to the practice of agriculture. Husbandry city gourmands with the prospect of rich sirloins is a first necessity with nations when they emerge and rounds of beef, and delicious legs and shoulders from barbarism, the first step in their approach to of mutton, to say nothing of the "swinish multi civilisation. And as its first rude efforts indicate tude," some of which had fed themselves blind, at the incipient stage of the social compact, the fourteen months old. We saw two grave old appropriation of the soil, so its progressive advanceMussalmen looking with horror and astonishment ment marks the subsequent stages of a people in as these aristocrats of the porcine race, apparently the march of enlightenment. Let us explain our more than ever determined to act up to Shylock's meaning more expressly. principle in dealing with Christian dogs-"Signor Agriculture consists in a series of scientific Antonio, I will buy with you, sell with you, walk operations, all of which depend for success upon with you, and talk with you ; but I will neither eat chemical agency. Of this, however, the husband. with you, drink with you, nor pray with you." man,
“ tiller of the ground," is in Truly, the English take immense pains in the ignorance. He looks upon the earth as the matter of eating-if not of drinking ; but, although producer of plants, the manure as an essential this is made a subject of reproach against us by auxiliary, and the seed as the chief agent. For our neighbours, the Irish in particular, we cannot almost six thousand years this was nearly all that see mure gluttony in eating half a pound of beef mankind knew of the production of all cereals and for dinner than in swallowing seven pounds of plants. The geological structure of the earth, the potatoes, the regular allowance for an Irish nature and properties of soils, and the chemical labourer-when he can get them.
composition of plants were as much a terra But there is a deeper meaning, a more valuable incognita as was the continent of America before principle, than that of satisfying the gastronomic the time of Columbus. Consequently, the practice
of husbaudry was, in many respects, a game of “ Summer Sketches, and other Poems.” By Bessie hazard, in which the odds were more frequently RAINER PARKES. Johu Chapman.
against than in favour of success. Ignorant of
the component parts of the various substances with the celebrated French chemist, of eight different which he had to deal, the whole practice of the manures applied to wheat in the same field ; in agriculturist was based upon tradition and expe. which the highest proportion of gluten in the rience, and he could be no more certain of the produce was 35.1., per cent., and the lowest 12 result of his operations than the mariner who per cent. ; the results corresponding with the proshould set sail for a far distant port, without helm portions of nitrogenous matters in the several or compass, would be certain of arriving safely at
To shew the value of gluten in wheat, his destination.
we may state that the lowest or weakest quality This was the condition of agriculturists all over of flour brought to the London market produces, the world previous to the commencement of the on an average, 92 loaves of bread of four pounds eighteenth century, or until chemistry became a each from 200 lbs. of flour; wbilst some Russian regular science. It is to this that we must ascribe flour recently imported has produced 108 loaves, the entire progress it has since made, and the large or 16 more, from the same quantity. increase in the produce of the soil thereby effected; We have adduced this statement in order to which, if we take the animal as well as the show the importance of chemical knowledge to a vegetable productions into the account-for all farmer. Formerly, the only manure applied to all are the produce of the soil—may be set down as kinds of crops was that which was raised the fourfold what it was previous to the year 1700. farm ; and this is found by analysis to be generally We propose, in this paper, to trace the progress of deficient in nitrogen. Lime, however, was agriculture from that period, and to point out extensively applied, in one form or other, previous the benefits that have resulted to society from the to a diffusion of a knowledge of chemistry, being union of science with agriculture.
found efficacious in wheat culture. Here again, Formerly the only persons who knew anything experience was the only guide, for no one knew about the physiology of plants were the professed why it was beneficial. We have heard its benefits herbalists or botanists, and their knowledge was ascribed by farmers solely to the warmth it imconfined to their classification and medicinal pro parted to the soil ; whereas it is found to act both perties. The knowledge of this latter was based mechanically and chemically upon it-mechani. upon experience and analogy, beyond which their cally, by assisting in the comminution of the researches did not extend. It is evident that such soil; and chemically, by promoting the decomknowledge, if possessed, could be of no use to the position of roots and other debris of dead husbandman in his business, whose practice had plants ; by attracting from the atmosphere the reference to the raising of food, not of medicines ; constituent elements of plants contained in it; and to sustaining the strength and vigour, not to the above all, by furnishing the phosphates and restoration of the health, of mankind. The carbonates requisite for the due elaboration of the adaptation of certain substances to the sustenation grain. Common farm yard manure will promote of certain plants; the uselessness of applying other the vigorous vegetation of the inferior parts of the matters whose constituents bear no analogy to those wheat plant, but it supplies little towards the of the plants they were intended to fructify; the excellence of the quality of the grain, unless there chemical composition of the soil, and its condition is a due proportion of its constituents, as well as to receive the seed destined for it—all these ques- those of straw or herbage contained in it. Lime, tions and a variety of others it was impossible for therefore, by supplying what is required, but which the farmer to know anything of, because the without it, would have been deficient, produced method of analysing these substances had not been the desired result. discovered. In these respects, therefore, the hus- The first person who ventured out of the beaten handman was working as much in the dark as the track in husbandry, was Jethro Tull. By a series blind man, experience being his only guide, and of experiments he was led to suspect, for he had tradition his only privciple of action.
no means beyond experience of arriving at certainty, Suppose, for instance, the crop intended for a that plants derived a part of their nutriment from particular field was wheat; we find that this grain the atmosphere, and that this was assisted by a consists of four substances in the adjoined propor- perfect comminution of the soil. Tull was tiors, namely-carbon, 46.1., oxygen, 43 4., industrious philosopher, and without chemistry hydrogen, 5.8., and nitrogen 2.3., the remainder arrived at a result which he believed was—and being ashes, 2.4. And the substances elaborated which was — correct; but he knew not how to from these chemical constituents are starch, gluten, prove it. Consequently, he was ridiculed and saccharine, gum, bran, and water.
persecuted by his cotemporaries, and only believed Now, the excellence of wheaten flour consists when the mysterious question was brought to the in the quantity of gluten it contains; and the light of real science, by which all was explained proportion of this substance in the wheat is clear as the sun at noonday. It was then found determined by that of nitrogen (which is the base that of one hundred parts of plants, fully ninetyof gluten) in the soil. Whatever manure, therefore, five are derived from the atmosphere in a gaseous is applied for wheat, should contain as large a or aqueous form; and that the perfect comminution proportion of nitrogen as possible. In proof of of the soil, so strongly insisted on by Tull, pro- . this, we have an experiment by M. Boussuegault, motes their attraction and assimilation by the roots
of the plants. Such is the simple explanation of By a similar course of inductive reasoning with Tull's theory of husbandry.
Tall, but with the light of science to aid bim, Little was done to render agriculture an Young began to work upon the liglit lands of Norenlightened profession, before the accession of folk and Suffolk. The latter was his native county, George III., or, as a facetious writer of the day or, at least, the one in which he resided ; and styled him, " Farmer George." The attachment before his time the lands just referred to were of that monarch to rural parsuits made large considered incapable of producing a crop of wheat. amends for the injury his insatiate fondness for Millions of acres throughout the kingdom of war inflicted on his kingdom; for, certainly, both similar quality of soil were alike condemned to by precept and cxample, he stimulated the dormant partial sterility. But “Coke, of Holkham," and energy and talent of the agricultural body, both in even George III., were his pupils, whilst Earl the breeding of cattle and sheer, and in the culti- Spencer, Sir John Sinclair, and a host of other vation of the ground.
eminent and spirited men were his cotemporaries About the year 1770, the celebrated Bakewell, and coadjutors. With these at his back, he perof Dishley, began his experiments on the severed until he saw flourishing crops of wheat on improvement of the breed of sheep; and selecting those light lands; and lived to see the rents the Leicester race for his groundwork, established advance from 55. to 25s. per acre. Whole districts a principle which has completely revolutionised the which previously grew only inferior crops of rye, system of cattle and sheep brecding. A few years barley, and oats, now waved with as fine crops of after, following in Bakewell's track, the Collinses wheat as any in the United Kingdom. selected the Durham, or short horned breed of Thesc men, however, were at that period ex. oxen, for a similar experiment, and with cqual ceptions to the general rule. The time was not success. Both these eminent men gained rapid arrived for agriculture to assume the position it and well-merited fortunes, and have left imperishable now occupies. It was by slow degrees that the records of their useful exertions in the beautiful prejudiced mind of the farmer was brought to specimens we see at the various Cattle Shows-appreciate the importance of “book farming," as which are the admiration of Englishmen, and the he called it, in the practice of husbandry. The wonder and astonishment of foreigners.
"sheep shearing” of the Duke of Bedford and One important advantage derived by the grazier Thomas Wm. Coke, Esq., threw great light on the from the experiments of Bakewell and Collins, is subject; but the body of farmers were not yet alive the remarkable precocity attained by attention to to its importance. In the meanwhile, men of science the crossing of the various breeds. Formerly, found that agriculture presented a fine field for neither sheep nor oxen were considered to be their operations, and threw themselves into it with mutton or beef under five or six years old. But, all the servour and heartiness of enthusiasm. Sir by adopting the new system, sheep are now fit for Humphrey Davy led the van, and has been fol. the butcher at from twelve to eighteen months old,
lowed by a succession of other equally enlightened and at two years have arrived at maturity. The and practical men, by whom, step by step, the southdown and other sheep exhibited at the mysteries of vegetation have, so far as is possible, Smithfield Cattle Show were, many of them, been unravelled, its theory investigated and exwonderful instances of this precocity. We saw plained ; agriculture has been elevated to a one of two years old, the weight of which was science, and the farmer to the rank of a practical estimated at 48 pounds per quarter. Equally ex. chemist—so far, at least, as preparing and applying traordinary instances were to be seen amongst the the inorganic materials by which Nature herself cattle and swine.
elaborates in the soil those forms of beauty and The ages put upon some of the latter were utility which we see around us. almost apocryphal. One fellow of fourteen months But the period from 1840 to the present time is old, belonging to Prince Albert, was estimated to that in which agriculture has progressed with the weigh 60 stone (8 lbs. to the stone). They surely greatest rapidity. About the former year the inmust have begun to fatten him before he was troduction of Peruvian guano into this country born. By this means the farmer is now enabled to entirely altered the principle ou which the fertilisareturn his capital in grazing twice or thrice for tion of the soil was effected. The extraordinary once formerly, and an immense increase of pro effects produced by this substance led to an induce of meat is prepared for the consumer. vestigation of its components. By analysation it
Nearly at the same period that these successful was found to consist of a condensation of the most experiments in breeding cattle and sheep were valuable elements of fertility, and required to be instituted, Arthur Young, the Secretary of the used sparingly. A knowledge of its constituents Board of Agriculture, began his series of experi- led to the manufacture of an endless variety of ments in husbandry, the results of which he pub. compounds for manuring, some of which are highly lished in his “Annals of Agriculture,” the fore useful, whilst others possess no value whatever ; runner of those numerous periodical publications but all pointing to the same principle-that is, the which have since disseminated a flood of light and application of the right manure to the right plant, knowledge upon agriculture, as well as upon every whether of grain, green crop, or roots. other branch of industry.
The effect of this interposition of science in the
THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AS IT IS,
application of these condensed manures, and the of the operative husbandman more an effort of the
We have said that the Smithfield Cattle Show We have, hitherto, said not a word respecting has become a national institution; and such it the application of steam, and the improvement of undoubtedly is,—and ought to be. However low machinery in the processes of agriculture; nor the farmer once stood in the estimation of his more have we much space left to give the subject that intellectual neighbour, be it remembered that he consideration it deserves. We cannot, however, has risen by his own efforts; and viewing, as we close our remarks without briefly adverting to the do, the cultivation of the soil as the most primitive, change produced in the economy of the labour on the most simple, the most useful, and we are the farm. If the efforts of Bakewell and Collins justified in adding—the most ennobling occupahave revolutionised the business of the breeder and tion of man, where it is conducted with that grazier, and the intelligent and persevering ex- deference to the first great cause, the God of periments of Young have made wheat flourish nature, which his entire dependence upon Him for abundantly where none ever grew before; if the success ought to inspire--it is becoming in a chemist and the naturalist have united their forces people to regard such displays of science, skill, and with those of the husbandman, to elevate the pro- industry as were witnessed at the Exhibition of the session of the latter in the estimation of mankind, past week in a national point of view, and to conto what it really is and ever has been—a science; sider its various details as so many isolated efforts we cannot refuse or withold our meed of praise concentred in one grand whole, to promote the to those ingenious men who have divested it of temporal prosperity and the physical enjoyment its most onerous features, and rendered the labours of the nation at large.
THE CHURCII OF ENGLAND AS IT IS, AND AS IT MIGHT BE.
(We insert the following contribution by a working clergy- “The rich parson and his fat living." This
man of the English Established Church ; and we observe expression was formerly in everybody's mouth. It that his scheme of Church Reform does not differ materially was taken for granted that, because Bishops had from the views promulgated by the late Mr. Hume; but almost fabulous incomes, and gouty pluralists rolled they were scouted as the heresies of a Radical. We have in their carriages from one living to another, no doubt that much absolute poverty exists within the therefore every parson must be rich. Oh, most wealthiest church of the world—a great scandal to inconsequent sequence ! Did it never suggest Christianity, and a stumbling block to those who are out itself to any of these illogical reasoners, that
, of of the pale of any church.]
course, to put things on even balance, as large