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first known establishment of the kind was at Rich. connected with this subject and with the premond, in Surrey, in about 1690. At that period vious remark. On a fine, clear summer das, Indian muslins and clothis alone were operated upon, off the coast of Sussex, in sight of several specand the demand for them interfered so materially tators, a ship was seen to go down suddenly ; with the consumption of silk goods, that, after the crew landed, and were relieved, upon the several scrious disturbances in consequence, the representation that the accident had occurred government of the day took the matter up, and through a leak. The circumstances which led to placed an excise upon print works, by way of her being raised are immaterial, but raised she protection, very shortly afterwards-although, was, and the cases in wbich printed calicoes had originally, the use of these articles was absolutely been shipped were then found to be filled with prohibited, under heavy penalties. Subsequently, rubbish. The captain and merchant were tried financial considerations rendered the revenue thus together for the offence, and so clear was the derived of too great importance to be given up, and evidence, that they were found guilty without thus the tax remained until the general revision of hesitation and sentenced to death. An arrest of the tariff some years since. To the imposition of judgment was however obtained, upon the ground this tax was added the vicious system of drawback that the court had no jurisdiction to try the case. upon exportation, by means of which enormous It is unimportant whether it were ai the General money frauds were perpetrated upon Government, or Admiralty Sessions, at the Old Bailey, London, to the injury of the fair trader, great loss of but it was at one of them. The point raised was, morality to the persons engaged in the traffic, and “when was the offence committed ; at the time of the infliction of a most serious blow to merchants agreement to do it between the merchant and and mercantile credit in foreign markets. If a man captain upon land, or upon its completion by the required money, it was an every day transaction to latter at sea.” If the former were the correct purchase a parcel of printed goods upon credit, view, the Admiralty could not try the nierchant, ship them somewhere, obtain the drawback, and who had never quitted the land, for that which so get into possession of capital for other opera- was done on the sea. If the latter were right, tions. Their ultimate destination was doubtsul. then the captain could not be tried by a peculiarly They were either sent to an unsuitable market land tribunal, for an offence which had been done upon chance, or disposed of unfairly. If the solely at sea. Lord Erskine's arguments were former plan was adopted, legitimate traders found sufficiently potent to save his clients, but before themselves forestalled, with unsaleable goods it is they left Gray's Inn Hall, where the case was true, but still with sufficient stock to destroy their heard, they received an admonition from their profit, and militate against future consignments of advocate to be cautious of appearing before him as really useful fabrics. If the latter mode of dis- a judge, or they would assuredly encounter the posal were selected, one of two methods of carry- fate from which he had just saved them, and which, ing it out was chosen ; both consisted in smug- as he told them, they richly deserved. One of gling the goods on shore, and substituting other his lordship's earliest subsequent acts was to packages in the room of those landed. But if it amend this very
law. were actually necessary to procure consular certifi. It is upon the southern states of America that cates as to the goods reaching their destination, in we now depend for our supply of the raw material. order that the bond given at the Custom House Previously to 1790 we imported none from thence, in this country might be cancelled; then the com- but the increase in the demand, and the abundant mon expedient was to sink the ship-precaution, supply of slave labour stimulated cultivation to of course, being taken to preserve the lives of the such an extent that, in 1831 we received nearly crew. Salt, chintzes, and such goods as were en- 220,000,000 lbs., and in 1836, 780,000,000 lbs., titled to drawback were selected as cargo, which while the imports from other countries, except was "run" upon some concerted spot upon the India, have been variable and decreasing. Any coast. When at a distance from that place, one description of machinery is not adapted to another convenient place was chosen, the boats spinniug every description of cotton, and, therehoisted out, a few augur holes in its sides and fore, it will not answer the purpose of a manufacbottom sent the ship into deep water, and the turer to adjust his machine for a few bales, unless poor wrecked mariners landed amid the commis- he be certain that a sufficiency cau be procured to seration of the villagers. The underwriters were, keep it regularly employed, hence one great reason of course, victims, and considerable sums were ob. why the general cultivation of cotton has not gone tained from them also. Though the penalty, upon on in other countries as in America on an iucreasing conviction, for this offence was death, few were ratio. Some years since importations from Manilla found guilty, on account of the difficulty of pro. were frequent, which realized high rates, but for curing legal evidence of the facts; at present the this reason they have almost wholly ceased, though law has been improved, and evidence would be the quality was much appreciated iu Manchester admitted now which would not then have been and its neighbourhood. In 1831 the West India deemed to be sufficient, The last case which the Islands sent us 2,400,000 lbs., in 1856, 462,524 late Lord Erskine argued as a barrister, previously lbs.; the Brazils contributed 31,700,000 lbs. in to his elevation to the bench, contained a point 1831, and 21,830,000 lbs. in 1856, the importation
having fallen as low as 14,700,000 lbs. in 1846 ;, the contingency. The discoveries of Dr. LivingTurkey and Egypt forwarded 8,000,000 lbs. in stope in Africa fully demonstrate the possibility, 1831, and 34,616,000 lbs. in 1856. This also has and, under proper management, the certainty of an varied materially, though it has been a steadily abundant supply from that continent. The climate increasing source, for instance the 8,000,000 in and soil are alike propitious, while labour is com1831 had steadily advanced to upwards of paratively worthless. It will, however, occupy a 14,000,000 in 1846; in 1847, 4,800,000 lbs. only | long period of time before the natives become sufcame in; the next year, 7,200,000 lbs.; in 1849, ficiently civilized to grow it steadily. Excellent 17,400,000 lbs; then in 1850, no less than close samples bave been produced at Port Natal, but upon 49,000,000, an immediate drop to 17,000,000 immigration is necessary to develope any one of lbs. in 1851—and not half-only 8,000,000 lbs. in the unbounded resources of that settlement. In 1852. Since the last year, however, the supply has very many other places, in various parts of the been more steady, having been 28,000,000 lbs., world, the cultivation of cotton has been success32,900,000 lbs., and 34,600,000 lbs. respectively. fully attempted, but in none on a scale sufficiently There are a few other places from which cotton large to do more than to show clearly the certainty comes, but in so uncertain quantities, and in that the land produces this staple. The subject so small a proportion to the aggregate, as not to has attracted the attention of the French Governdemand particular notice. In 1831 India sent ment also, and it is intended to extend the growth 25,800,000 lbs., in 1856, 180,496,000 lbs., but in of the shrub from Egypt to Algeria. Judging by the first of these years is included a small quantity what has been done with wheat in that province,
а from the Island of Bourbon, from which place a it is thought that France, before long, will set her large portion of the seed originally planted in manufacturers, in a great degree, free from their other places was procured. With the exception present sole reliance upon America. of Egypt, Hindostan is the only quarter in which That India possesses everything required for the an increased production has taken place; and it growth of cotton may be deduced from the would appear to that country alone can we con augmentation which_has taken place in the fidently look for a permanent supply.
quantity exported. The great drawback to the Three things appear to be essentially necessary extension of planting in India, seems to be a want to the cultivation of the cotton tree-namely, a of irrigation, and means of conveyance to the searich soil, climate not below a certain temperature, board. Much has been done by the Government to and an abundant supply of labour. Since the remedy the former, not on account of this one parabolition of the slave trade, the production of ticular article, but for improving the land generally. those countries which were dependent upon that very much remains yet to be accomplished, and, method of planting has fallen to almost nothing, before any system can be fully carried out, a more and it is considered very doubtful if the maximum economical distribution of the revenue of India crop which can be raised in the United States, must be brought to bear, in order that larger sums under existing circumstances, be not nearly reached. may be appropriated to public works than have been Much of the old soil bas been already exhausted, paid hitherto. Private enterprise is working hard and the present large yield has only been raised by to overcome the other difficulty, and were a certain extending the confines of the several estates. rate of interest generally guaranteed, for any One negro cannot attend to beyond a certain feasible project, British capital would readily flow number of shrubs, and from the agitation, now of to the East for the construction of railroads, and serious moment, which prevails between the Nor other works. From such as have been constructed, thern and Southern States, upon the question of it is evident that, comparatively, the cost is but slavery, many years must necessarily elapse before, small, while, from the reports of those already in in the natural state of things, any great increase operation, it appears that the natives eagerly avail can be made in the number of cotton-producing themselves of this method of locomotion, both for labourers. The confines of the district devoted to themselves and for their merchandise. Where cotton in the United States has the peculiar disad- railways could not be formed without a heavy ex: vantage of being subject to frost at uncertain pense, or in inconvenient positions, a new plan of periods, by which much damage is done, and travelling has been recently projected--that of the net quantity is reduced by an extent sufficient tram-roads. Their expense is trifling, and they to cause an influence upon prices
. One halfpenny will be formed with so much facility, that not only per pound on the price of the raw article appears will means of communication be provided in a short to be but a small advance, but it must be remem- period of time, but at a cost which will prove rebered that it really represents a sum of £1,800,000 munerative to the shareholders. The « Endless added to the cost to the manufacture.
Traction Engine,” which formed so important a The enormous disadvantage of so great a trade feature in the London civic procession last year being wholly dependent upon a single country for may, perhaps, furnish an idea for drawing heavy its existence, is stimulating discoveries in other goods upon common roads in that country. In regions. Many of these will, doubtless, in the Texas the same difficulty of transportation of mercourse of a few years, become large producing chandise presents itself which is experienced in places. But manufacturers cannot afford to risk India, only, perhaps, in a much more formidable
degree, inasmuch as it is necessary there to pass for obtaining a regular supply of cotton. It is over a long desert, parched, barren, and of volcanic proposed that a small annual subscription shall origin. The Americans, however, set us an example be raised to distribute machines, seed--and in in the way of overcoming difficulties. It will not fact everything that can conduce to a better and answer for them to allow the rich lands in the in- regular receipt, no matter from what quarter it terior to lay waste any longer, so they have intro- may come. The Liverpool merchants also have duced camels from Arabia, for the purpose of lately taken the matter up, and with all the facilities raising beasts of burthen, whch may be capable of which we possess at home and abroad, the only passing the track in question. One other difficulty questions for solution appear to be, shall this exto an almost unlimited supply of cotton from tensive manufacture be at the mercy of one Hindostan, though of consequence, might be single country, and the profits be abstracted and more easily removed—that is, the jealousy on turned over to foreigners, for the encouragement the part of the Company to leasing land of the slave trade, which is now goiug on vigor. for a long term, or to selling it. Expe- ously; or shall a much smaller amount of money rience of other articles has proved what can be devoted to bringing out the resources of our be done if European skill and capital be own empire, to the real advantage of every one employed. Castor Oil, for instance, not long connected with it? Violent scenes have recently since was one of the most nauseous drugs imagin- taken place in the Cortes at Madrid, and a long able, requiring a large capital and time to be em diplomatic correspondence is now going on in ployed here to make it at all fit to be dispensed reference to the payment of interest upon the by the chemist. Two young men went out to Spanish debt. Symptoms of repudiation have Calcutta as druggists; one of them found it profit- again been manifested on the part of a rich city able to instruct the natives in the proper way to
on the other side of the Atlantic. No profit bas prepare it, and the result has been that for many ever accrued either to individuals or to the country years the article has come here perfectly pure, and at large, from any of these loans. A glance at so tasteless as occasionally to be used for table the official list of the Stock Exchange will give a purposes. Indigo, Lac Dye, and Sugar, all bear slight idea of what has been lost by lending to in the market a great distinguishing feature be- other countries. True, losses have been sustained tween native and cultivated, the latter equal, if in forming railways and other works at home ; still not superior to, any produced elsewhere, the there is the satisfaction of knowing that it has former bearing a much lower price; and so with improved, and not impoverished, the nation; and very many other articles which might be enume- now that experience has been gained many of these rated. It was found profitable a short time since undertakings are becoming remunerative to a certo cultivate the growth of oil seeds; and India has tain extent. This experience will not be better now completely superseded all other countries in applied than in bringing it to bear upon such of the quality sent to Europe.
our own possessions as require it, and where a An association has been formed at Manchester certain return can be obtained.
THE TESTIMONY OF THE ROCKS.
We noticed the general character of this work His researches within his own field were vigorous in the May magazine, and particularly the leetures, and voluminous, and his descriptions of the labour or sections, in which the author propounded the and its results are beautiful and vivid, because he theory that the Mosaic narrative of creation was illustrated a happy blending of imaginative and founded on a series of visions ; stated his plan of industrial powers not often united in nearly equal reconciliation between science and Scripture, and proportions; but all these achievements were his views regarding certain arguments belonging built upon an external foundation of the things to, in his own language, "metaphysical theology. seen and tangible, and he seems not to have been No evidence exists in favour of the supposed equally qualified for what he termed metaphysical visions of Moses, who is in reality, perhaps, the reasoning. Through all bis geological works the most distinct and the plainest of historians; and same grasping after a “reconciliation" of matters, no necessity for any of the schemes of recon. that he might have seen required no reconciliation, ciliation, ancient or modern, between science and for they evinced no difference, is traceable. The Scripture ever existed ; so that the new is neither unfortunate peculiarity in this line of thought is better nor worse than the old, and either is supe- almost consequential upon the thinker's” admirarerogatory, while the metaphysical theology has tion of a particular study, without the development not been intelligible to its critic in this instance of those strictly reasoning powers that might have
curbed this attachment. That peculiarity belongs | which had no connexion directly with geology, he to the class rather than to the individual, and asserts that the power to do right or wrong is the proceeded from a perfect confidence in geological necessary consequence of man's free agency. Unfindings as they exist. It was the same with less he could have sinned he could not have been others twenty yeats since, and will be the same a free agent. It is a common argument, or it is with their successors twenty years hence, although the explanation of an obvious fact. The author meanwhile the data have changed decisively, with of “The Last Judgment," an argumentative out any ground for supposing that they have poem, makes Gamiel, the cherub, say, in his accu. passed their last conversion, and are now in a cool sation of Salan,and solid state. From this mistake arose in Hugb Thou art accused, last charge and worst of all, Miller's mind an intense struggle. He believed That, like none else, self-lempted tliou didst fall. the Bible to be true-perfectly true-word by
Created perfect, holy, sinless, pure, word, as we believe.
Able to stand and from assault secure;
By no external influence moved to sin, declarations into consistence, not only with his facts
Thou didst thyself create the cause within. but with his inferences. This effort led to the supposition of a visionary inspiration of Moses, And Michael, the angel, in his evidence, as which he advanced. This also was the origin of by the poet put, states arguments along with his belief in the partial nature of the deluge.
facts Both theories were absolutely gratuitous, because,
Plain is the proof; he might have, if he would, as lias been said, the differences that they were
For others in like circumstances stood.
He fell, by swerving from the rightful use framed to reconcile are fabulous phantoms that
Of his free agency to its abuse. never had real form. All these efforts resemble
'Tis clear he must have been, if free at all, the vebement struggles of a man in darkness and Not only free to stand but free to fall; terror, to get egress by shaking the door, while, This can no proof of imperfection be ; if he were a little more coul, he might list the
It proves nor more nor less than he was free.
All is not evil that may lead to ill; latch.
Goodness could not exist without free will; The fifth and sixth lectures probably required Yet evil from free agency may flowmore of that intense thought, which was certainly Evil to none save those who make it so." injurious to the writer, than any of the others
As we may notice the poem in another place, we consisting, in a greater degree, of descriptive only remark that the writer uses an old argumatter ; yet these fifth and sixth lectures were
ment-not weak from age, but one with which written, and virtually published long ago, for the
every reader and thinker must be familiar. Mr. fifth was read in 1852, and the sixth in 1855. And Miller employed it, and then passes to its results : yet, in preparing the sixth, we meet language which indicates that the writer suffered from the
And we must seek an explanation of these twin facts in
that original freedom of will which, while it rendered man magnitude of his subject. He considers the
capable of being of choice God's fellow worker, also conorigin of moral evil in connexion with man's free
ferred upon him an ability of choosing not to work with will — topics that probably transcend the limits of God. And his choice of not working with Him, or against human intellect to scan thoroughly; and says,
Him, being once freely made, we may see how, from man's page 246 :
very constitution and nature, as an intelligence united to
matter that increases its kind from generation to generation I approach a profound and terrible mystery.
in virtue of the original law, the ability of again working see how in the pre-Adamite ages, higher should have pre
with God miglit be for ever destroyed. And thus man's ceded lower dynasties. To be low was not to be immoral ; general condition as a lapsed creature may be as unequivo. to be low was not to be guilt-stained and miserable. The cally a consequence of man's own act, as the condition sea anemone op its half-tide rock, and the fern on its mossy of individuals born free, but doomed to slavery in panish. hill-side, are low in their respective kingdoms ; but they ment of their offences is a consequence of their act. are, notwithstanding, worthy, in their quiet, unobtrusive
He proceeds, in support of these views, to consi. beauty, of the God who formed them. It is only when the human period begins that we are startled and perplexed by der the present condition of mankind, all originathe problem of a low ness not innocent, -au inferiority tan- ting in the same two human beings, but presenting tamount to moral deforınity. In the period of responsibi- in their moral and physical condition evidence of lity, to be low means to be evil; and how, we ask, could a the federal tie between one generation and another, lowness and inferiority resolvable into moral evil have had any place in the decrees of that Judge who ever does what
He tells us that the Adamic man is to be found is right, and in whom moral evil can have no place P The in the Caucasian race, and all the others have subject is one which it seeins not given to men thoroughly to degenerated from the models, by the circumstances comprehend. Permit me, however, to remark in reply, that and the sinfulness of their progenitors. The in a sense so plain, so obvious, so unequivocally true, that
Caucasian man, he says, has fallen least, and it would lead an intelligent jury, inpanelled in the case,
therefore the ladies of the English aristocracy, conscientiously to convict, and a wise judge righteously to condemn, all that is evil in the present state of things, man
being the finest specimens of the Caucasian mould may as certainly have wrought out for himself, as the cri. in Europe, more nearly resemble Eve than any minals whom we see sentenced at every justiciary court work other females in the world. We can scarcely out for themselves the course of punishment to which they admit that their ancestry have fallen least, even by are justly subjected.
a figure of speech ; but the consequences of the In page 248, proceeding with his argument, fall may have pressed more heavily on the physical
condition of peasantesses thau of peeresses, which become permanent varieties of the species. There are cases would produce the result, as to beauty, if it were
in which not more than from two to three centuries have
been found sufficient to thoroughly alter the physiogmony produced; nevertheless, beauty is not confined to
of a race. “On the plantation of Ulster, io 1611, and the upper ten thousand, or beld by them in any afterwards, in the success of the British against the rebels exclusive manner.
in 1641 and 1689,” says a shrewd writer of the present The following statement, page 255, is verified day, himself an Irishman, “great multitudes of the native by daily experience in its general character. Pa
Irish were driven from Armagh and the south of Down,
into the mountainous tract extending from the Barony of rents entail disease and weakness often upon
Fleurs eastward to the sea; on the other side of the king. their children, as they secure for them as often a dom the same race were exposed to the worst effects of life of ignorance, and, so far as they can, of crime. hunger and ignorance, the two great brutalisers of the The same rule exists respecting races.
human race. The descendants of these esiles are now disblishes the connexion of the past with the present. tinguished physically by great degradation. They are reThe dependence of one generation npon its pre- and exposed gums; and their advancing cheek-bones and
markable for open, projecting mouths, with prominent teeth, decessors, and thus by evidence open to all depressed noses bear barbarism in their very front. In classes, confirms the doctrine which our author Sligo and northern Mayo the consequences of the two centaconsidered a "terrible mystery.” It is a mystery ries of degradation and hardship exhibit themselves in the prevailing through the entire economy of nature ;
whole condition of the people, affecting no: only the fea
tures but the frame. Five feet iwo inches is an average, a mystery that affects our condition, and may be pot-vellied, bow-legged, abortively-featured, their clothing a therefore more the object of consideration than wisp of rags—these spectres of a people that were once other matters equally too hard for us to compre- well-grown, able-bodied, and comely, stalk abroad into the hend, yet standing in a central place without the daylight of civilisation, the annual apparition of Irish agli
ness and Irish want." kuowledge of the beginning or the end, the author might with propriety pronounce the origin The general argument here is correct, but the of evil to be "terrible” in its consequences as in special illustration is only a repetition of an absurd its nature.
quotation in the “ Vestiges of Creation." When But if man, in at least the more degraded varieties of his that work was published, its author adduced, also race, be so palpably not what the Creator originally made from an Irishman, the statement regarding the him, by whom, then, was he made the poor lost creature degeneracy of bis race in parts of Antrim, Down, which in these races we find him to be? He was made and Connaught. Who is the Irish author ? We what he is, I reply, by man himself; and this in many instances by a process which we may see every day taking remember the Irish car-driver who frightened the place among ourselves, in individuals and in families, though correspondent of a London paper into the belief happily not in races. Man's pature—again,-10 employ that treason was concerted, by assuring him that the condensed statement of the fact — has been bound fast the initial letters G. P. O. on Irish milestones in fate, but his will has been left free. He is free either
were intended as a prayer for the preservation of to resign himself to the indolence and self-indulgence so natural to the species; or, “ spurning delights to live labo
O'Connell. The wicked carman did not mention rious days;” free either to sink into ignorant sloth, depen. General Post-Office, and that solution did not dent uselessness, and self-induced imbecility, bodily and suggest itself to the London traveller, who mental, or to assert by honest labour a noble independence, alarmed the couutry by proclaiming his discovery
- to seek after knowledge as hidden treasures, and, in the of an insurrection in perspective, because G. P. O. search to sharpen bis faculties and invigorate his mind. And while we see around us some men addressing themselves
were letters sculptured on all the milestones. The to what Carlyle terms, with homely vigour, their heavy Irish have often an irrepressible tendency to sarjob of work," and by denying themselves many an insidious casm, and bear false witness against themselves indulgence, doing it effectually and well, and rearing up well and their nation from their love of a joke. This taught families in usefulness and comfort to be the stays for Irish writer quoted by the credulous author of the the future, we see other men yielding to the ignoble solici. tations of appetite or of indolence, and becoming useless ferent but in this instance no less credulous author
“ Vestiges of Creation,” and by the widely difthemselves, and the parents of ignorant, immoral, and more than useless families. The wandering vagrants of Great of the " Testimony of the Rocks," must have been Britain at the present time have been estimated at from fif- in one of these provoking moods when he put his teen to twenty thousand souls ; the hereditary paupers of pen to paper ; that is, if there ever was any such England are a vastly more numerous class— have become, in
Irish writer. a considerable degree, a sept distinct from the general com
Mr. Miller probably quoted from munity; and in all our large towns there are certain
the “ Vestiges." We are acquainted personally
percentages of the population—unhappily, even increasing per with some parts of the country described. Their tentages—that, darkened in mind and embruted in senti. inhabitants more nearly five feet nibe. ment, are widely recognised as emphatically the dangerous inches than five feet two, on an average, for those classes of the community. And let us remember, that we are witnessing in these instances no new thing in the his.
of the male gender. Features are subjects of tory of our speciez ; every period since that of the vaga opinion, for Mr. Disraeli abhors the Saxon nose, bond Cain has had its waifs and stragglers, who fell behind by a mistake more of fact than of taste; but feain the general march. In circumstances such as obtained tures of some kind most Irisbmen possess-even in the earlier ages of the homan family, all the existing those of Mayo and Sligo, and abortive is ill nomades and paupers of our country, would probably have applied to them; while their legs are as straight passed into distinct races of men. For in the course of a few generations their forms and complexions would begin often as they should be, with calves that would to tell of the self-induced degradation that had taken place recommend their owners to a standing place at the in their minds; and in a few ages more they would have back of many carriages, if they were in that way.