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the empire. In the preceding century they had gone on / were in the pursuit of science. It is not to be deteriorating in good sense, and most probably, therefore, expected that the results of their labours, although numbers as to imply that by the mere process of conversion peculiarly pleasing to themselves, were equally hey would ever Christianise the empire.

We profitable with those of ordinary business; but, may say, in some sense, that the Christian soldiers in Con- even in that sense, the text-book of British entostantine's armies conquered the empire (that is the imperial mology for so many years must have been producappointments) for Christianity. But Paganism subsisted, tive. The seventh edition of the work has been even in spite of Imperial allurements, until at length the published in one volume, at a remarkably cheap price, sword of Theodosius violently suppressed heathen worship. So also it was the spear of "Charleniagne which drove the or, in the words of the note at its commencement, Sasons to baptism, and decided the extirpation of Paganism“One-sixth of the price of the sixth edition.” An apfrom Teutonic Europe. There is nothing in all this to dis. pendix, containing the history of the rise and protinguish the outward history of Christianity from that of gress of the work, furnished by Mr. Spence, to Mr. Malommedism. Barbarous tribes now and then, venerating Freeman's "Life of Mr. Kirby,” is attached to this the superiority of our knowledge, adopt our religion ; so have Pagan nations in Africa voluntarily become Mussul. edition. A volume of this character requires no mans. But neither we nor they can appeal to any case, notice from the press. Its merits have been acwhere an old state-religion has yielded without warlike knowledged by the public for forty-two years; compulsion to the force of heavenly truth, —" charm we although they have accumulated with successive never so wisely."

Answer. If the Imperial armies “ which conquered the editions, for a new edition by no means implies the empire for Christianity” were to any considerable extent, repitition of all matter. The work remains and it must have been ex hypothesi to a prevailing extent- divided into different chapters beginning with the composed of Christians, Christianity had made at least direct and indirect injuries caused by insectseqnal progress in the ranks of civil life . . . Supposing Con

the direct and indirect benefits which they confer stantine a political convert, it could only be because he saw that Christianity had done its work to such an extent as to

- and their habitations-societies--food-means render it more probable that it would assist him than he of defence, and other characteristics. These subcould assist it. . . . Is it not plain that Christianity must jects are discussed in an admirable and perfect in some fashion have conquered its millions before Constan

The injuries inflicted by insects on mantine, or any other man was likely to attempt to conquer the kind have been far greater than those committed empire for Christianity, or to succeed in doing so if he had by any other living beings. The beasts of the Is there an instance on record of a people suddenly, at a moments notice, changing its religion, or rather—for this is forest bave never caused the destruction of life to the true representation-of many different nations changing mankind achieved by insects. The eastern plague their many different religions at the simple command of their has been traced to vast numbers of dead locusts, sovereign, and he too an upstart ? In two cases, and in

whose bodies have corrupted the atmosphere. It only two it may be done ; first by an unsparing use of the sword, the brief, simple alternative of Mahommed, Death or

cannot be doubted that from some cause the territhe Koran ; the other when a vew form of belief has con ble visitations of this scourge bave been less verted the bulk of a large portion of the nation ; of which, mischievous in modern than in previous times. in this case, the conversion of the army is a tolerably signi- And as mankind arc spreading over all the earthficant indication.

rooting out or subjugating the wild animals, the The answer in this case is equally bare, although insect world also will be brought in a great meaefficient so far as it extends ; but the grand reply sure under their power. Still, the following pasis, that Christianity declines the use of the sword, sage, from many, shows our weakness against the and ever stigmatises it as sinful.

smaller of our natural enemies :

An ant also makes a lodgment in the interior of the sugar canc in Guiana, and destroys it. Another species of the

latter genus does not devour it, and is, therefore, improperly Kirby and Spence's Entomology. Seventh edition. called fornica saccharivora, by Linnè; but, by making its London : Longman, Brown, Green, and Long- they become unhealthy and unproductive. These insects

nests for shelter under the roots, so injures the plants that maps.

about seventy years ago, appeared in such infinite hosts in The seventh edition of this valuable work came in the island of Granada, as to put a stop to the cultivation into our possession in the winter season, when it of this plant, and a reward of £20,000 was offered to any is scarcely possible to study entomology out of one who should discover an effectual mode of destroying doors. Circumstances have now changed, and them. Their numbers were incredible. They descended

from the hills like torrents, and the plantations, as well as most people are more or less acquainted with some

every path and road for miles, were filled with them: Many genera of insects; for they are the more numerous domestic quadrupeds perished in consequence of the plague. class of the world's inhabitants

. Messrs. Kirby Rats, mice, and reptiles of every kind, became an easy prey and Spence commenced the study of British insects to them, and even the birds, which they attacked whenever nearly sixty years ago. They continued to commu- they alighted on the ground in search of food, were so har.

rassed as to be at length unable to resist them. Streams of nicate mutually the results of their researches into water opposed only a temporary obstacle to their progress, the babits and history of insects for forty-four the foremost rushing blindly on to certain death, and fresh years. Mr. Kirby suggested the idea of an armies constantly following, till a bank was formed of the English work on Britishi entomology nearly fifty carcases of those that were drowned sufficient to dam up th years since, and they agreed to work together. Even the all-devouring element of fire was tried in vain. Few partners have been ever more steady or suc- When lighted to arrest their route, they rushed into the cessful, in the pursuit of any profession, than they blaze in such myriads of millions as to extinguish it. Those

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that thus patriotically devoted themselves to certain death for rich, and accepted the invitation of an aunt and the common good, were but as the pioneers, or advanced uncle, Mr. and Mrs. Lambert, to visit with them guard, of a countless army, which, by their self-sacrifice, was

in Edinburgh. They are represented as fashionenabled to pass unimpeded and unhurt. The entire crop of standing canes was burnt down, and the earth dug up in able, mercantile, rich- and we must say, rather every part of the plantations ; but, in vain was every unlike the well to do mercantile people of attempt of man to effect their destruction, till, in 1780, it Edinburgh—for they are careless even of the outpleased Providence to annihilate them, by the torrents of ward forms of religion, patronise the opera, and rain which accompanied a hurricane most fatal to the other

even the theatre. We are inclined to suppose West India islands.

that Edinburgh has been written by mistake for The benefits direct or indirect of insects are London. Our object in noticing the little book is beautifully described by the authors of this work. to quote the description of the manner in which Thus gnats or mosquitoes are the plague of Euro- Miss Clara Woodward spent her first morning in pears and even of natives in all tropical, and in Edinburgh, and then say something upon the remang temperate countries. If stagnant water, flections of the author thereupon : either in cisterns or other places, is not allowed A large rosewood desk, standing on a chiffonière, in one near the house, the gnats will not appear; but if corner of the room, attracted her attention; and she restagnant water be allowed to remain it is better membered her aunt had told her that there was a compartthat men should suffer from gnats, than from the

ment inside the chiffomère, where she might put away her poisonous qualities that it would develope rapidly interesting to her, if she was fond of reading. She un

books, and that it already contained a number that might be without the larvæ. The insect dyes are the finest locked this, and, after carefully disposing of the few volumes that men employ. The insect cloth is the finest she had brought from home, began to look over the others. that mankind wear. The insect food Jonathan The first selected was evidently a novel, and this she laid on the mountains of Palestine found to be the aside, as she recollected having received a caution about the most nourisbing in his hour of faintness that he harmless and inviting, and seating herself upon a comfort

evils of novel-reading. She took up another, which looked could bave used. To an insect we are indebted able sofa, began to read. for the ink with wbich we write; for the propaga- Very soon her whole attention was absorbed in the narration of many seeds, for the removal of many tive, wliich, though not above a silly romance, was full of puisances and indeed they are the great army of adventures

, and, entirely unconscious of anything else, she

read on for two whole hours, and then started to hear her scavengers employed to cleanse the earth.

aunt's voice close beside her, exclaiming, This edition of the Entomology should render " Why, Clara, you look as if you had dressed, I don't the science more popular with that very numerous know how long; yet you were so very quiet, that I expected class to whom the cost of many scientific works is

to find you in bed.” an affliction.

You know, annt, I have been used to getting up early at home; so I awoke a long time ago, and since then I have been reading this book.”

The writer of this extract must have surely Clara Woodward and Her Day Dreams. 1 vol. forgotten that we find it in a novel ; that Clara Pp. 186. London: Knight and Son.

Woodward is a little novel, and that all novels This is one of a numerous class of little works on depend for character upon their object. The religious subjects. It is a biography not com- major moral of the book is to act out religion ; pleted, for the subject thereof is left in compara- | the minor, to stop at home, lead a quiet life, and tive happiness and health. She desired to be avoid frivolous company.

OBITUARY NOTICES.

DER ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUCHESS OF brought to a successful termination until their marriage on GLOUCESTER.

the 23rd July, 1816. The Royal Duke-who vicd with his Is the dumber for last month appeared a notice of the brothers-in-law, the Dukes of York, Kent, Sussex, and Camdeath of the last link which had united the great literary bridge, in personal exertions and pecuniary assistance in characters of the last with those of the present generation ; behalf of the charities of the kingdom, and who, as each of it now happens that this month's publication contains them dropped off, at last divided that labour with the late the announcement of the decease of the last surviving child Duke of Cambridge-died in November, 1834, since which of George the Third, at the ripe age of 81 years.

time his widow has not appeared more frequently before the The Princess Mary was the fourth daaghter and eleventh public than state necessity required, but spent the greater child of King George and Queen Charlotte, and was born part of her time at her residence, Piccadilly, and her seat at on the 11th April, 1776, a few months after her cousin, and Bagshol, in the neighbourhood both of which places her ultimately her husband, the Duke of Gloucester, whose charity was munificent and unostentations. Her fondness birthday was the 15th January in the same year. When for children was remarkable, and being from age compelled children they were thrown much into the society of each to observe early hours, her greatest enjoyment for many other, the result of which was an affectionately mutual seasons past was to collect around her the juvenile branches attachment, which, however, for state reasons, was not of the nobility at Gloucester House,

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TAITS

EDINBURGH MAGAZINE.

JULY, 1857.

WHAT WE DRINK AND EAT.

WHEN farmers visit the markets to buy guano, I of all the wines commonly sold in Britain or Irethey ask a certificate of its quality, because noland--or, literally, at the cellar—and have left a thing is more common than mixtures of substances changling for an old port or a dry sherry. "Abstiunder the name, but without the virtues, of the nuit .. vino, quoth Horace-and a difficulty existed great Peruvian manure. Small fortunes have been in his day and villa in abstaining; but no such diffimade by successful imitations of guapo. The culty exists here, and now. The great wine quesartist who first produced the appearance of dia. 1 tion has a stave knocked out of its barrel by the monds in paste, probably gained less money by the great wine merchants. The juice of logwoodforgery than the man who first made common an astringent, we suppose; and of junipers--naingredients take the colour, form, and smell of tive fruit of first quality; the berries of rowan guano, obtained out of his imposition. All other trees-boiled to protect consumers from witchcraft; substances have the fate of this common fructifier. and many similar infusions, are used in the producAny article under the misfortune of having some- tion of “good wine." The mysteries of the trade thing very like it of less value than itself, is certain are a multitude, and the uninitiated cannot solve of being mixed up with its inferior. The aristocracy them: but the great wine question is mythical. of goods is ao longer safe and recognised. This No real question could ever have existed in this epidemic for mixing extends to all liquids—from country on the subject; for we have pure wine in brandy down to milk. Amongst the tippling com- very limited quantities—if we have any : and the munity, a foolish question is asked often—"What effort to impede the temperance reformers with a will you drink?" Who could answer it ? Any pretended juice of the grape, was only one of those person might say what he wished to drink, but clever devices that occur sometimes to disputants. what he will drink, or get to drink, is quite a dif- Even our native drinks are not sold in a genuine ferent matter. Many hospitable hosts, proud of and pure state. Some of them invite dilution by their cellars, ask their friends to drink wine with their original strength. They require to be diluted them at dinner, who have not a drop of wine to for use by the hardest stomachs.

In these cases, offer them, and who never had a bottle of wine details may vary. One dealer may consider conunder their rooftree. This bottle is cobwebbed, scientiously that the Excise permits rather strong dusty, and has been in the cellar for twenty years. applications to his customers, and may adroitly It was one of a lot bought at 42s. per dozen, and, mend the character of the dose. A retailer, with with compound interest, bas now cost 100s.; but these benevolent intentions, deserves to be paid for that makes no difference to the wine. A lie can- entertaining them. The public cannot bave good not be made truth by being bottled up out of sight things for nothing, and even the philanthropical for twenty years, and wine has no prescriptive behind a bar expect to be rewarded. right unattached to anything besides.

We remember a very good story on the point. The wine question has annoyed the members of A taverner of the United States was discussing the the temperance societies ever since we remember demerits of the Maine liquor law, which some

hem. They have produced many reasons, and excellent persons struggled to introduce into his some of them unsatisfactory, against the common, State. He opposed it, as a measure calculated to daily ase of wine, but they have overlooked the obstruct the great social reform on which he had great fact that the fairies have been at the cradle bent his heart. He had for some time—so he

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said-mixed his spirits very carefully, always in- people employ. There is a difference, of course, creasing the dose puræ aquæ by small quantities, the sort of difference existing between butter and but putting a drop more to the gallon in one milk, or flour and grain, and all such other simimonth than last, and he expected gradually to larities in nature, but not in shape. Foote's win over the community to perfect sobriety, until sugar comes also into play. Who is Foote? the zealots arose, and put out of order all his little Where does he dwell? What is he? Certainly schemes.

he is neither a planter nor a refiner, nor in any way This was a licensed victualler of the philanthro- concerned in the manufacture of what our children pic sect, endowed with acquisitiveness large, and know as sugar. Foote's sugar is unknown in benevolence lumpish. Therefore he used water with Mincing-lane, so far as we hear—is never quoted zeal himself, combined with discretion, and needed now—and we don't believe that any grocer ever no other dealers in the limpid liquid for his district, acknowledges to the possession of a single bag parish, townland, or whatever else was the name of it. It is the sediment of sugar shipped in a of the region over the sherry-cobblers of which peculiar state, very brown indeed—but by no means presided this squire.

the worst ingredient of bad beer. The fact is, When Dr. Normandy was under examination that Foote is no man at all

, but a descriptive before the committee of the House of Commons on adjective. Next there is liquor ammonia, and the cooking of gin, exactly two years ago on the sulphuric acid, of course. It-the acid-is in 20th of the present month—and we beg forgive- everything people drink by "goes" or out of pewter ness because we have mentioned such a low com- pots. pound of diabolisms as gin-Dr. Normandy said One lady wants essence of jargonelle—a very diabolical ; none of our readers ever tasted gin, and agreeable perfume, very genteel, too, under that we never did-never ; but when that gentleman, name; but it is hydrated oxyde of amyle, or fusel oil, on the aforesaid day, was being examined

on gin

, he in reality, and has nothing more to do with jargosaid that many of the customers in London "come nelle pears than the vine with two-thirds of the to the bar, drink a glass of gin, and go”—and we wine, which unfortunate people, biting their lips have been at the trouble to write this conglomera- as they know what's being done to them, are comtion of a sentence merely to trace, for the benefit pelled to swallow. of future “Notes and Queries" the origin of the They retreat to the drawing-room, and should slang phrase "a go of gin;" for it began clearly be safe with the cup that cheers but not inebriates, with Dr. Normandy, on the 20th of July, 1855, and among ladies-but this is a blunder, an utter when he also stated that an intoxicating power mistake. This tea is all a myth again. It may had to be mixed with the water put into spirits be sloe leaves, but not very likely. It may be with the view of keeping up their strength. For old leaves from the early breakfast coffee-houses, this purpose grains of paradise and the botanist, re-dried and re-produced. It may be some kind if alive still, who gave them that name should be of leaves from China, which nobody knows any. pilloried-along with cocculus indicus, which we thing of, except that they are cheaper and more trust is not another name for them, are used. So common than genuine tea. It may be lye tea, one also is oil of vitriol--and that we know to be a half of which consists of an earthy matter ground tough affair for any stomach—and oil of almonds, together by the villains under the command of more commonly known as prussic acid—and many Yeh ; and it goes all to powder when exposed to other poisons are employed to flavour water. We hot water. We have seen quantities of that were repeatedly tempted long since almost to buy black powder at the bottom of teacups lately, and a "go" of pine apple rum, but thanks to Dr. the grocer said it was all owing to the peculiar Normandy, notwithstanding its pretty name, we fineness of the tea, whereas it all originated in a have no trouble with a ticklish conscience on the lie--that is to say, it was lye tea—black earth, subject now; for this pine apple hypocrisy is made burned bricks, diamond dust, emery filings, freefrom rotten cheese, sulphuric acid—again the stone, granite, old red sandstone, an oolite in vitriol—and bichromate of potash--an extract of powder, or a piece of trap-trap--unquestionably the alge, the sea tangles, and weeds. Having a trap, at four and eightpence per lb. And the strong dread of vitriol under any of its names we Government charged one shilling and sixpence, look upon pine apple rum as we should do upon with five per cent duty! And the grocers-the a cobra capella, or a scorpion, or a rattle snake or wholesale, -- but we cannot be trusted with their a "go" of Styx.

fate. It would be unjust to them or the China The brewers were acquitted of fraud in their men to commit them to the outraged prejudices trade by Dr. Normandy, but the licensed victuallers of a tea drinker, who has been taking oolites ever were heavily taken down on malt liquor. Thus so long into his stomach for orange Pekoe, and quassia often occupies the place of hops, being a trap-trap-rocks instead of Twankay. cheap bitter. Strychnine was said to be used, but The evidence given to the House of Commons of course that was false, and would have been too two years since, is that Prussian blue, turmeric, bad. That cocculus indicus again is necessary for and sulphate of lime are the ingredients of what the trade, and is direct poison ; and it is only nux we are pleased to consider "green tea." These vomica, you know, and not strychnine, that some items, perhaps, are not so bad as others found in

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