« PreviousContinue »
The depressed noses and advancing cheek bones geological grounds. The universality of the become personal, for however the Scotch nose may deluge accounts for many phenomena on the crust stand, and it assumes many forms, one is hardly of the globe, that, without it, are cousigned to permitted to doubt concerning our cheek bones. geological explanations. A geologist who is very They advance, perhaps, as witnesses against our zealous for his art, therefore, has a prejudice in civilisation. The quotation furnishes an example favour of a partial flood. That alternative leaves of the common error of over-proving a case. The him all the strange remains of tropical life employment of apocryphal evidence to support a found in teniperate climes, and of nautical general fact is needless. It would even weaken shells on rugged bills a thousand yards above a strong case, if that were possible. We would the sea, as materials for his daily researches, have been pleased to refer the average of five feet and even for imaginative theorising. The late Mr. two, bowed legs, and pot-bellies to those Con- Boothroyd has the following note, respecting the naught Rangers who went down the street of universality of the deluge, in his new translation Fuentes d'Honore, "clearing the way" of the of the scriptures. Mr. Boothroyd was not attached best soldiers that Napoleon had ever sent to unreasonably to old opinions; but boldly followed Spain; or even of those Connaught Rangers facts and truth wherever they led; yet, although whose Crimean deeds are fresher still in the public he must have been intimately acquainted with the memory than those of the soldiers of the Peninsular possibilities suggested by Poole and Stillingfleets war ; but Mayo and Sligo are extensive counties with the views of Dr. Pye Smith and Professor of Connaught.
Hitchcock, he did not even notice them. The The seventh and the eighth lectures contain the following is the reference made to the subject in author's arguments against the universality of the his notes :deluge. He believed that the deluge was only partial, but extended over all the surface of the
According to Moses the food was universal; for the earth occupied then by the human race. Mr.
highest mountains under the whole heavens were covered, and
whatsoever lived was destroyed. By this catastrophe the Miller did not deny that all mankind were de- earth must have been greatly changed; some of the primeval stroyed in the deluge, with the exceptions in the hills and mountains must have been torn asunder, earth and ark, but he did not believe that all the other animals rocks thrown together, so as to form new, and perhaps were destroyed, or even that any great number of higher mountains than before; shells and lighter bodies them were drowned in the flood. Eighteen pages, they are found at this day; and others might subside with
might be carried to the tops of the highest mountains, where at the commencement of the seventh lecture, are the water into the earth, where they are still discovered. occupied with an epitome of these traditions re- The whole face of the globe, and the most accurate investigarding the flood, which establish the universality gation of its strata continue to substantiate the Mosaic of that judgment over mankind, although not
account of the deluge. In proof of what is stated, it may necessarily over the world. Those traditions
be observed, that the moose-deer, a native of America, has
been found in Ireland; elephants, natives of Asia and Africa, found among all nations, barbarian and civilised, have been found in England; crocodiles, natives of the Nile, eastern and western, in history, in poetry, and in and other African rivers, in the heart of Germany; and shellsculpture-establish the occurrence of the deluge, fish and the skeletons of whales, in the inland counties of and the destruction of nearly all the human family England, the former only known to live in the American in its waters. The solution of the question that all
seas, and the latter in the cold regions of the north. the earth was submerged in order to destroy nearly We do not ascribe perfect or undue accuracy to all mankind, is of extremely little importance in Mr. Boothroyd, but we quote the passage to show one sense.
It is not a novel inquiry; for the how one able and modern scholar regarded the supposition of a partial flood was held long ago by event. He holds that the Mosaic account implied several commentators. The late Dr. Kitto re- the universality of the deluge. That is the quesviewed the arguments on both sides, and decided tion continued—for it had long ago been raised by in favour of the geographical universality of the Mr. Miller, who argued that Moses did not describe flood.
a universal deluge; and, not unlike other authors Points of resemblance occur in the character of who have flourished in Edinburgh, has argued upon Dr. Kitto and Mr. Miller. The former certainly this point more keenly than upon any one within rose out of a depth in which the latter was never bis own range of knowledge. He ejected Dr. sunk, and under disadvantages that the geologist Kitto from the field of Biblical criticism with little never knew. They were both distinguished Eng- more difficulty or doubt than he had experienced lish writers; but while Dr. Kitto attained a high with Robert Hall in metaphysical reasoning. He place in Biblical literature, Mr. Miller laboured in held that some Scriptual texts are not to be taken the literally dark places of the earth for scienti- in their grammatical, or literal, meaning, but are fic knowledge. His seventh lecture is chiefly a only modes of expression in which a definite stands criticism upon Dr. Kitto's article on the deluge. for an indefinite quantity. These passages, be The seventh and the eighth lectures are both writes, are well known to every Biblical critic, and examples of the dangers following an ardent he quotes several of them, but not quite correctly, devotion to a particular study. Mr. Miller's and he does not refer to the passages. The folopinion may be either right or wrong for our lowing quotation shows the nature of this argu. present purpose, but it was preferred by him on ment. It is in answer to Dr. Kitto :
It will scarce he suspected that such an accomplished a " metropolitan” nation, in order to the fulfilment writer, who did so much for Biblical illustration, and whose
of many of these propbecies; and not a few peradmirable "Pictorial Bible," with but four works more formed what Chalmers used to term, with peculiar emphasis, his“ Bib
sons at the present time whose opinions may be lical Library,” would do injustice to any cause, or any line of
entitled to a little weight, believe that the Billi. argument which lie adopted, if it was in reality a good and cal critics in question are wrong; and that the sound one.
prophecies will be found fulfilled in the larger It may, however, be well not to test too rigidly the value
branch of the Hebrew family. They, of course, of the remark, -meant to be at least of the pature of argu
aver that the larger exists under other dames. ment, -when we find him saying that " a plain man sitting down to read the Scripture account of the Deluge would
We mention these things merely to show the dif. have no doubt of its universality.” Perhaps not. But it ferences of opinion that may exist, and always will is equally certain that plain men, who set themselves to exist, respecting prophetic passages until their deduce from Scripture the figure of the planet we inhabit
clear fulfilment; and the difficulty is almost essenhad as little doubt, until corrected by the geographer, that the earth was a great plane-not a sphere; that plain men,
tial to prophecy. For, if it were intelligible by who set themselves to acquire from Scripture some notion of
the audience to whom it was first communicated, the planetary motion, had no doubt, in the same way, until and they recognised its authority, they would at corrected by the astronomer, that it was the earth that once seek to fulfil it, and expose the prediction to Tested, and the sun that moved round it; and that plain
the charge of being vindicated by the zeal of its men, who have sought to determine from Scripture the age
friends. Many of these propbetic passages are of the earth, have had not doubt, until corrected by the geologist, that it was at most not much more than six thou put in the present tense, as matters now accomsand years old. In fine, when plain men, who, according to plished, -perhaps for the reason mentioned by Cowper, “know, and know no more, their Bible true," have, St. Peter, “One day is with the Lord as a thousand perhaps, in every instance, learned from it what it was in reality intended to teach,—the way of salvation,-it seems
years, and a thousand years as one day." scarce less certain, that in every instance in which they
Mr. Miller's argument, as now quoted, has no have sought to deduce from it what it was not intended to
foundation in the text; for we presume that he teach--the truths of physical sciences, they have fallen into quoted Deutoronomy ii., and 25th verse :-" This extravagant error. And as any question which, bearing day will I begin to put the dread of thee, and the not opon the punitory extent aud ethical consequences of fear of thee upon the nations that are under the the Flood, but merely on its geographic limits, and natural effects, is not a moral, but a purely physical question, it whole heaven, who shall hear report of thee, and would be but a fair presumption, founded upon the almost shall tremble and be in anguish on account of invariable experience of ages, that the deductions froin Scrip- thee.” The assurance in this verse is that a process ture of the “ plain man” regarding it would be, not true but is begun, which may not be concluded; and that false deductions. Of apparently not more real weight and importance is the Doctor's further remark that there seems,
process is confined to certain specified nations, 80 after all, to be a marked difference between the terms in
that we must make certain that the Indians of which the universality of the Deluge is spoken of, and the the Rocky Mountains, and the people of Japan, terms employed in those admittedly metonymic passages in have heard report of the people addressed, besore which the whole is substituted for a part. “What limita. Mr. Miller's argument can be of any value. tion,” he asks “can we assign to such a phrase as this :-All
The subsequent reasoning, upon the ground the high bills that were UNDER THE WHOLE HEAVENS were covered P If here the phrase had been upon the face of that the ark could not have contained all tåe the whole earth,' we should have been told that the whole different classes of beasts and birds, proceeds earth' had sometimes the meaning of the whole land, but upon the idea that each dirersity of kind was reas if designedly to obviate such a limitation of meaning, we presented there; and this is an unnecessary suppehave here the largest phrase of universality which the lansition. Two animals might have represented all guage of man affords,—'under the whole Heavens'!” So far Dr. Kitto. But his argument seems to be not more
the dogs on earth, and two all the horses ; yet if valuable in this case than in the other. It was upon the all other kinds of animals have diverged to a nations that were “UNDER THE WHOLE HEAVENS” that Deity equal extent from the parent source, the various represented himself as putting the fear and dread of the genera may have been preserved in nearly the one children of Israel ; but he would be a very "plain man" who would infer from the universality of a passage so evi.
hundred kinds of beasts, and two hundred kinds dently metonyinic, that that fear extended to Japan on the of fishes, calculated by one author—although no one hand, or to the Red Indians of the Rocky Mountains, reason exists for supposing that the number vas on the other. The phrase, “under the whole Heavens," seems
Upon the other hand, nobody can see but to be co-extensive in meaning with the phrase "upon the end of the calculation, if it is to proceed after the face of the whole earth.” The “whole earth" is evi. dently tantamount to the whole terrestial floor, -"the
the following style:whole heavens" to the whole celestial roof that arches over The grouse, for instance, is a widely spread genus, or it; and upon what principle the whole terrestial floor is to rather family, for it consists of more genera than one. It be deemed less extensive than the floor under the whole celes- is so extensively present over the northern hemisphere, that tial roof, really does not appear. Farther, nothing can be Siberia, Norway, Iceland, and North America have all litir more certain than that both the phrases contrasted by Dr. grouse,- the latter continent, indeed, from five to eight Kitto, are equally employed in the metonymic form. different kinds ; and yet so restricted are some of the species
of which they consist, that were the British islands to be The argument is affected by the exact words of subinerged, one of the best known of the family--the red the passage quoted, concerning the Israelites, which grouse, or moor fowl (Ingopus Scoticus) wonld disappear frem might be prophetical and unfulfilled. Many Bibli- creation. cal critics have assumed that the Jews must become This statement is intended to prove that the a great, or, in the words of the late Dr. Chalmers, I ark must have contained specimens of each difer
ent species, or division of a species, both in beasts should be confined from infancy to the carnivorous, and birds, on the globe, if the deluge be considered an effort would be necessary to get porridge recoguniversal. Because these moor fowls, having no nised by the animal as a fitting dinner. It does particular object in view by removing the bounds not follow, however, from any scriptural statement, of their habitation, do not now cross on the one
that food convenient for all the voyagers in the side to Iceland, or on the other to Norway, we ark was not provided. We are told that food was are told that in a deluge they would rather perish provided, and it would be difficult to prove that than by a few hundred miles. Doves have similar it was not of the right sort. For anything that or stranger diversities, and the circumstance is we know to the contrary the ark may have been made the ground of a beautifully written catalogue supplied with all that a modern commissaryof the doves ; but it does not establish the slight- general would have considered necessary. est reason for supposing that a male and female
The reader is next told of the five hundred and of each of these families would have been required fifty thousand species of insects that had to be in the ark, even if the flood had been universal. accommodated, many with no wings, many with a The author would not have been so anxious for life of only a few hours, and many that live upon the accommodation of so many doves and grouse vegetables which have only a limited geographical as he was, if he had not previously resolved that existence; and even “supposing that specimens the flood must be considered local. Sir Walter of their eggs were procured," a miracle would be Raleigh and Buffon had reckoned the number of required to restrain their usual progress from that separate beasts at two hundred, or thereby; but state to one of more active lise. Some parties now it is brought up to sixteen hundred, and with might allege that the eggs of insects lay safely in a little ingenuity might be divided down or up to the mud and survived the deluge, but that class two or three thousand, in addition to more than
are met by the assertion that a miracle was resix thousand birds and six hundred reptiles. The quired for this purpose. The eggs of the hardier manner of affecting this increase is remarkable, insects might survive the treatment, but a maand shows that with the material it may go on in- jority of the class could only be preserved by a definitely. At page 329 the Author wrote:
miracle. The moral is thus stated :-"And be it
remembered, that the expedient of having recourse Of each of the ruminants that divide the hoof there were
to a supposititious miracle, in order to get over a seten introduced into the Ark; and it may be well to mark difficulty insurmountable on every natural prin. this order of animals has been growing, and how greatly the ciple, is not of the nature of argument, but simply knowo species in relation to human kpowledge have, in con- an evidence of the want of it. Argument is at sequence, increased. In 1848 (in the first edition of the an end when a supposititious miracle is introduced.” " Physical Atlas,") Mr. Waterhouse estimated the oxen at This siatement in an avowedly Infidel work would thirteen species ; in 1856 (in the second edition) he esti: be consistent. The reader might or might not mates them at twenty. In 1848 lie estimated the goats at fourteen species; in 1856 he estimates them at twenty. In regret the conclusion of the writer, but he would 1843 he estimated the deer at thirty-eight species ; in 1856 feel no surprise at the remark. The subject is he estimates them at fifty-one. In short, if excluding the the most stupendous miracle intruded, if we may lamas, and the musks, as doubtfully clean, tried by the use the word, on the course of nature since the Mosaic test, we bat add to the sheep, goats, deer, and cattle, creation. The only record and all the traditions the forty-eight species of antelopes, unequivocally clean antelopes, and multiply the whole by seven, we shall have, as a
on the subject treat it as a miracle. When the Tesult
, a sum total of one thousand one hundred and sixty. congregation of the different species of animals, two individuals-a number more than four times greater as explained by the statement " went in unto than that for which Noah made provision in the Ark, and Noah,” he and his sons did not, we presume, considerably more than twice greater than that provided for select the cubs of wild animals and carry them in ; by the studente of Buffon.
although that might have been done. Another It is useless to say more on this subject, than course having been adopted—it was a miraculous that Mr. Waterhouse's twenty species of goats in course. It was not the natural instinct of the 1856, make no more for the argument than bis beasts that brought them to the rooms provided fourteen species of 1848. The divergence of for them, but a miracle. Food bad been stored species is the whole question, denied by Mr. there," all food that is eaten" by beasts and men, Miller, asserted by others. The economy of the if beasts were to be preserved; and there is not ark was miraculous, yet the lecturer treats it as a the slightest reason for supposing that the common very common sort of matter. The ark was merely food of different animals was not found in the a large ship, and the creatures within its walls ark. “Every sort of food-food for thee and for were engaged upon a long voyage. The carnivor- them," is Boothroyd's translation. “ The Lord ous animals were not, he thinks, changed for the shut him in,”—was that a miracle, or a common time in their habits, “ the form of their teeth, the process in the ordinary course of nature? In character of their stomach, and the shortness of dealing with the grandest miracle of the world, it their bowels ;” yet we know from daily experi- is strange to find a Christian writer resting his ence, that many carnivorous are also gramnivorous argument against any apparent difficulty upon the animals. The cat in its way, or the dog in his plea that we must not have recourse to a suppo department, relish both sorts of food; yet if either sitious miracle. Certainly, we must not suppose
was a means.
miracles ; but if we admit the flood, partial or uni- | be miraculous. However, he and his sons and versal, was it not a miracle ? By no means, their wives were in better plight than Adam and according to Mr. Miller. It was an event that Eve, when they were ej.cted from the Garden of had no claim whatever to be considered mira- Eden into the outer world, swarming with a culous. If a similar event should occur in the tremendous animal life, that had been engaged in present June, " though geologists would have to mutual killing on its surface from time immemorial. describe it as, beyond comparison, the most remark. The Adainite family were not equal to the Noabic able oscillation of level which had taken place in numbers, and they had not, so far as we know, within the historic period, they would certainly the cleared space around them that belonged to regard it as no more miraculous than the great the latter. The war of beasts, according to the earthquake of Lisbon." And to place his object geologists, had proceeded very long before the beyond doubt, he proceeded in the next sentence Adamite period upon the earth, and it was quite a to ask —"And why have recourse, in specula ing mistake ever to suppose that “ death entered by on the real event of four thousand years ago, to a sin" upon the new world. The words were only suppositious miracle, if an event of apparently applicable to maukiud. Eden itself was not in. the same kind would not be regarded as miracu- vaded by these terrible beasts of dark den and deep lous now pMr. Miller not only held the non- forests! Are we then to have another "supposimiraculous theory himself, but he imputed it to tious miracle," employed for a season to keep them another who made no such assertion, quoting out ? The beasts that were drawn up before Adam thus :
to receive tbeir names were not vicious, we presume; Has not God
therefore, we infer that a creation of cows, Still wrought by means, since first he made the world,
horses, and sheep, occurred along with man, but And did He not of old employ His means To drown it? What is His creation less
the beasts of prey existed before his time. No Than a capacious reservoir of means,
other supposition is of any value, because many Formed for His use, and ready at His will ?
animals exist that never could exist if they wanted
men's protection. Sheep would long ago, and long This poet does not deny the miracle. Water before the deluge, have been an extinct race, if
The miracle rested on the employ they were not very necessary to mankind, who dement of means out of the ordinary course of nature fend them for the return. This reasoning on sop-the reversion, or the suspension for a time of positious miracles would soon lead us all into the natural laws. The lecturer, indeed, acknowledges mythic region of Strauss, where this author was immediately the occurrence of one miracle in the strongly tempted to follow, and desperately
The revelation to Noah of the coming struggled against the temptation, originating in flood was, he admits “evidently miraculous.” We pride of reason and science. To that struggle, in cannot see how it was more evidently miraculous a great measure, the distressingly gloomy close than any other event in the history—the gathering may be partly attributed. together, for example, of such wild beasts into the The natural and non-miraculous flood suggested ark as really sought that asylum. Why should by Hugh Miller, by the subsidence of the flooded we set up "a suppositious miracle ?" Might not land, meets Dr. Kitto's objection, that the highest Noah have been a most successful student of mountains could not bave been covered over their natural laws, and have foreseen the great oscilla. summits by twenty-two feet or thereby in one countion of the earth's surface by scientific knowledge ? try, without overflowing other regions. He supThe long lives of these patriarchs may have enabled posed that the inhabited carth subsided, and the them to make greater scientific progress than their waters rose into the chasm. Some persons bave descendants have hitherto supposed. When a supposed that the old land became sea, and the scientific explanation will serve our purpose, to a former beds of the sea were elevated into land. suppositious miracle it is wrong to resort. It That idea is now, we believe, resigned as useless. would have been better to shut all wild animals Mr. Miller, therefore, supposed that the land and beasts of prey out of the ark. No necessity which subsided was, after an adequate interval of exists for their preservation on that vessel; although time, upheaved. He even endeavours to identify Noah and his sons wished to preserve part of parts of the earth, then inbabited, with some their domestic stock wherewith to recommence the regions of Persiau, Russian, and Turkish territory world. The reptiles make a difficulty in that ex. round the Caspian. That region could not have planation, but we cannot account for oriental contained many of the eleven thousand millions of tastes. As for beasts of prey, seeing that they men that some calculators suppose to have been dwel. would be preserved in Africa, and by far the greater lers on the earth before the deluge. Others carried part of Asia and Europe, they would find their up the number much farther, but Mr. Miller way to the ex.merged fields of Noah and his prefers a few millions, as is natural, with a small family in suflicient time, without the miraculous and unproductive country in their hands. Ho preservation of these species in the ark. Indeed, accounts for the paucity of numbers upon the the preservation of Noah and his sons from the theory that the ante-diluvians were a bloody and beasts that may have poured over the parts of the deceitful race, whose numbers were reduced by world newly-risen from their watery grave, claims to horrible murders and wars. We know that they
were a vicious race, and that such races do not in- sea, which we know united the Sea of Aral with the Caspian, crease rapidly in number; wbile, if we believe and rolled over many a wild steppe and vast plain, may have
been again covered for a brief period (after ages of upthat the ages of the persons named were not over
lieaval) by the breaking in of the great deep during that the average duration of lives—and that belief may
season of judgment when, with the exception of one family, be inferred from the Scripture account—the the whole human race was destroye". It seems confirmapopulation must have increased more rapidly by tory of this view, that even during the historic period, at
least one of the neighbouring inland seas, though it belongs natural causes, than could be expected from the
to a different system from that of the Caspian and the Aral, experience of the new world.
covered a vastly greater area than it does now,-a conseTo illustrate bis theory, Mr. Miller drew one
quence, apparently, of a more considerable depression in the of those imaginative sketches in which he excelled, Caucasian region than at present exists. Herodotas, as of an ark on Arthur's seat, a watcher in that ark, quoted by Cuvier in his “ Theory of the Earth,” represents and Scotland going down gradually into the floods, the Sea of Azoff as equal in extent to the Euxine. until only the crest of the highest mountains re- We are not certain that the measurements of mained, and he adds truly, that to the horror the relative height of those seas, are more correct stricken inmate of the ark the appearance would than that commonly believed a short time since, be that of the water rising, and not of the land regarding the difference between the Meditersinking.
ranean and the Red Sea, and now found to be We suggest, on that explanation, the incongruity erroneous. Their accuracy would, however, not of forty days of steady rain, and terrible rain, upon advance the theory by an inch, although one of the the sinking land. The agency of the rain was author's “plain men,” and a critic, too, in noticing entirely unnecessary for this mode of drowning a the passage, held that the position of the region part of the world. The fall of rain would be the gives circumstantial evidence that the theory is more remarkable if that country then possessed its correct; being led astray by the glitter of the present characteristic of rainless ; and although trench-like strip of country filled with the rushing limited for space, we quote the passage in which waters of the Baltic; inserted in the passage, not Mr. Miller described what he supposed to have for the purposes of argument, with wbich it had been the flooded region :
nothing to do, but for effect. The Steppe of There is a remarkable portion of the globe, chiefly in the
Astracan may be thirty feet below the level of the Asiatic continent, though it extends into Europe, and which Baltic, without exercising the slightest influence is nearly equal to all Europe in area, whose rivers (some of
in the supposed case, where the top of Ararat, them, such as the Volga, the Qural, the Sihon, the Kour,
full fourteen thousand feet above the level of the and the Amoo, of great size,) do not fall into the ocean, or into the many seas which communicate with it. They are,
Steppe, must have been carried down at least ten on the coatrary, all turned inwards, if I may so express my.
feet below that level, or twenty feet below the self, losiog themselves in the eastern parts of the tract, in Baltic level. the lakes of a rainless district, in which they supply but the We repeat that the forty days' rain was superewaste of evaporation, and falling, in the western parts, into seas such as the Caspian and the Aral. In this region rogatory to a subsidence of the earth's level, and there are extensive districts still nnder the level of the ocean.
fatal to the whole argument, resting as it does The shore line of the Caspian, for instance, is rather more upon the assumption of no miracle having occurred, than eighty-three feet beneath that of the Black Sea ; and but an oscillation on a grand scale, to which the some of the great steppes which spread out around it—such rain would form a miraculous accompaniment in as what is known as the Steppe of Astracan — have a mean level of about thirty feet beneath that of the Baltic. Were that region, so that what was necessary was done a trench like slip of country, that communicated between the without a miracle, and that which was non-essenCaspian and the Gulf of Finland, to be depressed beneath tial to the object was miraculous ! the level of the latter sea, it would so open up the fountains Without considering the calculations made reof the great deep, as to lay ander water an extensive and
garding the population of the earth before the trabad, and many other towns and villages. otrocenianit An: deluge, we can have no doubt in repudiating the worthy of remark, sniely, that one of the depressed steppes few millions mentioned in this work, as only conof this particular region is known as the “ Low Steppe of venient for the author's theory. Even some of the Caucasus," and forms no inconsiderable portion of the these few millions—not better but weaker than great recognised centre of the human family. The Mount others would bave fled with their families and Ararat on which, according to many of our commentators, the ark rested, rises immediately on the western edge of this goods, from a violence which they could not resist, great hollow; the Mount Ararat selected as the scene of by the Euphrates or the Tigris to the even then that event by Sir Walter Raleigh-certainly not without sunny south. The hill country of Syria was as fair some show of reason - lies far within it. Vast plains, white to view then as now. The plains of Palestine with salt, and charged with sea-shells, show that the Caspian were wildernesses of flowers. The fastnesses of Sea was, at no distant period, greatly more extensive than it Idumea and Moab were encased in grand and is now. In an outer region, which includes the vast desert of Khiva, shells also abound; but they seem to belong, as a
startling scenery. The balms and spices of Araby group, rather to some of the later tertiary eras than to the the Blest were shedding their profusion of riches present period. It is quite possible, however, that -- as on over the atmosphere. Beyond a desert strip of parts of the western shores of our own country, where sand the Nile rolled on its idle waters through its recent marine deposits of the Pleistocene age, while a terrestrial deposit, representative
vale of wealth. To the left, through the Affglan an intervening paroxysm of opheaval, lies between,-it is possible
, I say, that in this Mountains, was the fertile peninsula of Hindostan, great depressed area, the region covered of old by a tertiary a jungle of flowery shrubs nearly equal to Europe