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to enlighten them; for, like the Chinese, they suffer were entitled to obtain work at the lowest possible from a conviction of their own superiority to all price. The condition of the native negroes could other people, and from a feeling that holy Russia not have been deteriorated on this account, for an must always be on the right road to heaven, even industrious man is not dependent upon wages in a if its material prosperity should not be clearly vin- tropical island, with ground at a nominal price. dicated.
The third objection that immigration would have This cold and massive slavery of the north is been another name for the slave trade, implies that dangerous to Europe; which maintains over its our authorities would not have attended to their northern frontier an immense aggregation of bone business ; that the objectors themselves would and muscles, operating like spindles and wheels, have neglected their duty; and that an emancipated under the guidance of a motive power, without an population of nearly one million, with their minisidea of responsibility. The magnitude of the ters and other educated men—for they have system prevents the hope of a revolution, except educated persons among them-would have allowed by force. The slavery of the United States the repetition of the crime without remonstrance. would not exist for twelve months if it were con. The opposition was only partially successful, for fined to a small number of persons. The number a number of Hindoos were engaged, and liberated of the slaves is their chain. In the same manner negroes were allowed to labour for the planters, the number of the Russian serfs binds them to who have thus an interest in the prosperity of the the soil. If the United States have difficulty in cruisers after slave ships. The Anglo-Indian Goemancipating four millions of persons, we may be vernment required onerous conditions on the emi. satisfied that Russia has more difficulty in dealing gration of their subjects, which have been successful with forty-four millions.
in the Mauritius, although, from the greater disThe example of Hungary and Poland, both tance of the West Indian colonies, and the destroyed in some measure by the practice of increased expenditure on the voyage, they have serfery, has no influence upon the Russian land operated against the success of immigration to owners and nobility, who are not troubled with any them. Still, we believe that these partial supplies desire for personal freedom. They accept their of labour have saved the fragments of West Indian own slavery as the price of power. They are prosperity handed down to the present year, for it enabled thereby to continue their own influence was natural to suppose that the emancipated over several thousand persons; and they revenge negroes would prefer any other life to work in the themselves
upon the multitude beneath, instead of sugar manufactories. the few above them. The system will be shaken The Brazilian Government and people, although into fragments, but not perhaps until it has done they possess a vast extent of uncultivated land more than one errand of blood into the world within the tropics, have legislated against the without; for yet its existence is often forgotten slave trade, and their legislation is faithfully even by the neighbouring states, whose people observed. They have adopted this course partly at direct their attention conveniently and almost ex- the instance of this country, and also, probably, clusively to tropical slavery.
because slavery had been abolished in all the South An attempt was made to cultivate our West American republics. The press of Britain seldom Indian colonies, after the emancipation of the refers to these republics except in terms of comslaves, by Hindoos. The scheme might have been passion for their slow progress. They are contrasted successful, but it was opposed by “the benevo- with the States, in forgetfulness that they want lent;" who sought to wipe out the sin of our the forced labour of the Union. When the latter ancestry in making the negroes slaves, by turning seized Texas, slavery was re-established. When them into protected workmen. They opposed the General Walker expected to establish himself as immigration of Hindoos from Asia, or negroes President of Nicaragua, he repealed the act for the from Africa, on the different pleas that they were abolition of slavery. If the United States were heathens who would contaminate the native West now successful in their hostilities against New Indian
negroes; that they would compete with the Granada at Panama, and on the Atlantic shores, latter in the labour market, and reduce its price; they would engross the “waist” of America, and and, finally, that they would be turned into slaves. convert it into a slavehold. Our legislators comThese pretences were either false or frivolous. mit the absurdity of always supposing that stolen The contamination of the heathen would have goods cannot be sold cheaper than those that have been met by the same agencies that had converted been paid for. This preternatural nonsense vitiated their predecessors from idolatry. The various all our legislation upon the subject, under the churches and societies interested in the conversion guidance of Lord John Russell, who thought that of the heathen generally should have been glad to he could make a miracle by act of parliament, or find a number brought under their influence, and even by a resolution on the sugar duties, which has the example of others, upon a comparatively scarcely the dignity belonging to a regular act. narrow field. The immigration of new labourers Free labour will be more profitable than the toil of would have necessarily reduced the price of labour, the bondsman, in the course of years, to the world, but that was required; for the planters who were but it cannot be cheaper under existing circumcompelled to compete with the cheapest countries, stances on the American continent.
The idea of forming an emigration of Asiatics to tomer for slaves, although that is not altogether our American colonies was even adopted in Cuba. clear. The captain boasted that while the capture That island had a numerous population at the date would cause to him, personally, a loss of thirty of its discovery by the Spaniards. It was as now, thousand dollars, yet he was not ruined by the so then, the Queen of the Antilles in beauty, and chase and its results, having cleared a little formagnitude, and people. The latter were a mild tune by previous thefts, which he described proand inoffensive race, whom the Spaniards have bably as ventures. This man should be tried for swept out of the earth. The last Indian of Cuba piracy and hung, but as he is a citizen of the died alone long ago.
United States, he may escape with the loss of his Ever since the Indians were unable to supply slaves and his ship. The government of that rethe incessant labour required by their Spanish public professed to join other civilised nations in conquerors, the latter have directed a steady stream opposition to the slave trade, but they refused the of African blood upon the island to irrigate its fer- right of search under their flag: and thus slavers tile soil. For many years the African population sail under it and escape capture, unless the caphave gradually increased under the yoke, yet they tains of our vessels have evidence that they carry are not much over one-half of the entire number of slaves. The difficulty of obtaining this evidence inhabitants—Spaniards—of Spanish descent and is the slaver's shield. The crime of requiring it is mixed races. The island is the largest of the West the States' disgrace. The government and people Indian group, and could occupy, perhaps, ten times of that country know perfectly that slave ships its existing labourers in its proper cultivation. The are built and fitted in their ports. They have, Cubans have grasped a large part of the European like other civilized nations, called the slave trade sugar trade from the advantages secured to them, piracy. Will they even now seek possession of partly by our legislation and partly by our neglect. this captain and his crew, in order to do justice This country has paid large sums to Spain for on their bodies? We are certain that the detreaties against the slave trade, and should insist | mand will not be made for that purpose. upon their performance. Yet they are broken The vessel had originally shipped five hundred with cool pertinacity. The reason is intelligible negroes; two-fifths or thereby had perished before after we are told that the present Captain-General | the capture on the voyage. Great ingenuity of Cuba has cleared one quarter of a million was displayed in packing the negroes. The sterling by fees, for overlooking importations of place was so small that the Arab's people were slaves during his short tenure of power. If this astonished to find nearly three hundred persons treasure be correctly reckoned, and we take it living there in one unsightly mass of filth and merely as it is given, au idea may be formed of vermin. The young negresses, of whom forty were the value of the trade. The slave-dealers will alive on the slaver, were lodged in the cabin, which land their cargoes when they can, without paying was turned into a harem for the captain and his fees, although that good fortune may not often mate. When the remnant of this ill-fated combefall them; for if they be cute, the Cuban officers pany were landed in Jamaica, they exhibited all are " cater," where their own pockets would suffer the ferocity of the starved for food and water. from any dallness of vision. The latter, however, Their rescue astonished them more than their have opportunities of cheating the governor, who seizure, and the Arab gave to the Queen three cannot be everywhere at once, even when he has hundred more of very loyal although very poor the accumulation of dollars before him as a reason subjects by the day's work; and yet the object of for watchfulness.
the British cruisers on the African coast is known A British cruiser, the Arab, captured off the to even some of the inland nations, for Dr. LivingCuban coast, a month or more since, a small stone, we understand, found a welcome among slaver. The vessel was abandoned by the Captain tribes who had never been visited by one of his and the crew after they found that the Arab must fellow-citizens, because he belonged to the nation overtake it. They left the negroes and the ship who liberated the captives of Africa. in the boats, expecting to get into a Cuban creek Some persons say that the legislation of our safely. Even that hope was disappointed—the Parliament upon sugar did not promote slavery. Arab boats seized them. The captain belonged to Without examining the reasoning on which they the United States. The men were chiefly derived support this statement, because there is none to from that quarter of the world. The ship had be examined—we infer that all parties in this been built there. Among the man-stealers their country expect the strict observance of treaties. African interpreter alone was communicative. Great Britain has paid mouey to Spain for the He stated that two cargoes of slaves were run suppression of this trade, and should insist upon out of African bights and creeks every week. obtaining the bargain, if necessary, by sending The estimate is probably exaggerated, for other a fleet with a messenger—the former to the calculations make the annual importation of Havannah, and the latter to Madrid. negro slaves into Cuba equal to five thousand The assumption, for a season at least, of the only. The African gives nearly six times that sovereignty over the unoccupied coasts of Africa, number after allowing for only small cargoes ; but would be more decisive than negotiations with upon the supposition that Cuba is the only cus-Spain or any other plan, and more useful; but the
remedy would be described as theft, by the gentle. i thirty-eight sick men, whom tlie emigration officer men who would pronounce against an attempt to never saw, that the men were kept on board by rescue a traveller from banditti, as a breach of the the use of sabres, and even grape and canister, gallant non-intervention principle.
They were lodged under artillery, and we are not The African slave trade is not the blackest sin astonished that they endeavoured to mutiny. of Cuba. A lower depth has been found in the The case of the John Calvin is a disgrace to the black pool of guilt connected with slave dealing ship's name, as, indeed, is that of the Duke of there than any hitherto sounded. Aster the pro.. Portland, for he was a warm-hearted man. The posal to employ Indian coolies in our West Indian John Calvin is, we believe, a Scotch ship, and we colonies had grown into practice, the Cuban have no hesitation in denouncing the trade in which planters considered whether they could not make it was engaged as not inferior to African slavesomething out of Asiatics. They could not ob-hunting. The captain of the John Calvin applied tain Hindoos, for obvious reasons. They felt for and obtained license to ship three hundred and that this class of men bad powerful protectors, one passengers at Hong Kong, of whom all, except and it would have been very inconvenient, in- eighty-one, left the ship before its departure, and deed, to have had British cruisers inquiring into the cmigration agent certified, therefore, for the the treatment of British subjects on their coasts. latter number, but the John Calvin lost one The coolies of Iridia bad, moreover, abundant fields hundred and ten passengers on the voyage, and for their labour in the American colonies belonging landed a large number. That ship, therefore, to Great Britain, while the Anglo-Indian Govern- evaded the Emigration Act. The Duke of Portland ment had not sufficient confidence in the Spanish had one hundred and thirty deaths on the passage, viceroys to allow emigration to their colonies. or more than one-third of the number who sailed.
The Chinese Government was less particular, Similar cases have become so common that the and had no objections to its male subjects courting trade must be suppressed. British vessels cannot fortune in the west, if the female portion of the be permitted to recommence a second slave trade community were not abstracted. The exception is which is worse than the first. remarkable, because female infants are not regarded We do not see how Captain Seymour, of the with kindness in many provinces of China. Insan. Duke of Portland, can extricate himself from the ticide is not uncommon in that empire, but it is charge of driving a slave trade to the proportion chiefly confined to female children.
of one-third of his cargo; when he confesses that Some months since, the readers of the London this number were kidnapped. His own words are
narrative of a British captain and a portion of his Hong Kong, on account of their wanting more crew. They quarrelled on some other subject, and money. I believe one third of them kidnapped." during the examination, the nature of the ship's He may allege that he did not believe in Hong freight from China was mentioned. The vessel Kong what he now believes in London; yet it was had been chartered to bring coolies to Cuba from at the former port that the first mutiny broke out Hong-Kong. These Chinese labourers were en- among his passsengers. That fact should bare tirely unacquainted with the nature of the work convinced him that he was not conveying voluntary expected from them. They virtually were kid- emigrants, and any captain in the British mercannapped, for we have not the slightest doubt that tile navy should have examined the case thoroughly they expected to land in Australia or California. before he went further. Captain Seymour might The mortality on that ship during the voyage was argue that the Emigration Commissioner released scandalous. The vessel became a floating prison of him from any care over the passengers; or that the the plague. Wherever it sailed the Angel of responsibility rested with Don R. A. R. Ferren, Death floated above, and the sharks beneath, its of Havannah, who was the shipper of the coolies, shadow. The horrors of the African middle and who was then resident at Macao, or with the passage were equalled in the terrors of the Asiatic. agents, Messrs. Lyall Still, and Co., of Hong Kong.
We refer to the case of the Duke of Portiand. These man-trappers shipped, according to Captain Captain Seymour is acquitted in the official corres. Seymour, over one hundred Chinese who were kidpondence of cruelty to these Chinese emigrants. napped. They easily obtained the services of a We cannot join in this “not guilty.” He British captain and crew to coerce a number of acknowledges that the men mutinied before they stolen men. They called for and obtained the left the barbour of Hong-Kong, and endeavoured assistance of the Ilong Kong police, who, we beto land. They were prevented by force, to which lieve, are paid by this country and serve our Queen, he was an active, and, necessarily, a consenting in compelling the Chinese coolies to fulfil a conparty; yet he has no doubt that one-third of the tract, which they never nade. Mr. Hillier, the men were kidnapped. As the Duke of Portland's Emigration Officer, certified readily that the ship freight did not depend upon the number of emi- was well sound in every respect, and capable of grants who came on board, but the number who conveying the poor Chinese passsengers to their landed at the Havannah, we assuine that ordinary destination. lle did not cven examine the lower care was bestowed upon them during the voyage, berths of the Duke of Portland before the vessel but Captain Seymour knew that he sailed with sailed, or he would lave found thirty eight of the
supposed emigrants unable by sickness to move add that he examined the agreements. He asserts, out of them. The vessel, notwithstanding, started however, that the persons who were ill
, on that in the shape of a floating hospital, nearly a month gentleman's visit, suffered from sea-sickuess, havbehind the proper time to commence the voyage. ing made a rough voyage from Macao. On this Hong Kong cannot yet be so very large a place that subject, Mr. Farrer, by order of the Lords of Comthese proceedings were not well known to its inha- mittee of Privy Council for Trade, writes to Mr. bitants. Even Sir John Bowring and his staff - Labouchere on the 5th of last February, in the might have been acquainted with the departure of following terms :these emigrants. We must say, therefore, that the The statement made by Hagan, who, my Lords liarê system reflects no credit whatever upon the autho- reason to believe to be a respectable and trustworthy man, rities of that settlement; which Great Britain
was made in the presence of certain officers of this departs does not ostensibly support as
a depot for kid
ment, and subsequently taken down is writing.
Mr. Labouchere will observe that, if this statement be napped coolies, who may as well be considered true, a large number of emigrants were sick at the time the slaves. So far as is known of the treatment of enigration officer granted his certificate ; that he did not see these coolies in Cuba, they are all deceived or them individually; and that he does not appear to have had kidnapped. The most ignorant men
on earth that personal communication with each of the emigrants would not undergo voluntarily the torture, under which would seem to be necessary, in order to ascertain the name of work, to which they are subjected. understood.
that the agreements with them were properly made, and As a natter of morals, therefore, it signifieth not My Lords wish it to be understood, that they are not whether the coolies are caught by force or fraud. considering a charged as proved, which the emigration They are caught and deceived, or forced to sail
. officer has no means of rebutting, but they think it right to They mutiny, become sick, or become suicides in call Mr. Labouchere's attention to the statement made, in very extraordinary number of cases —which only
order that full inquiry may be made at Hongkong. prove that those who entered voluntarily expected
The examination into the passengers booked for a short voyage, and find that they are bound
the John Calvin was certainly of small importance
upon a long one, even to the ends of the earth. Any in its issue, although correct on principle. The little religion possessed by a Chinaman in his John Calvin filled up, notwithstanding the Emiheathenish and natural state, is connected with gration Officer's examinations; and the withdrawal the graves of his ancestry. By a distortion of of all except eighty.one passengers. Knowing Bhuddism itself he worships the dead; therefore, that circumstance, probably by report, Mr. Hilliers Commissioner Yeh attracts runaways back to his may have been less particular next time, for the dominions by threatening to ruin and wreck the John Calvin sailed before the Duke of Portland. graves of their ancestors, after his intention to The letter of Mr. Farrer was dated on the 5th of kill their posterity has failed to frighten them. February, 1857; and no steps were taken reThe difficulty of inducing men with that belief to specting it by Mr. Labouchere until the 14th of leave their native land permanently may be easily March. Three mails were forwarded to the East imagined, but in their present condition the before the inquiry was sent to Sir John Bowring. Chinese are not acceptable settlers. The gradual Upon the 14th of March Mr. Labouchere, in a overflow of that people into the Asiatic lands on despatch addressed to the Government representatheir western frontiers, is a different matter from tive in Hong Kong, wrote:their transportation across the waste of waters, to From the enclosures to the Earl of Clarendon, No. 5, an island eight or nine thousand miles from their dated 1st January, it appears that the passengers embarked homes, out of which they can never escape. We in the John Calvin” were duly inspected, and the correct
ness of their agreements ascertained. In compliance with are not astonished, therefore, that Captain Sey- the concluding suggestion in the letter from the Board of mour says he never lay down in bed during the Trade, dated 5th January, I have to request you will inquire voyage without a cutlass by his side. A voyage what record or evidence may exist, that a similar coarse was marked by continuous fevers, by refusals to eat, pursued in regard to the “ Duke of Portland.” when food had to be forced down the coolies The reply to this despatch cannot arrive until throats, by frequent mutinies, by many suicides, July, perhaps towards the close of the mouth ; with corpses almost every day, was sufficient to and when it comes no great light will be thrown murder the sleep of any captain, however strong upon the matter. We only fear that our own minded.
suggestion is correct, and that Mr. Hilliers, seeing The papers submitted to Parliament in this case that no good was done by being particular, had contain a statement of John Hagan, who shipped determined to inspect the Duke of Portland's as second mate of the Duke of Portland, at cargo of coolies in bulk, and give them a lecture London, in March 1855. Captain Seymour has on patience before their departure, knowing well added notes to this statement, and together, texts that patience would be more requsite for them on and notes, they form an execrable document. Mr. the passage than any of the other virtues taught Hagan says that Mr. C. B. Hilliers, the Enigration by their Confucius ; provided he did teach Officer, only visited the men once, and did not patience, which we suppose was the case ; for few examine their agreements individually. Captain practise, but everybody teaches the propriety of Seymour believes that Mr Hilliers was on board seeking to attain the ornainent of a meek and the vessel twice, if not more; but he does not quiet spirit,
COMPLICITY OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT,
The following is an additional extract from Mr.
sure to prosper.
Accordingly, we receive no Labouchere's despatch :
Chinese paper that has not evidence of its magniWith respect to both vessels, I wish an explanation upon chief business. By the lasť overland mail, infor
tude ; while British shipping continues to do the the numbers they were computed to be legally qualified to carry. The body of rules appended to the Chinese passenger mation has been received that the Henrietta Maria act required for each passenger a space of five superficial had been picked up in the Chinese seas, with feet upon the upper, and 12 superficial feet upon the lower sixty Chinese emigrants, and four of her crev. deck. I am not aware that the Hongkong legislatore has the captain and crew had abandoned the vessel exercised its power to substitute another set of rules, but the figures embodied in the Emigration Officers' Certificates during a mutiny of the Chinese, with the excepwould only allow about three superficial feet above, and tion of four persons named. Two hundred and eight below, in proportion to the number of passengers de forty of the emigrants left the ship subsequently. clared admissible on the “ John Calvin” and the “Duke of The fate of the defeated captain and crew, and of Portland.” I shall be glad to receive a report on this sub- the great body of the mutineers, is unknown. The ject. The space prescribed in the rules aunexed is, in my opinion, decidedly not larger than sufficient, and it ought not ship was bound for the Havannah. to be diminished. I may also remark, that no requirement
The paper in which we find the story of the of the Passengers' Act is more important than the one Henrietta Maria, also contains the bulletin of limiting the numbers to be carried, and that it is additionally Captain John Wardrop, of the ship Gulnare, in useful from its simplicity, and the consequent case with which he narrates his defeat of a piratical attempt which this security for the good of the passengers can be by the coolies upon his ship to seize the vessel. enforced.
A battle ensued between the coolies and the crew, This extract raises an important question. Mr. which Captain Wardrop describes in warlike lanLabouchere speaks of the Hong Kong Legislature guage. The coolies were defeated with the loss as a power in the State. He could not write of five killed and thirty wounded, eight of whom more respectfully of the Canadian Legislature; died subsequently. The Gulnare returned to Hong although we assume that the Hong Kong constitu- Kong. Eighteen of the coolies were tried, according ency is not very numerous. That municipal body to Captain Wardrop, and three of them were who take a name that they do not merit cannot sentenced to be hung; and are, he says, “to be be allowed to alter regulations affecting British hanged.” shipping in the way which the Colonial Secretary The Overland Friend of China to one of these suggests. The number of feet allocated to each statements affixes the very innocent note, that passenger, under the Passenger Act mentioned by complaints on these repeated mutinies on board Mr. Labouchere, are not too many. To the coolie ships is not only unnecessary but useless. public generally they will rather appear too few. Being the first, it will also be the last. Yet here, For a voyage in the tropics of eight thousand we must see if comments, as they are necessary, miles, we would like a little more space ; but if the cannot be made useful. The party who have had Hong Kong Legislature may contract even this so much sympathy for Commissioner Yeh may, miserable quantity at their pleasure, the Govern- perhaps, be induced to give a better cause than ment might dispense with the farce of making his the benefit of their energy and leisure. This laws on the subject at home. The answer to Mr. country must be roused against an incipient slave Labouchere's letter will not be here until mid- trade, conducted under its flag, for the sake of the summer.
miserable freight earned in the business. We We inquire now—why this traffic has bad any have more particularly referred to the case of the countenance from the imperial Government? The Duke of Portland than to that of the Johu Calvin, members of the Cabinet must have known that the because the result of the Lord Advocate's inquiry Chinese coolies were ignorant respecting Cuba, into the latter is not yet published. The Attorneyand the duties of its labourers. They must have General of England will omit a duty if he does not supposed that these persons were ignorant, not examine closely into the conduct of the person who nominally but really, of the length of the voyage, carried off more than one hundred Chinese, in his and the treatment that they would meet on its ship, believing them to be kidnapped. He is completion. They might have enquired whether acquitted of inhumanity in the parliamentary any, and how many, of those labourers who had paper, but, with deference to official authority, the passed the ordeal of Cuba, ever returned to tell first charge against him is not inhumanity, except their tales of hardship. Nevertheless, they autho- as an incident, of what we should call,- perhaps rised the trade from Hongkong by passing acts erroneously call,-man-stealing. respecting the nature of the ships which would Our Government cannot plead ignorance of the be permitted to clear out with emigrants from the probable fate of these Chinese coolies in Cuba, British port of the extreme east. Even this Act, They know that their doom is misery—a short lise wbich scems not only to be full of objections, but and toilsome-- and they cannot be acquitted from to be altogether objectionable, is modified to please a deep guilt if they do not suppress the trade at such firms as Lyall Still, and Co., or repcaled Hong Kong, and in British vessels. We do not virtually to allow any degree of pressure. allege, as a matter of fact, yet we would not be
A trade commenced with the vigour shown by surprised to learn, that these proceedings liad the John Calvin and the Duke of Portland was increased the enmity of the Chinese population