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JAMES HUTTON. *

FETTER-LANE, between Fleet-street and Holborn, with public error and ignorance. Each congregain London, has suffered the loss of respectability tion was divided into bands, and the latter were since its houses were the residences of city mer- not formed upon their geographical, but their chants, or officials connected with the legal courts. social, position. Married men and married women, It has long been chiefly resigned to small shop- widows and widowers, unmarried brethren and keepers, clustering together among the dense unmarried sisters, had each their bands, or choirs, population who inhabit the minor alleys and lanes, or classes—for it is difficult to learn precisely which branch off almost at every second house on how the several terms were used. The gregarious each side, through the baunts of compositors and character of this people also gave a tone to their pressmen, allured to that district by the attraction history—for they dwelt together in villages. They of law printing, if not by the memory of Dr. always honoured education, and to the present day Johnson and his friends. Modern improvements certain of their coinmunities pursue the duties of afford some hope that the worst days of Fetter-lane instructors in a missionary spirit. Their settlehave passed; but in its darkest period more than ments or villages are now, as they were of old one building, employed for specific purposes, time, distinguished by industry, neatness, plenty. preserved a calm dignity amid the over-crowding and thrift. They had in these respects something and pressure around them. The Moravian Brethren of the Quaker characteristics. Like the followers have always had their central station in Fetter- or friends of George Fox, they adopted also a lane. The external appearance of their bouse does peculiar kind of phraseology. Like them they not vary much from that of other old houses in belonged to the peace-at-any-price party. Like the same line of street. A stranger in search of them they were active missionaries to barbarous their chapel might have some difficulty in discover and heathen men. They carried their opinions to ing the entrance, through a long passage in the most inhospitable regions. For the sake of the front house. The chapel itself occupies a consi- Gospel they abandoned civilisation, and commenced derable space of ground, and might accommodate a to form it anew from the roughest materials. They large congregation. The attendance is not now had and have an episcopal organisation consistent numerous, and the services are not apparently with lay teaching, and the exercise of considerable attractive to the immediate neighbours of the power by the sisters and the lay-brethren in the Moravians. The chapel has its male and female affairs of the churches or communities, and in side in the area, like a Jewish synagogue,-only in their discipline. Their ecclesiastical pursuits were the latter females are placed in the galleries, and mixed with secular proceedings ; and as prosperity concealed by screens—or like some of the Metho did not always attend their speculations, general dist, and others of the Puseyite, chapels or churches sufferings, borne cheerfully, clouded sometimes in England. The brethren and sisters of the their walk through the wilderness. They have Morarians will not believe us; and yet we may been supposed to entertain the idea of community assure them that the arrangement is objectionable. of goods by those who judged by appearances only, Surely a husband and wife, a father and his daughter, and whose judgment in this respect was erroneous. brothers and sisters, may sit together in places of their religious teaching was considered evangelical, public worship, as in their homes at domestic but towards Armenians and Calvinists—to the worship. The division thus made seems unscrip. followers of Wesley and of Whitfield alike—they taral. He who placed mankind in families did not had a cold corner in their warm hearts. This marsay that families might not together worship in ble nook, we regret to say, was reciprocrated, for the house "where prayer is wont to be made." all men are fallible. Their organisation, borrowed The Moravian chapel resembles, in other respects, partly from Episcopacy and partly from Presbythe ordinary meeting-houses of Dissenters, and terianism, with additions and novelties unknown the lessons taught do not exhibit any difference to either, rather pleased the followers of both from those of a thousand similar buildings. The systems. Their dwellings and villages were scrupeculiar views of the brethren, and of their pulously clean and neat-alike in Britain, in Iresisters, are not brought forward with any of the land, and in Russia, where they found encouragezeal of propagandism. The sect has, therefore, ment and a refuge. decreased rather than increased, during latter The present century has not favoured the Moyears. They were distinguished in former times ravian brethren. Their numbers have probably by the real wherewith all their strength was decreased, and it seems certain that they have not directed. The brethren and their sisters had each increased. places assigned to them in the great struggle James Hutton, who may be considered a founder

« Memoirs of James Hatton; Comprising the Annals of His Life, and Connexion with the United Brethren,” By Daniel Bénham. London : Hamilton, Adams, and Co. I vol., pp. 639,

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of the Moravians in England, was a bookseller, self the responsible editor of all the books in who served his apprenticeship at the west end of which he was concerned. The division of the St. Paul's churchyard, with Mr. William Innys. trade into publishers of different classes of books, When his apprenticeship expired, he commenced is extremely convenient; but few of the present business at the “Bible and Sun," a little to the publishers would cheerfully hold themselves liable westward of Temple Bar. His father had been for all the contents of their books—and fewer educated at Eton and Cambridge for the Esta- still would reject a good order because some blished Church, but, being unable to take the oath, paragraph contained a slight difference from their he kept a boarding house for boys who attended opinions. Westminster School, with the view, doubtless, of John Amos Cominius is supposed to have been assisting them in their studies; and he also seems the first Moravian teacher who reached Great to have been engaged in literary employment, and, Britain. He visited London in 1641, and resided in 1730, was occupied in editing some Greek here for a short time ; but he made no progress translations. James Hutton, the subject of this towards the formation of a separate communion, memoir, was born in 1715. His biographer shows and had no desire to accomplish that object. The that by his maternal descent he was related to Sir English Established Church recognised the MoraIsaac Newton, while his father's family were de- vian brethren as a perfectly organised church, and scended from the Huttons of Penrith, in Cumber- offered them assistance at the commencement of land, and Gooseborough, in Yorkshire-but, by the last century. Count Zinzendorf having going back far enough, we should all get into a adopted the Moravian opinions, acted upon them, and very respectable ancestral connexion.

with vigour. He applied to the Government of The elder Mr. Hutton is described as “ a devout this country for a grant of land, with the view of and pious man ;” and, from his son's statement, it accomplishing his object “ to send several families appears that there were religious societies in those of his owu subjects to America, and hoping some days before the commencement of Methodism, day to go there himself.” He stipulated for reliwhose members assembled together for religious gious liberty; and the connexion of the Moravians conversation. They were probably fragments with our colonies commenced in this manner at from Puritan England, for the period is described as that time. General Oglethorpe, who was then an intellectual and spiritual winter of religion. governor of Georgia, favoured the views of the The younger Mr. Hutton spoke ill of them :- Moravians, and they were grateful for his favour,

In his narrative of the awakening in England, Hutton and in all his future troubles at home stood by relates concerning the religious societies—with which he him to the end. Spangenberg was the president himself had been connected, his father holding one in his of the small community sent out by Zinzendorf to own house, --that they had so settled down into lifelessness, Georgia. They settled in June, 1735, on the that the majority of their members were altogether slumber. ing or dead souls

, who cared for nothing but their comfort river, and near the town of Savannah. We kuow in this world, and, as they had once joined this connection

little of their descendants now, and we presume they were willing to continue in this respectable pastime on that they have not been able to resist the slave Sanday evenings, by which, at small expense, they could pressure in that state, but have conformed themenjoy the pleasure, and fancy themselves better than the rest selves to the general manners in that particular. of the world who did not do the like.

John and Charles Wesley formed an acquaintDuring a visit to Oxford, Hutton was introduced ance with Count Zinzendorf, and even visited the to Charles and John Wesley ; and he subsequently settlements of the brethren in Geripany. They renewed the acquaintance when they visited Lon- were probably the means of introducing James don, for their brother Samuel lived next door to Hutton, the publisher, to the Count. He made his father's house in Westminster. The two

more progress with the Moravians, went to Gerbrothers Wesley were at the time preparing to many also, and became one of the brethren. Be. proceed upon their mission to Georgia, then one

fore that date, however, and in 1738, Mrs. Hutton of our colonies in North America, and Hutton was

wrote to the Rev. Samuel Wesley at Tiverton, to accompany them, but his apprenticeship had not Devon, a note of complaint regarding bis brothers, expired, and he was obliged to remain in London. who were ruining themselves and her son by The intention was not permanent, for in less than fanatcism, in her opinion. The correspondence is twelvemonths his apprenticeship was finished, and very singular. Mrs. Hutton writes concerning Hutton was in business, under the sign of " Tho the meetings in her own house : Bible and the Sun,” in the twenty-first year of his age.

It would be a great charity to many other honest, wellWe have not space to enter in detail upon the meaning, simple souls

, as well as to my children, if you

could either confine or convert Mr. John when he is with history of this eminent member of the trade

you. For after his behaviour on Sunday, the 28th May, during the last century; although, as the first when you hear it, you will think him not a quite right man of a new sect in this country, he deserves notice. Mr. Hutton was evidently a conscientious

Without acquainting Mr. Hutton with any of his notions man. We do not even know how he managed to Blackall's, which he had been reading in his study to a great

or designs, when Mr. Hutton had ended a sermon of Bisbop live, for be rejected the publication of any opinions number of people, Mr.

John got up and told the people, that contrary to his own views. He considered him- | ive days before he was not a Christian, and this he was so

man.

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well assured of as that not five days before he was not in s very extensive. If you can undeceive your brother Charles that room, and the way for thein all to be Christians was to and my son, it would put a stop to this wildfire. believe, and own that they were not now Christians. Mr.

The value of this thick volume consists in the Ilutton was much surprised at this unexpected injudicious incidental glimpses of society in England and elsespeech, but only said, “ Have a care Mr. Wesley, how you dispose of the benefits received by the two sacraments." I

where at the time which come out in the corresnot being in the study when this specch was made, had pondence. James Hutton gave his business into lieard nothing of it when he came into the parlour to supper, charge of a person in whom he could place confi. where were my two children, two or three others of his

dence, and visited the Moravian settlement early deluded followers, two or three ladies who board with me,

in 1739. and two or three gentlemen of Mr. Juho's acquaintance, though not got into his new notions.

His friendship to the Wesleys was not of long He made the same wild speech again, to which I made duration, aud was succeeded by hard feelings and answer, “ If you was not a Christian ever since I knew you, recollections between them, which also extended you must be a great hypocrite, for you made us all believe

to Mr. Whitfield. The leaders of the Methodists you was one."

were men of greater action than Mr. Hutton and Mr. Hutton, jun., appears not to have been more his friends, or men of a different and more popular deeply impressed with the serious duties of a pub- action. They did not disturb the secular course lisher than his father and his mother. Mrs. Hut- life so much as the Moravians.

They took the ton says that “ Mr. John (Wesley) has abridged world as they found it; and without asking outthe life of one Halyburton, a Presbyterian teacher ward manifestations of inward change in different in Scotland. My son had designed to print it, raiment or any new practice, they sought to to show the experiences of that holy man of in- change the heart and purpose of society. Theredwelling, etc. Mr. Hutton and I have forbid our fore they were more successful, because they met son being concerned in handing such books into more closely the wants of the times. John the world.” The old lady was evidently a staunch Wesley formed no agreement with the Moravians, Church woman, who could only speak of “Presby. but James Hutton was soon associated with them, terian teachers,” and thought it necessary to and le rapidly gained the favour of Count Zinzenforbid the publication of their works by her son. dorf, to whom we find him writing after his reMr. Samuel Wesley disliked the conduct of his turn to England in 1740, in very uncomplimentary brothers, and eleven days after the date of Mrs. terms of the Wesleys : Hutton's letter, he replied in a long epistle from

Charles Wesley had determined to go to Germany, but which we take one extract :

now he will not since he has seen Nowers.* Jolin Wesley I wish the canting fellows had never had any followers

has carried Nowers wherever he could, speaking against the

brethren. I told Nowers he should smart for speaking among us, who talk of indwellings, experiences, getting into against us—I mean the Herrdyk brethren—who are part of Christ, &c., &c., as I remember assurances ased to make a

my lierd. J. W. and C. W., both of them are dangerous great noise, which were carried to such a height that (as far

snares to many young women; several are in love with as ponsense can be understood) they rose to fruition, in utter defiance of Christian hope, since the question is unanswer

them. I wish they were once married to some good sisters, able—what a man hath, why doth he yet hope for ?

but I would not give them one of my sisters if I had many.

But I will believe none, without a miracle, who shall pretend to The style of this letter does not impress us be wrapped up into the third Heaven.

favourably towards the writer. The two Wesleys I hope your son does not think it as plainly revealed that differed from Hutton in opinion, but they were he shall print an enthusiastic book, as it is, that he shall obey his father and his mother.

men of an apostolic spirit, great labourers and

persevering missionaries, who did not merit from The course of post was not, however, so long any person the character given to them by Mr. then between Tiverton, Devon, and London as Hutton, either in levity or scandal. We presume the moderns might suppose, for on the 20th of that the former was Hutton's error, for he June the good old lady was at her pen again, la. says:—“At Oxford I have seen some good souls : boaring to stop Methodism by the aid of the cler- at first they could not be reconciled with laygyman at Tiverton, just as some older women now teacbing, stillness, &c. . . . About six are in a hope to stop political progress by the assistance fine way.” In Wales some thousands were stirred of the member for Tiverton.

up; but here was the difficulty, “they are taught Mrs. Hutton suffered disappointment; and her the Calvanistical scheme." As to Hutton's own successors will also lose their toil. Mrs. Hutton family, he says “my father and mother are in the had even then little or no hope of recovering John; same state, or rather in a worse—my sister much but as he had gone to Germany, she expected that worse than ever.” One cau scarcely wonder at the Samuel might convert Charles.

old people and his sister with their worldy views; Now your brother John is gone, who is my son's'Pope. being rather worse than better, when we read It may please God, if you will give yourself some tronble to what was going on. James Hutton was a very try, he may hear some reason from you. If you could bring young man, and he was going to be married to a your brother Charles back, it would be a great step towards foreign girl in Germany, by lot, or order, or selecthe re-conversion of my poor son. men of great parts and learning ; my son is good-bumoured, tion on the part of his superiors, not so much beand very undesigoing, and sincerely honest, but of weak judgment—80 fitted for any delusion. It would be the * A brother who had withdrawn from the congregation at greatest charity you ever did, and your charity, of all kinds, 1 Herrnhag.

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cause the young bookseller and publisher needed a historical men. Mr. Hutton was a favourite of wife, as the church required that a married sister George III. and of the Queen Charlotte. The should be stationed in London.

king was anxious to hear all the particulars that In the same year (1740) Hatton went to Germany, could be gleaned of Moravian life. He bestowed where it was considered necessary that he should marry, in many immunities and privileges on their misorder that there might be a sister in London, who should sionary settlements in the colonies; but it is attend to the work of the Lord among the females, of whom scanty justice to say of the Moravians that they some were a remnant of those who were first awakened, and only asked for soil to work upon, and liberty to others were new comers. A union was, therefore, poi worship God according to their manner in peace. posed between him and a single sister, Louise Brandt, a native of French Switzerland, who, in the year 1739, had Their episcopal organisation was favourable to joined the congregation of the Brethren. After taking them at court; and they were supported warmly some time to consider, she consented to the proposal, and by several dignitaries of the Church. Hutton the marriage took place at Marrenborn on the 3rd July, passed a considerable part of his time in journey1740, Count Zinzendorf performing the ceremony.

ing through Germany chiefly, France and SwitzerWe

e may venture to assure the Moravian bre- land. He acquired the German and French lanthren that the system of forming marriages, how. guages apparently so far as to address meetings ever it may be applicable to their disciplined na

of the communities. While at Geneva, in 1756, tures, has not little to do with their stationary be intended to have called on Mons. Voltaire ; position on earth. They cannot expect to increase using his relationship to Sir Isaac Newton as the their nnmbers while they adopt unattractive rules, means of breaking the ice ; but the Infidel philosoand systems that have no coonection with the pher was ill in bed, angry with his monkey and Scriptures. We have no right to go out of them wroth with his servants, and the British misfor the cut of a coat, the pronunciation of a word, sionary felt that he would be ill received. He or the marriage of a wife ; or any other transaction;

says,

in
page

317:-
and make it a rule of faith. The marriage of
Mr. and Mrs. Hutton was a happy one, in spite

“He” (Voltaire), “has bought a house and an estate of

a certain kind, and very beautiful, near Geneva and withio of their strauge courtship, if the congregation at its jurisdiction, and lives in great style. I saw three Fetter-lane would have allowed them to manage servants in livery, and one dressed as a gentleman, not ia their own wardrobes and such like in peace. livery: He must be rich. If death prevent not, his life Thirty-one years, however, after their marriage, at

will be history.” page 491, we find the following passage :

It has become only a miserable land-mark in The improper manner of dressing, which had been the bistory, and few men of equal ability, longing for subject of " hearty representation in the present year (1771), notoriety, have left feebler tracings on the sauds not having had the desired effect, there being sisiers who did of time than Voltaire. Hutton had an extensive not dress in the plainness and simplicity which the world correspondence, and many meetings with another expects of us,” Brother Tranaker was desired to speak in a “ tender and hearty manner with sister Hutton, among respects, to Voltaire.

person of unfortunately similar principles, in some

We allude to Dr. Franklin, others.” What effect this produced does not appear, except from the following entry, on the 4th of November, which who was probably the principal promoter of the indicates that, for some reason or other, it was jastifiable :- American revolution. It is supposed that Frank " A letter from Brother Hutton, apologising for the uncon. lin and Hutton became acquainted commercially gregation-like fashion of his wife's gown, was read.”

in 1739, when they were both engaged in printing Sister Hutton having been the first married the journals and sermons of Mr. Wbitfield, but woman in that church might have been allowed to had only formed a personal intimacy in 1757, when choose the cut of her own frock, and select her Dr. Franklin came to England as an agent for the own milliner, after her thirtieth married year, when province of Pennsylvania, which even at that early we may readily suppose that she was not the date repudiated its just debts ; for it should not be gayest of the gay.

forgotten, now one hundred years after the event, During the thirty-one years between the mar- that the Pennsylvanians were unwilling to pay any riage and the rebuke of Mrs. Hutton, her husband part of the expense of being governed. We know having long abandoned his business, liad become a that the imposition of taxes, with put the consent class leader and general manager of the Church of the people, through their representatives, was in London, and had not always or often found the assigned cause of the rebellion ; but it does not peace in the work. His friend, the Count, bad appear that these people were willing to tax them. purchased a large house and grounds in Chelsea, selves. At that time, we learn from the corresfor the brethren and sisters. Mr. and Mrs. pondence of Hutton that Franklin was not acting Hutton lived there for a considerable period, and always with bis brother commissiouers. At a long the former appears to have been the trustee of subsequent period, namely, in 1778, and after the the community's property. He was the diploma-war had commenced, Dr. Franklin, writing from tist of the body. All their negotiations with Plassy, where he lived as a representative of the the public men of the day were conducted through revolted party to the French court writing to Mr. him. The volume takes part of its general value David Hartley, says, in his postcript:from the information continually given in the cor

An old friend of mine, Mr. Hatton, a chief of the Mora respondence, otherwise somewhat heavy, respecting | vians, who is often at the Queen's Palace, and is sometimes

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spoken to by the King, was over here lately. He pretended pressed that his party would be soon defeated,”to no commission, but arged me much to propose some

a strange hope from men who conscientiously terms of peace, which I have avoided. He has written to me since his return, pressing the same thing, and expressing

sought exemption from military service. More with some confidence, his opinion that we might have every.

space is occupied with the disorderly behaviour of thing short of absolute independence, &c.

the young people at Fetter-lane, and instructions Dr. Franklin's voice, however, was not for to females, called even sisters, not to throw down peace. He was tickled by the attentions paid to the forms with their hoops as they pass the end, him at the French Court. If his friend Hutton and to walk with short straight steps—than with visited at one Royal palace, he (Franklin) visited the great rebellion. at another. Upon the 1st February, 1771, he

One hundred and ten years ago the crinoline of wrote to Hutton that peace might be made“ by the day was a hoop. It was a hypocritical article, dropping all your pretensions to govern us." He but must have been stifter and more troublesome confessed that Britain might “ retain all Canada, than the modern substitute. Another little inconNova Scotia, and the Floridas,” but recommended sistency occurred among the brethren when, in that they should throw in those countries, which, 1746, they joined as a church in the general day he said, "will, otherwise, be some time or other of thanksgiving for the complete overthrow of the demanded.” The Doctor was wrong in his antici. Pretender at the battle of Culloden on the 16th pations regarding the Canadas and Nova Scotia. of April. They might have joined in a thanks. These countries are rising faster than any portion giving for the restoration of peace : but thanksof the Union, and the time may come, and living giving for a victory by battle, and the overthrow men may see it, when they will be literally of one army, by persons who deemed war immoral stronger than the Union, because they have no

and un-Christian, was a strange forgetfulness of intestine openings for quarrels and weakness.

the means in the end. The real cause for continuing the war is set

In the same year the brethren refused admission forth by Dr. Franklin, in a letter to Mr. Hutton, to one person who wished to join them, because, dated 24th March, 1778. The letter ran thus :

said Mr. Hutton, “which cannot be wbile you are My dear old friend was in the right not to call in ques. the ministers of the brethren were not exempted

a seller of spiritous liquors.” At this period even tion the sincerity of my words, where I say, February the 12th, we can treat if any propositions are made to us, from “pressure” to the army, -except by the "They were true then, and are so still, if Britain has not activity of their friends, and thus we have a landdeclared war with France, for, in that case, we shall un. mark of progress established. A century since doubtedly think ourselves obliged to continue the war as long subjects of the realm were pressed into the army. as she does."

In 1746 the Huttons lost two of their children by George III. lived to see the French dynasty, death. From the tenor of Mr. Hutton's will, whose conduct fanned the civil war in America, dated in 1763, it is clear that he had no children driven from their throne, and forced to seek a then alive, for his property was bequeathed to kis shelter in his dominions. France, doubtless, gave wife, and, failing her, to his niece. In 1778 his independence to the United States. The retribu- wife died, --evidently from disease of the heart, tion was that revolution which loosened for ever after they had been married for more than thirtythe throne of the Bourbons. It appears that eight years, and been more happy in that connecHutton ceased to visit at the Court at the clo e tion than people in general would have any reason of the following year.

He had mentioned the to anticipate from a similar commencement. Hutname of Rodney as a fitting officer to command ton continued his engagements with the Fetterthe fleet in that emergency. Soon after he saw

Soon after he saw lane congregation, having joined the small choir of that Rodney was gazetted, and he was afraid to widowers; and he survived his wife seventeen commit again a similar indiscretion. The cause of years; but for a part of that long period he his fear was a coincidence. Hutton was not the resided with some “sisters” in the country. His patron of Rodney. The idea is somewhat curious death occurred on the 3rd of May 1795, and he of a Moravian missionary recommending a fighting had not quite completed his eightieth year. man for the command of the fleet, and the king Few men succeeded better in impressing the taking counsel with a peace-at-any-price man on public and statesmen with a conviction of his the subject.

sincerity. Equally few, commencing life in narrow The value of the volume chiefly consists, as we circumstances, neither desiring nor obtaining have said, in the casual notices of events and men wealth, professing opinions with which the multiof the last century. It is curious, for example, to tude had little sympathy, and which, whether they observe as the P.S. of one of Hutton's letters were or were not generally acceptable, could not dated 24th August, 1745. “It seems as if the promote any personal objects on earth. --ever King of Prussia bad begun war against the King attained greater influence and success in his negoof Poland.” The grand event in British history ciations for “tbe bretbren," or "the community;" of that year passes with little notice. On the consisting of brethren and sisters; for the latter 23rd of September it was known in London that exercised no small sway in the general affairs of the Pretender had been proclaimed king at Edin the body. Hutton wrote several of the hymns burgh, "and the hope of the brethren was ex used by the church in England, although not to

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