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in magnitude. Behind the dwellers within that | Armenian mountains, and all round the Caspian bottom of almost infernal sin, rose high the Cir- subsided, and was upheaved again, without any cassian Mountains, offering shelter to the defeated perceptible change, or crack, or revolution on its fugitives. The Crimea, the Valleys of the Don, surface—with the same mountains raising their the Volga, the Dniester, the Bug, the Dnieper and hoary peaks to the clear skies, and the same rivers the Danube, would bave been unfolded to the ex- issuing from the same springs, and wandering by plorer in that direction. Asia Minor would be the same ways to their amalgamation with the in sight ready to be rich in corn, and wine, and same waters. This happened once, if the inspired oil; whose rivers carried diamonds and gold to history of Moses, and the theory we have consithe Euxine Sea. A little farther and the Bos. dered, be correct. We do not say that this is phorus in its beauty glittered before the travellers, impossible--for all merely natural changes are leading them on to the hills and isles of Greece. possible; but it supposes a more stupendous miraIt is unnatural to believe that the human family cle than anything connected with a universal were confined for nearly two thousand years within deluge. a huge valley, and never dreamed of climbing the The employment of a miraculous rain militates mountains and stepping down on the gorgeous against the subsidence theory ; yet a curious conlands beyond them. This creed would be to firmation of the opinion that raiu was a grand suppose a miracle, of an amazing description, agent in the catastrophe is found in the adoption extending over many centuries, and including, by of the bow in the cloud, as a token that the flood very reasonable statistics, hundreds of millions of would return no more. Some parties bave beld men.
that the deluge of rain arose from causes external Mr. Miller blames these who believe that the to the globe ; but no evidence exists for or against deluge was universal for clinging to suppositious this opinion. miracles; but the presumed miracle on the ante- Mr. Miller, in supporting his views, quotes Sit diluvian mind, essential to his views, like the Charles Lyell's calculations that no devastating miracle of the rain, is suppositious, and greater flood could have passed over the forest zone of in its character than any of those which the credu. Etna, during the last twelve thousand years, and lous universalists in this particular are charged with adds : maintaining. There is another. The district of
For such is the antiquity which he assigns to its older country which was flooded by subsidence compre- lateral cones; that retain in integrity their original shape; hended part of that wbich was described by Moses, and the volcanic cones of Auvergne, which inclose in their when he wrote the first chapter of Genesis. His
ashes the remains of extinct animals, and present an oatline description is in the present tense.
as perfect as those of Etna, are deemed older still. rivers and their characteristics as they existed The cross examination of the geologists would when he wrote; known to those who read his re- be amusing. It does not follow because there cords; for he invariably speaks of them as waters was a deluge that it was a " devastating flood," on with which an intelligent resident in Egypt might cones eight or ten thousand feet above the level be acquainted.
of the sea; for the ascent of the waters was An anonymous but clever author some weeks gradual and slow, while their descent at these since published a satirical volume under the title points was slower still, and might not have affected of “The Metaphysicians." He sketches out the violently the tops of the mountains. The subsi halls which in a hundred years will cover all our dence of the waters even after the ark rested on land, when every labourer of good character will the top of Ararat was so slow, that time from the have his club, to the unhappiness, we suspect, of seventeenth day of the seventh month to the first his wife and children. The author brings one of day of the tenth month passed before the tops of his metaphysicians who has got into life in Lon- the mountains were seen. Forty days elapsed don at that far future, to dine in one of these after the tops of the mountains were seen before halls; where every man finishes his breakfast Noah sent forth the raven, and fourteen days by giving orders respecting bis dinner. The more before the ground was dry on the top of table, at the appointed dinner hour, subsides Ararat. Even then, and perhaps for a long period through the floor into the cooks' regions below; subsequently, the ground would not be dry on the leaving the guests sitting with what we should call great plains and in the deep valleys. The gradual an inconvenient chasm between them, up which a subsidence of the flood supports the assertion blast of savoury meats would come to gratify one that no evidence of its devastations exist on the of the senses, before the commencement of eating tops of very high mountains, for they should not in all its vulgarity. When the dishes have been be expected. After the waters had declined to a placed above the respective numbers, the table is great extent, and the raven had gone forth from again upheaved into its proper place, and the ball the ark, a rapid current might be formed in many looks as if no such subsidence had ever occurred places, but the early subsidence was probably un. there. The author supposed that he was promul- accompanied by any perceptible current. Painters gating a new idea, but he was in error.
and poets have accustomed us to regard the deluge The tract of land comprising a population of as a boiling, rapid, stormy, surging rush of many several millions of persons, including Ararat, the waters. Men of science need not be thrown out
SHADOWS OF THE NEW REFORM BILL.
of sense by these imaginative representations. | essential to the perpetuation of at least many The ascending waters may have covered the tops insects. The cases in which it may be necessary of the high mountains with a gentle flood, rising were doubless met by the drift wood that had in a solemn and stately manuer; and even thus floated upon the surface of the waters. exlibiting more power than in the howling of the We have examined two portions of this work storm, while the descent would be slower still. more closely than the strictly geological lectures
Against the universality of the deluge, Mr. namely, that which, if it does not assert, yet Miller adduces the opinion that it would have strongly suggests, the visionic character of the redestroyed all vegetable life; but we are not ac- velation of the creation to Moses, and that which quainted with experimental evidence in his favour. asserts the partial nature of the deluge. The dove returned to the ark from its first voyage Both opinions were formed to reconcile strong of discovery with an olive leaf "pluckt off;" or, geologic views with our reading of Scripture ; and as Boothroyd renders it, “newly plucked." This they testify against the folly of undue reliance upon olive tree had been under water; for we cannot an inexact branch of knowledge. That is their suppose that the dove flew far away from the ark clear and striking testimony. Perhaps they were for its leaf ; and unless the tree had been still both formed in consequence of attacks upon geoloalive, Noah could not have known that the leaf gical science, not justified, although provoked, by was newly plucked.
its misapplication. Whatever, for instance, be the He also argued that the minor animals could meaning of day in the first chapter of Genesis, it is not have crossed the seas to inhabit our not twenty-four hours, although this author dealt island for example, and many other islands ; as with that meaning of these days, as if any careful they must have done if the flood had been universal, reader could have adopted it. but perhaps the statement implies a momentary Again, he has devoted great care to the estabforgetfulness that not a sparrow falleth to the lishment of the partial deluge view, in order, he ground without our heavenly Father's knowledge ; has said, to obviate suppositious miracles ;" and who could have directed the wanderings even but this notion, as we have seen, requires more of minor animals. It is also probable that for a stupendous miracles, greater, in one sense, for its long period after the flood the debris of the land realisation, than the commonly received opinion. floated on the sea and may have been carried by Geology has had no more industrious collector currents from shore to shore, affording a means of of data or fragments, and no disciple who more involuntary migration to the minor animals, while clearly and eloquently described them, than the it is evident that they would accompany the author of "The Testimony of the Rocks ;" but, migration of mankind; as, within the "bis. like many enthusiasts, he failed in reasoning out toric period," a new and formidable species of the legitimate results of these discoveries, and some animals have reached our shores. The Baltic magnified them to more than their intrinsic worth. rat was naturalised in Britain by the Baltic trade. Then he fell into a maze of thought respecting Other animals have been introduced into many their reconciliation with Scripture, and he is not quarters of the world in the present age.
the first whose mind has been shattered in a toil The author has also a strong argument in the for which no cause ever existed. case of insects, but the injunctions to Noah include Practically, the world will lose nothing, although beasts, birds, and creeping animals ; apparently some pre-Adamite facts be considered diluvian excluding insect life; while many species would be facts ; and yet this work was composed to guard perpetuated readily although the race had perished. against this suppositious tendency, while the An actual succession of living specimens is not actual tendency runs in an opposite current.
SHADOWS OF THE NEW REFORM BILL.
Two events have occurred during the month, bear. | rather hostile feeling to the proposal, which, being upon the promised reform in the suffrage next a repetition of his opinion expressed in the last year. The first was within, and the second with session of the last Parliament, looks very unlike out, the pale of Parliament. Mr. Locke King was progress. During the general election, different the chief orator in the first, and Mr. Disraeli in the explanations were given of the Ministerial opposisecond of these proceedings. Mr. King brought tion to Mr. Locke King's proposals. To the forward his bill to extend the county franchise constituencies generally it appeared to be founded from fifty to ten pounds. Leave was conceded to on some formal or technical difficulty, which could bring in the bill, with notice that permission would have been easily removed. It was on a mere not be given to carry the measure in the present matter of etiquette, which could be so readily session. Viscount Palmerston even intimated a rectified that we expected the assistance of Mr
Hayter on the next division upon the subject. have agreed to resign the case of the peasantry, Viscount Palmerston has created a dread of disap. That is now abandoned. We have fewer quotapointment in this particular. He assented to the tions than formerly from the poets at agricultural introductiou of the bill, with an analysis of the meetings; and guano, with high farming, has reasons that had induced bim to oppose the equali- taken their place, Manure is substituted for sation of the borough and the county qualification. men. High farming is to compensate the loss of From this statement it is difficult to extract a plau. the peasantry who can "never be supplied." sible pretence against the bill —a good reason Bothies are to be given to the country in excould not be given. The Premier seemed to think change for cottages, and a very bad exchange that the burghers are more intelligent than country they are. people. No other cause can be named for enacting Everywhere in Scotland some sort of farming is å lower qualification in boroughs than in counties. carrying land back a stage in what may be termed A farmer who pays only twelve pounds yearly for its civilisation. Corn land has been cast into the few acres of land which he cultivates, has grass, and grazing land into forests. These prosurely a claim to be placed on the register, equal cesses alone explain the large emigration from, to the pawnbroker or spirit-dealer, or tradesman and yet the want of labour in, many of our agriof any description, who pays a similar rent for his cultural districts; or even the great importation business premises and home in a borough. We of food that has become necessary for the cannot see the difference between a farmer taking existence of our population. We scarcely believe land to cultivate and a shoemaker taking a shop in that our cultivation has become moresuccessfulunder which he is to stitch boots.
the existing farming, high or low, during the last The second-class of county residents excluded ten or fifteen years ; and we ascribe the deficiency
, by the fifty pound franchise, are a most respectable in some part, to the changes going on, especially body of men. They consist of persons dwelling in the northern counties, in the mode of farming
. out of parliamentary boroughs, and in counties Mr. Locke King's measure will undoubtedly affect necessarily, and living by professional exertions, or the position of small farmers in the country. They from the proceeds of property ; and of all trades will become politically valuable. Landowners will men who do not occupy their own premises, or hold them in greater respect when they learn that pay fifty pounds of rent. A more respectable even a twenty five pound farmer may affect an class of men could not be brought into any consti. election. We do not expect great political inde. tuency; and they are a numerous body; for a pendence from this class, but we look to the number of considerable towns, and all the villages, measure for their preservation, as a body to whom come within the counties in a parliamentary sense. the country bas been indebted for the preservation
Mr. Locke King's bill is therefore a measure of of its freedom and independence. justice to a numerous body of our countrymen who The second movement on the suffrage was made discharge all the usual duties of citizens, pay by Mr. Disraeli, at Newport Pagnell, where a taxes, serve on juries, we suppose ; and against number of Buckinghamshire farmers had assembled whom, the only objection made by those who exclude to dine, and hear their member's opinions on the them from the rights of citizenship is, that they new Reform Bill; but his first opinion was, that it reside in one parish instead of another. The ob- is not wanted. The public are quiet, and do not jection is entirely geographical. It has nothing to wish for change, according to the member for do with the merits or the minds, the property or Bucks, who had read the addresses and speeches the qualifications, of the persons who are kept out of members of Parliament before their electionof the ordinary rights of citizenship. They are not and, except among the individuals who form his suspected of being more unruly than their neighbours own minority, he never found greater unanimity who dwell in boroughs; and no better reason can on any political subject than the necessity of an be given for the present system than that it has extended reform bill. The public, of course, are been the habit.
quiet, because they have been promised a measure Mr. Locke King's measure cannot be carried in by the majority of the Commons, and from recent the present year.
The Government will draw experiences they do not expect any strong resistupon good intentions. The promised bill of 1858 ance from the Peers. will crush the proposed bill of 1857. The dis. Mr. Disraeli will not himself introduce a measure. cussion on the subject will, however, open out the He will not assume the place of a troubler of the merits of the plan. It will indicate the extent of country. He is satisfied with the settlement of the ministerial benefits that we are to expect next 1832. His hearers would naturally suppose that year; and it may finally take the shape and value it was a perfectly fair and just settlement, when of a great social reform. For many years a feeling he decided to support it. Immediately afterwards, against the management of land has prevailed in however, he assured them that the settlement was many quarters. Many landowners wage war absolutely unjust to themselves and their friends against small farms. They believe in the manu- in counties, and produced elaborately prepared facture of corn and solitude ; and a large portion tables to prove that the boroughs had, upon an of the public feel that this policy cuts down the average, one member to twenty-five thousand strength of the country. The landed interest iphabitants, while the counties had one only for
MR. DIŠRAELI AT NEWPORT PAGNELL.
2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
sixty-three thousand persons. Therefore, says Mr. Disraeli, if we are to have a change, let us have more equal representation of the boroughs' and counties' population.
His argument is ingenious, as an apple of Sodom --fair and ruddy on the outside, but full of dust in the interior and not even healthy dust. - The large representation of boroughs may be admitted and denounced, as it is denounced by all reformers, who say that it exists for the benefit of the landed interest. The fact was concealed by Mr. Disraeli, although no person knows it better, that a large number of borough members represent the proprietors of the land on which the boroughs stand. We need not attempt to prove the acknowledged fact, that many small boroughs return members to order. Their electors are only nominally electors, qualified to register the wish of their superiors. Nominally, they are charged as boroughs; really, they are corners of counties. The superiors are invariably landowners in the neighbourhood -- and that class of boroughs should have been carried to the credit of the Newport Pagnellians. They belong, not to the borough, but to the county interest. They should clearly be subtracted from the former, and given to the latter. The results would greatly change Mr. Disraeli's tables ; and, although it would be invidious to name particular boroughs, yet it cannot be individually objectionable to reckon all boroughs under five thousand as, in reality, corners of counties. The leader of the opposition confined his calculations and remarks to England; and therefore the following list is entirely taken from the English representation, and consists of boroughs under five and under ten thousand in population :
Banbury Bewdley Bodmin Breckoock Bridgnorth Bridport Buckingham Chichester Chippenham Christchurch Cirencester Cockermouth Devizes Dorchester Droitwich... Eye ... Guildford ... Haverfordwest Helstone Hantingdon Launceston Lewes Lichfield Liskeard Malmesbury Marlow Malton Midhurst Newport Peterborough Poole Radnor Ripon Rye ... St. Ives Shaftesbury Stamford ... Tamworth Tavistock... Wallingford Wareham ... Westbury.. Weymouth Wilton Windsor Woodstock Wycombe...
8715 7318 6337 6070 7610 7566 8060 8662 6283 7475 6096 7275 6554 6394 7086 7531 6740 9729 7328 6219 6005 9533 7012 6204 6998 6523 7661 7021 8047 8672 9255 6653 6080 8541 9872 9404 8933 8655 8068 8064 7218 7029 9458 8507 9596 7983 7179
Voters. 491 390 367 366 717 524 349 757 300 313 434 355 373 432 367 356 648 682 217 390 361 713 836 343 309 354 539 279 707 518 508 484 353 562 578 509 566 382 349 428 418 314 679 219 712 317 346
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1 1 1 2 2 2 1
The first table contains 26 boroughs, returning 40 memberrs, who represent upon an average 3,164
The second table contains 47 bo. roughs, returning 73 members, who represent 4,825 persons each. The two tables coutain 113 members, who represent some 73 boroughs, and upon an average 4,287 each of our population. The members for Harwich have a smaller charge than any of their colleagues-being burthened with the care of only 2,2463 persons each, according to the census of 1851. The tables yield 67 Liberals, 14 Liberal Conservatives, and 32 Conservatives, or 67 Liberals against 46 Conservatives. We might be expected, therefore, not to quarrel with the existence of these small boroughs and their privileges, but we keep by our motto—Fiat Justitia. Some of these constitutions contain an independent and sturdy class of politicians. Others, are said, to absorb a fortune at each election. Another
set are the property of certain parties, and the -I am satisfied. The Radicals seek equal repreWhig manufacturers of the Reform Bill were sentation for you, and for all ; but oh! Newport only specimens of human nature, and helped them. Pagnellians, beware of these adders in the grass ! selves.
They have to deal with a subtle Premier-an old, These tables take the teeth out of Mr. Disraeli's tough politician, and practical man of business, complaint, that the country suffers injustice from who swears incontinently, as I myself experienced the borough representation, to the advantage of a few days ago, when he besought me to give him large towns; for that was the inference which he the honour of a conference at this hour; but I sought to infuse into the unsophisticated minds of preferred the Pagnellians to Palmerston—this ordiNewport Pagnell. Several of the towns named in nary to Cambridge-house-this mysterious liquid this table are independent of aristocratic influence. which I see before me—this mythical wine-to The class of towns, with from seven to thirty the sparkling champagne of that hospitable man. thousand inhabitants, contain many not less inde- sion. I came here to describe your sufferings, to pendent and intelligent electors than the larger enlarge on your distresses, to forget the existence boroughs. Still, in all of them, built upon the of boroughmongers still—and to say that the leasehold system common to England, a disposition landed interest is cruelly under represented, but exists to aid the superior, if he requires the aid of that I will do nothing to amend the evil -- yet if voting. Some persons, for example, alleged that the Premier does not succeed in staving off the Mr. Cobden was defeated at Huddersfield in the assaults on this venerable injustice to you, around last election, by the influence of Sir John Ramsden. which the memories of twenty-five years and of That gentleman had evidently given no reason for many defeats cluster-I will look after better the statement, and Mr. Cobden's immediate sup- terms for you in the general rush.” It is not ex. porters were the first to meet it by denial. It is pected that Mr. Disraeli would turn into a conapparent, however, that in a closely contested fessional that farmers' ordinary at Newport Pagnell, election, Sir John Ramsden could influence the or that he would plainly tell his own blunders to issue at Huddersfield; and that if he were a candi. his own constituents; but if he had become suddate, his election would be almost secure. He is denly conscientious he must have addressed the in Parliament, and sets a good example by looking assembly in the meaning we have expressed. for another seat; but he might have been re.. The larger towns remonstrate against the undue turned for his own borough, especially as his preponderance of small country places. The memopinions harmonise with those of a large body in bers for the metropolis represent 125,000 persons the constituency. Sir Robert Peel, like his late each, or thereby. The members for Glasgow and father, takes a different course, and is returned by Liverpool, have nearly 250,000 each in charge. his tenantry; yet Tamworth is included by Mr. The members for Manchester and Salford, take Disraeli among the borough constituencies. 165,000 each. The same weighty responsibilities
The Newport Pagnellians must have reduced are laid upon all members for large towns; and their estimate of the member for their county by the same injustice is done to their inhabitants. ten per cent. when he confessed his intention of They gain nothing by the fact that the members defending injustice to the rural districts. He for South Lancashire, and the West Riding of might as well have said to the dinner party- Yorkshire stand in the House of Commons, for “Gentlemen,-- You and all your friends were nearly 500,000 persons each, deducting the othercheated miserably by the settlement of 1832. wise represented town population. You may be a majority in the country, but you are Mr. Disraeli's speech is described as a bid for a minority only in the House of Representatives. the premiership. It must be a very distant offer. You are my good friends and neighbours, supporters The pear, as yet, is not formed that he will pluck; of my interests, it is true; but it takes two of you but if le bas determined to carry equal represento be equal with your shoemaker, your barber, or tation into the next reform bill, we rejoice at the your grocer, who keeps a shop in Aylesbury or amendment of opinion which he has experienced Buckingham. You were very badly used by the during the last month or two; for at the hustings settlement of 1832, and will continue to be consti- be asserted that the friends of equal representation tutionally an inferior race, until after the reforma- wanted to blot Buckinghamshire and all its grand tion of that settlement. I am your memher, old reminiscences, out of the representation map. employed by you to represent your grievances, as The sbadows thicken. Hampden was. I am Hampden's successor. But Other leaders of opinion will declare themselves I am contented with the settlement of 1832, and soon. We have more than one Newport Pag. all the terrible usage inflicted upon you by its nell in the kingdom, where convenient dinners machinery. You are deemed an inferior race,–I can be prepared. Buckinghamshire cannot be am contented. You are only half represented-I allowed to absorb all political revelations; but our am pleased. Your interests suffer in consequence, business is to watch -and not to predict,