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Jane Hardy. By T. S. ARTHUR. Loudon : sell wretched, when I should have thought of your comfort, Kight and Sons.

and striven, in fulfilment of my marriage vows, to make you

happy.” This is an American tale, of common materials,

“Dear Jane! say no more. Your words pierce me like we suppose, in this hard, common-place world; arrows !” Mr. Hardy laid a finger upon her lips. “Oh, if alıbough the results may be a little out of the the scales had sooner fallen from mine eyes !" ordinary run. It is the story of a married life, “If I had helped you to remove them,” said Mrs. Hardy,

But I between a man of business, who thought himself almost mournfully, both would have suffered less. very clever, and had a strong opinion of himself derest of fathers. I did not comprehend your wants and

was young and weak from years of indulgence by the tenand his house—an American Dombey, and a clever wishes, and you did not understand me. I never meant to and rather fiery woman. A contest, of course, act in opposition, and never did, wilfully and perversely. I arose for precedence in small matters, which a never intended to give you pain. But I could not hide all husband, who wants to live quietly, should signs of anguish, when your words were accusations. Nor

could I always look smiling and cheerful when my heart was always avoid. But John Hardy tolerated no rival

aching. I say this pow only that you may do me justice in wear his throne, and Jane Hardy became insane.

your thoughts ; for I would not have you think of me, after She was cured by the attention of their daughter. I am gone, as one who designedly, and for the purpose of A tale of this nature does not allow extracts; but, gratifying an evil parpose, made the home cheerless which wben after some years of a better life, Jane she had promised to fill with sunlight. God gave me power

afterwards to rise above the weakness of my nature; and I Hardy was near to death, she propounds a curious

was able to be to you, my husband, all that I desired to be theory, which may be quoted :

from the beginning. *

But the past is past,

and I would turn to it only for justice, not in order to "We shall speedily meet again," said the husband, as he

wound. Forgive me for what I have now said, if it has sat alone with her, holding her small shadowy hand in his, just as the twilight began to draw its dusky curtains around given you any pain. I cannot, in parting with you, perhaps them. His voice trembled; for he had spoken in answer to

for ever, leave on your mind the impression that I ever

meant to be anything but a true wife." ber remark that, in a very little while, she must pass

“For ever, Jane! For ever! Oh, do not say that word! away. "I know not how that may be,” she said, very quietly, Let me hear your lips recall i: !" And Mr. Hardy bent over

her with a countenance full of anguish. and fixing her large, glittering eyes upon his face." In the

“ In this world, where hearts are hidden things, and world to which I am going, the laws of association are not as the laws of this world, John."

woman must believe where she cannot see-must take loving

words and acts in full confidence that they are true words "Oh, Jane! what am I to understand by this P” There

and acts-it too often happens, that her lot is one of wretchwas griei' in the tones of his voice.

"Only,” she replied, “ that, in the life to come, spiritual edness. The fair exterior of manhood, so attractive in her qualities conjoin. They will be near each other who are

eyes, often proves to be a false exterior. She finds nothing

in his affection or his principles with which she can truly alike, and those distant from each other who are unlike, in their life and their affections. The attraction or repulsion harmonise; and, though she may live with him dutifully, will be mutual. But God alone knows our internal states,

and even in some appearance of love, yet is there no by which the future is determined. If it is well with us as

true union of the heart-no marriage in the higher sense.”

" With such death is an eternal disjunction. How to these we need have no concern."

could it be otherwise in a world where similitude conjoins, Mr. Hardy felt the words of his wife like sharp thrusts of glittering steel. How calmly she spoke ! What a placid

and dissimilitude separates ? And this law of attraction and

repulsion, my husband,” continued Mrs. Hardy, speaking very -almost angelic-expression was in her countenance as she talked of the laws of conjunction and dissociation in the earnestly,“ is a merciful law. If there is an error here, it

will not be perpetuated when we pass up higher. Of one fature life-laws which, if they really prevailed, would hold them apart for ever! “I know not how that may be. In thing we may be certain; the quality of our spiritual life in the world to which I am going, the laws of association are

this world, will determine our associations in the life beyond ;

and in heaven we shall desire none other." not as the laws of this world.” Such was her calm, even.

Mr. Hardy had bowed his head while she was speaking. toned answer to his almost tearfully uttered assurance of a meeting after death. It was thus she removed from under It was some moments before he looked up. When he did his feet the frail support on which they rested as the waters

so, his face was paler, his eyes were heavy, and his counte

nance wore a drooping aspect. What sharp arrows of conof sorrow began to roar around him. He covered his face with his hands, and sat silent for many minutes.

viction were in the words which had been spoken by his

wife! Steadily he gazed into her face, wonderingly and “Can you not forgive me the past ? Oh, Jane! If, through blind error, I wronged you once, have I not sought sorrowfully, while every moment the conviction grew stronger

that their separation was likely to be an eternal one;-that in all possible ways to make atonement pri Mr. Hardy looked

her pure spirit would ascend higher than he ever could, up and spoke with a sudden energy.

and claim companionship with spirits of more godlike A shadow dimmed the face of his wife, and tears sprung to her eyes.

“We have both need of forgiveness John," she replied ; “ I, perhaps, most of all. We cannot conceal from ourselves, know that the bad will be separated from others

This idea may be more poetical than real. We if we would, that the current of our lives did not run smoothly at the beginning, nor for a long time afterwards. of a different character, and that is all we do The cords that bound us together were not silken and light know. It gives us no reason to expect a division as gossamer to bear, but heavy and galling as links of iron of the latter into parties formed of similitudes, I blame myself in many things. I was not a true, self

but as it is a favourite idea with American writers forgetting, loving wife to you, John. I did not make your home a happy one. I struggled, and fretted, and made my

we have copied the passage.

nature.

OBITUARY NOTICES.

THE LADY MARY SINGLETON

In 1808 his lordship married the Lady Eleanor, the Dred at her house, Curzon-street, Mayfair, London, on the youngest daughter of the seventeenth Earl of Ormonde 26th May, in the 88th year of her age.

They had four children, three sons and one daughter. Two It has fallen to our lot in each of the last two months, to of these only survived, namely, the third son and the record the decease of some important link between the daughter. The former of these, the Hon. George Ponsonby, present and the past generation ; this also is not to succeeds to the titles and estates. form an exception to its predecessor. The above lady was the sole representative of one of the most honoured names in history, and of whom history is now the

ADMIRAL BOWEN, sole memorial, brought as it is before ourselves by statues Died at Southampton on the 17th June, in his 30th year erected to him, by a grateful people, to whose exertions they of his age. are so much indebted for a peaceful possession of the richest

This distinguished officer entered the navy at an early age, empire of the globe.

and before he was fourteen, had assisted at the desperate The Lady Mary Singleton was the only daughter of the encounter between the Phænis and the Resolute, when the great Marquis Cornwallis, who was raised to That dignity latter was captured, though carrying ten more guns thas for his government of India. Her ladyship and her brother her opponent. At seventeen he had obtained his commiswere his sole children. The son died in 1823, having sur.sion as lieutenant, and in 1801, received a gold medal for vived his father eighteen years. By his death, the higher his gallantry when in command of his ship's launch, the title became extinct; the other honours then descended to Flora, at the landing of the expedition in Egypi. In 1802, his father's brother, at whose decease they also lapsed. The he was made commander, and in that capacity, did much name of Cornwallis is now lost, and the only descendants service on the coasts of France and Holland. Whea in remaining are the nieces of this lady, the daughters of the command of the Orestes, armed with fourteen guns, among second Marquis.

other exploits, he captured two armed schuyts, and engaged Her ladyship, at the early age of sixteen, married Mark a praam of eighteen guns, bearing the flag of a rear-admiral

, Singleton, Esq., whom she survived many years.

in the presence of a flotilla consisting of thirty sail. In

1805, his ship unfortunately grounded off Gravelines, and SIR WILLIAM LEWIS HERRIES.

he was compelled to destroy her, to prevent her falling This gallant officer died on the 3rd alt., at his house, in

into possession of the enemy. His services were, however, Bolton-street, Piccadilly, London.

so fally appreciated, that he was presented with his comHe was the second son of the late Colonel Herries, so

mission as captain at the commencement of the following and disciplining the Volunteers in the early part of the coasts

, where he seriously damaged the enemy, both by well known, years since , by his activity and zeal in raising year. From that time, to the conclusion of the war, his

career was most active, both off the French and the American French Revolutionary war; and for which he was deservedly sea and land. After being thirty-eight years afloat, he redistinguished upon many occasions, by his late Majesty, tired from active

life, and was rewarded with a good service George the Third. Animated by the example of his father, Sir W. L. Herries joined the regular army in 1801, and pension of £300 per annum ; passing successively through from that period was engaged in active services, among the

the intermediate steps he attained the rank of Admiral of more prominent of which were the expeditions to Buenos the Blue. Ayres and Walcheren, and the Siege of Flushing. During the Spanish campaign he was present, among other affairs,

DOUGLAS JERROLD. at the Battle of Vittoria

, the Passage of the Bidassoa, the During the last month English literature and politics, Siege of San Sebastian, and at the sortie from Bayonne. At the last

, his active service was brought to a close by the have experienced a severe loss in the death of Douglas loss of a leg, in his daring attempt to rescue Sir John Hope. Jerrold, to whom two of our contributors refer in this No. The horse of that commander being wounded fell with his

and therefore we have deferred any other notice of his rider, when Sir William Lewis and the present Major

numerous writings. General Moore, rushed through a tremendously heavy fire to “save him, but before that could be accomplished, both were

GEORGE BRIMLEY, ESQ., M.A. wounded, and all three made prisoners. He was subsequently employed as Quartermaster. General in the Ionian

At Cambridge, on the 22th of May, in his 37th year, Islands, as Comptroller of Army Accounts, and as a Com. George Brimley, Esq., Librarian of Trinity College. missioner of the Board of Audit, and retired only in 1854.

Thus early has terminated the life of one of the most In addition to his military rank he was C.B., K.C.H., and promising scholars of the day. A native of the town of Colonel of the 68th Foot.

Cambridge, in which his father holds a high position, he was, perhaps, but comparatively little knowu by name be

yond his own immediate circle, and the university, to which THE EARL OF LISMORE.

he bade fair to become a very bright ornament. But to Died at his seat, Shanbally Castle, Clogheen, Tipperary, in many of the metropolitan literary men he was well known the 81st year of his age, Cornelius O'Callaghan, Baron, and and admired, not only for his scholarship, and the great Viscount Lismore in the peerage of Ireland, and Baron of extent of his acquirements, but also for his critical acamen, the United Kingdom ; the last dating from 1838.

and pure and finished style of composition, which was reThe deceased peer was the representative of one of the markable for its perspicuity, and compactness, though most ancient families in Ireland, being lineally descended wholly free from obscurity. from the old princes of Munster. In the latter part of the His only avowed publication, is an essay upon Tennyson, sixteenth century his family was located in the Castle of in the first volume of the Cambridge Essays, but it is to be Drumonier, with a very large landed property.

hoped for the sake of literature, that his similar works opos Until the infirmity of age prevented him, few peers were several of our great authors, and his papers upon other submore regular attendants upon the duties of parliament, injects will be collected and published, and they will make so which he was conspicuous for his liberal and beneficent small addition to the standard authorities in the various views.

branches of philosophy, science, and poetry.

TAIT'S

EDINBURGH

MAGAZINE.

AUGUST, 1857.

LUNACY AND PAUPERISM IN SCOTLAND.

Our Scottish poor law has never been just and from a dying man's couch. King James was not right. Once, the support of the poor was a duty the only Scottish gentleman who could say of one of the church, and the ecclesiastical almoners or more of his ancestors, that he had been a " sair were rich. At that time the pauper population saunt” for the Crown ; substituting the baronetcy were probably numerous; and yet the law afforded or the coronet, or the lairdship, for the crown. no systematic help to them. They wandered from The transfer of property by dying men proceeded abbey to farm, and from the manor-house to the until the absolution of a few great personages village; sometimes prosperous when news abounderl, had cost one-third of Scotland, so that, in one and often in want when the borders were at sense, their sins had been evidently numerous and peace, and a strong-willed monarch crushed intes- weighty, while to themselves the burden was tine feuds. They were the newsmen of a distant cheaply cut off; as the payment for deliverance time, and also transacted, in some measure, the was made in coin that was not current in the land business of modern perambulating libraries, when whereto their spirits' flight was bent.

“Thy few could read, and books to be read were equally money perish with thee," was not a text recogfew.

nised in these circumstances, forasmuch as many The professional vagrant of these almost for- persons left the world in the calm conviction that gotten days must have been a sufferer as the they had bought the gift of God, not by all, but professional merchant extended and multiplied his by a considerable portion of their capital in bullion rounds. The latter class bad more independence

or in land. necessarily, and more respectability. They had The proceeding was only one of those ways by two strings to their bow, and conveyed intelligence which a previous evil was corrected. Nobody is only as a means of selling goods.

left to doubt that the clan and family lands in Scot. In these times, also, underlying the floating land belonged originally to the clans or to the mass of pauperism, a numerous and a comparatively families, and were held upon the elective principle, localised and stationary body of lame, and blind, or that of primogeniture, by the head of the clan and weak, and “orplaned” persons had claimed or of the family, who was enabled gradually to the charity of their neighbours. For them the turn his co-proprietors into tenants, often into Church was only trustee, but the trustee appro- serfs, always into vassals. The policy and the priated gradually, and doled out in charity, the power of the church wrested one-third of these property invested by the charitable for these lands from the barons, and those portions of the wretched classes. “Remember the poor, my country were better cultivated than the estates son," was whispered effectually into the ear of still in the possession of private persons. We can many dying barons, who had been bad, bold men, also suppose that, although many abbots sipped and now were not unwilling to buy an eter- their claret ia a very luxurious way, yet the poor nal lease of Heaven, by a slice of the were really fed by the crumbs which fell from their earth, which they could no louger retain. The tables, and often by even more substantial dishes, poor were reinembered, and the ecclesiastical body and that, in other cases, the trusteeship for the deemed themselves capable to accept, in formá poor was discharged in a still more becoming, bepauperis, and to retain, for their own behool, the cause a more honest, manner. splendid wails that desperate heirs saw dropping The progress of the reformation principles, and

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their decisive character, justify the supposition rate-payers consider usually that only one mode of that they were not new but hidden springs of | rating should exist over the entire kingdom, and action. The Caldees had been destroyed, but they decline the boon. Of course, only one mode their principles had never been obliterated from the can be adopted in one parish for one year; but it north of Ireland, the islands, and Scotland. Their may be changed at any future meeting of the spirit quietly defied the Pope in great exigencies, rate-payers. telling him that he never had, and possessed not The old acts of Parliament which provide for then, any temporal power within the realm of the maintenance of the poor, having been drawn Scotland. That spirit was infused into Sir with the ordinary ambiguity and verbosity, did David Lindesay's poetry, and can be traced in not clearly define poverty. The country had, the productions of a still higher author. Thus, therefore, in the matter of pauperism, to be placed when half ruined barons were invited to join the under judge-made law. The judges, with their Reformation, they saw in it a popular and a profit accustomed esteem for precedents, hold that the able movement, and committed themselves to its Parliament meant to say a certain thing, because demands in their fullest sense.

diverse judges, long since removed in the ordinary The Reformed Church was served heir to the course of nature from seats which, according to that privilege of supporting the poor without the pro- course, if nature had been left to itself, they would perty of its predecessor ; although the energy of have never occupied, decided that such was the the Reformation was equal to the work, not more meaning of Parliament. Acts of Parliament are by finding the means necessary for the poor than of immaterial value even to the legislators them. by checking pauperism at its source.

For a long

selves, until some of the judges have decided what period an equivalent to a Maine Liquor Law pre- these statesmen meant by their words. An Act vailed in Scotland, for which successive genera- that has received the assent of Queen, Peers, and tions have taken ample, and to themselves, de- Commons, next requires a decision to form a prestructive revenge. The country, according to cedent tacked to its parchment, and thereafter Defoe, was wrapped in a moral and religious influ- it can live and work. During the present session ence, which made the payments for the poor an of Parliament, some members of the House of easy matter, by leaving them few in number; and Commons have been sadly puzzled to tell, not what rendering their friends and neighbours willing to they meant by bribery and corruption, for many assist them.

of their bankers could have told them that one Time passed, and the fervour of the Reformation member meant one thousand; another, five thouwas lost in the last century; although through the sand; and a third, ten thousand pounds; but what greater part of its years the people almost univer- they said in an Act, that they meant. sally attended the established churches, and their It is the same with other acts and bills; they collections, often small, were yet sufficient for the are unintelligible to their authors until the judges absolute wants of the pauper population, or they interpret them.

interpret them. That was the state of the Scotch were supplemented by the parochial badges--the poor-law, but at last it settled down into a matured certificates in metal or tin--that the holder was constitution with curious crotchets of its own, allowed to seek alms ; and they were not often holding, in the face of the English and Irish poor. sought in vain.

law, that a few years residence in a parish, consti. Towards the close of the last century the tuted a settlement; that each parish should supnumber of dissenters from the established church port its own poor, and that able-bodied persons, increased, and now they are the majority of the who, however willing to labour, could not obtain population. The old schemes of supporting the wages, because they could not obtain work, poor have been fouud insufficient under these cir- were not entitled to relief, either for themselves cumstances, and a regular assessment has been or for their children. We describe, of course, levied in some parishes for very many years ; and the law of a Christian land. We write of in a larger number for a shorter period. A poor statutes passed and upheld by men who believe, rate exists, and has long existed, in all boroughs; who do not profess to believe only, but who absobut in many rural parishes the heritors have lutely believe, in Him who said, “Forasmuch as ye struggled against its enforcement with the anxiety did it not to one of the least of these, se did it of men in earnest; and the public are indebted not to me." for many clearances to their determination against They state undoubtedly that persons in that meeting the common fate.

situation are the objects of casual charity, and The rates may be levied upon income or upon that it should be given both as a duty and rental. The former rating has been advocated as a privilege. Some of them even propose a strenuously by the owners of house property, and moral and religious agency, that even in a crowded opposed as tenaciously by those who do not enjoy population might be expected to leave few uncared

the for and unknown; yet, at present, and without more numerous class, have been generally success- that means, a fearful injustice is done. We have ful in enforcing their views, because at the poll heard ere now that men should save a little fortune always “favours the larger battalions." money when they have employment, and be able The law offers an alternative, but a majority of the to meet occasional idleness; but first, before

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money can be economised, it must be obtained, and be at once brought into harmony with sound we have never been able to understand how any policy and sense. They should, but, they will not thing can be "saved,” out of the wages on which be “at once” reformed in that manner; for we many families survive, and do little more than luxuriate in an abuse, if it be only venerable by survive. Smaller wages are doubtless paid in years; and the present law has had advocates of Germany, Belgium, and other European countries; the highest intellectual and moral class. but no benefit could flow from the reduction of The small payments made to support the poor our mode of life to the lowest possible standard. in some parishes were deservedly stigmatised in The emigration of the last ten years has prevented the House of Commons as disgraceful. One a large portion of the misery that often previously member defended them by assuring his audience resulted from want of employment; but although that money went far in the parishes where the wages have been well supported, so also have been payments were slight. Charity goes farther, and the price of bread and the price of all other neces. the secret of living on the scanty help from the saries of existence; and the balance in favour of parish is that nobody lives thereupon. The dry labour has not been large.

official crust is supplemented from other quarters, This interpretation of the law is its own and the support of the poor is not taken from the Nemesis. Little children, who never had any rich but thrown upon the willing. money to save, suffer from its provisions, unless The condition of one portion of the Scottish private benevolence intervenes, and the best way poor has been examined recently by a Government of putting able-bodied persons out of that cate- Commission. An American lady had discovered gory is to starve them. The system of rating that the treatment of lunatic paupers was most upon a single parish instead of a union is, when objectionable, and by personal application she pertaken in connexion with the short settlements, a suaded the members of the Cabinet to appoint the premium to the bothy system in rural districts, Commission. They reported cruelties and negliand the clearances that disgrace them. The gence which were not expected to exist in private authorities of a rural parish provide against the asylums; and we regret that the evidence collected existence of cottages and cottiers to save them by them supports their opinion. The people of selves from poor rates. They cannot accomplish Scotland have not entirely neglected this class of that provision without the aid of the bothy system, sufferers. The chartered asylums were built by an “institution" of the most objectionable cha- voluntary payments, and they have cost more than aacter, common to nearly all large farms in Scot- £320,000. The general state of the institutions land. The bothies are training schools of vice, is good ; but they are inadequate for the accomwhere young farm labourers dwell together modation of all lunatics. A profession has arisen without any assistance in their cooking or other in Scotland to meet the emergency. A person who domestic duties. This arrangement is considered had been unsuccessful in many departments became the right arm of high farming; and, if it be so, a taverner in his old age—and bestowed upon his we have not any objection to see the right arm house the name of “ The Last Shift." In the amputated, and high farming creeping crippled spirit of that man, a number of persons in one through the land with a stump. Neither high southern county have established lunatic asylums nor low farming has half so much to do with the con the same principle as other persons have beestablishment of bothies, in the place of cottages, come potato and provision dealers; or on a worse as the dread of poor-rates. The landowners of principle

, for many of us know a good potato, but Scotland have been educated into a nervous hatred there are not many persons capable of managing of pauperism as if it were the plague; and so it lunatics. These individuals in the Musselburgh is, necessarily

, a social disease. Therefore, they trade take a house which it is hardly necessary to push labourer's families into towns, and rejoice furnish, and circularise the parochial boards for like free men when they find that they have been inmates. They require only a license from the for five years located in one town parish. The sheriff as their qualification. A good natured rate in Scotch towns is rendered thus often sheriff cannot refuse permission to one of his subburthensome, while it does not exist in the country jects to earn an honest livelihood. A license is parish around these refuges of the poor. The bestowed. Then boarders are wanted. Compeselfishness of this iniquity is transparent, but we

tition ensues. A low price is named for the supcannot overreach the greed of these men with the port of the pauper. The parochial boards are depresent law. Let us have a general poor-rate for lighted at the economy of the proposals ; which the kingdom, or for eight or ten large unions of is taken out of the unfortunate lunatics by these parishes, and the temptation to bothies and clear. Squeers' for the insane. ances will disappear.

No other class are more helpless than those who The poor-laws, it will now be observed, affect are deprived of reason. The malady that afflicts many more persons than those whom they were them is most mysterious. Who can “minister to intended to reach. They act upon the peasantry a mind diseased ?" Certainly not three-fourths of like the pest ; they have become an apology and those who undertake that office. They never an instrument of a cruel but ingenious expulsion contemplate gentle kindnesses to those who sit in of the population from the land, and they should' the darkness of human reason, but offer to support

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