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THOMAS GRAY, THE RAILWAY

BORE.”

457

The notices of railway projectors would have edition. In 1822, Mr. Gray added to the book a diagram been incomplete without some sketch of Thomas shewing a number of suggested lines of railway, connecting Gray. He wrought and wrote for many years in connecting the principal towns of Ireland. In his first edi

the principal towns of England, and another, in like manner, favour of iron railways with great perseverance tion, Mr. Gray suggested the propriety of making a railway and vigour. He never gained pecuniary advantage between Manchester and Liverpool, " which,” he observed, from his labours. It is probable that to him they “would employ many thousands of the distressed population" were the cause of heavy expenditure and losses. of Lancashire. He was not a practical but a speculative man; bringing the subject of railway extension more prominently

The publication of this essay must have had the effect of yet it is clear that he foresaw the progress of rail- under the notice of the public than it had been brought be. ways. "His friends considered him the inventor fore. Although little able to afford it, Gray also pressed his of the system; but it has no single inventor. It favourite project of a general iron road on the attention of is the result of the thoughts of many men; and public men-mayors, members of parliament, and prime we do not know that Thomas Gray, of Notting and to the Lord Mayor and Corporation of London in 1821.

ministers. He sent memorials to Lord Sidmouth in 1820, ham, invented any part of the mechanism now In 1822 he addressed the Earl of Liverpool, Sir Robert Peel, forming, in a practical meaning of the phrase, and others, urging the great national importance of his sys. " our travelling system.” As he certainly com- tem. He was so pertinacious that public men pronounced pelled public men to consider the new and strange

him to be a "bore," and in the town of Nottingham, where

he then lived, those who knew him declared him to be scheme, and laboured incessantly in its behalf, and

“ cracked." as bis merits in that respect bave bad small justice rendered to them, we copy Mr. Smiles's account of

Mr. Stephenson remained at Killingworth, for the man, whom, according to William Howitt, the several years, before he had an opportunity of good people of Nottingham considered a railway working out his schemes farther than was consisbore :

tent with the business of that establishment. Sub

sequently, however, be was employed as principal Thomas Gray, of Nottingham, was a much more sanguine engineer of the railway from Hetton colliery to and speculative man. He was not a mechanic of an inventor, the Wear, near Sunderland. The length of this bat an enthusiastic believer in the wonderful powers of the railroad system. Being a native of Leeds, he had, when a

line was eight miles. The country was ronghboy, seen Blenkinsop's locomotive at work on the Middleton the gradients were steep, and, in some places, Mr. cogged railroad, and from an early period he seems to have Stephenson employed stationary engines. The entertained almost as sanguine views on the subject as Sir line was opened towards the close of 1822. Richard Phillips himself. It would appear that Gray was residing at Brussels in 1816, when the project of a canal

During the progress of the Hetton railway, Mr. from Charleroi, for the purpose of connecting Holland with Stephenson was introduced by Mr. Lambeth and the mining districts of Belgium, was the subject of discussion, Mr. Wood, of the Killingworth Colliery, to Mr. and, in conversation with Mr. John Cockerill and others, he Pease, with the hope of his employment as engineer took the opportunity of advocating the superior advantages to the Stockton and Darlington line. The appliof a railway. For some years after, he pondered the subject cation was successful, and, after a survey of the more carefully, and at length became fully possessed by the grand idea on which other minds were now at work. He country, Mr. Stephenson proposed deviations in the occupied himself for some time with the preparation of a route that rendered a new Act necessary. It was pamphlet on the subject. He shut himself up in his room, asked and obtained. Mr. Stephenson's appointment secluded from his wife and relations, declining to give them to this position required the resignation of his place any information on the subject of his mysterious studies, at Killingworth, for the salary was £300 per annum, beyond the assurance that his scheme “ would revolutionise and the directors of the proposed line needed all the whole face of the material world and of society.”

In 1820, Mr. Gray pablished the resalt of his studies in his time. While engaged in planning their line, his “ Observations on a General Iron Railway,” in which, he determined to abandon cast iron rails, and to with great cogency, he urged the superiority of a locomotive recommend the use of malleable iron. railway over common roads and canals

, pointing out, at the then interested, along with Mr. Losh, in his patent same time, the advantages of this mode of conveyance for merchandise and persons, to all classes of the community. rails; and would have gained £500 by their use ; That Mr. Grey had obtained his idea from Blenkinsop's en. but he preferred the success of his plans to any gine and road is obvious from the accurate engraving which immediate profit; and even as a commercial transhe gires in his book of the cog-wheeled engine then travelling action, he found“ honesty to be the best policy.” upon the Middleton cogged railroad. Mr. Gray, in his During the formation of this line, the breadth beintroduction, refers to railroads already in existence, and others in the course of preparation ; and, alluding to the tween the rails was settled, and the Stockton and recent great improvements in the locomotive engine, he adds, Darlington Company dictated the narrow gauge “ The necessity of employing horses on the railway may be which has been adopted upon nearly all the British superseried, for the public benefit would soon, be so evident railways ; although we do not think its recommento any common observer, as to admit of no comparison be. dations equal to those of the wide gauge. tween horse and inechanical power; besides, the incitement given to all our artisans by the success of their ingenuity

When the works on this line were drawing towould still prompt the further progress in this useful art: wards completion, their engineer stated the conthe prejudice of many persons will, however, oppose the viction to some of his friends that "the time is system, therefore time must be allowed, with gradual use of coming when it will be cheaper for a working man the machines, to convince the public of their superiority, in to travel on a railway than to walk on foot,” the same manner as of steam-packets."

The treatise seems to have met with a ready sale, for we althouglı he feared he might not live to see that nd that, two years after, it had already passed into a fourth day. He was permitted to see it, and to mix in

He was

458

THE STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY.

the great railway undertakings after they had the warrior leader on the evening of a day dark absorbed more capital than any other industrial to many, light to him, when his genius has contriprocess in the country, with the exception of rural buted to gain a great victory-could not feel operations. Before the line was opened, Robert more triumphantly than the chief of our modern Stephenson, by the advice and with the consent of engineers, when his train came safely into Stockton, his father, had accepted an appointment as engineer and he deemed the struggle of many years was to a mining company in South America. He pro over and won. It was only beginning, The ceeded to the mining company's property in the ignorance of the scientific, and the prejudices of republic of Columbia – which has, since that date, statesmen, had yet to be combated. Years, many been divided into the three republics of Bolivia, years, were still to wear away before the success New Granada, and Venezuela. The achievements of the new system would be acknowledged uniof Bolivar, and the diplomacy of Canning, charmed versally. Even, however, if doubts and fears for even the monied men of England into enthusiasm the future pressed on that evening upon bis mind, for the interests of South America, which was he must have felt and taken courage from the demonstrated by large investments in the funds of thought that the Stockton and Darlington line the republics, and in their public works. Canning furnished a strong leverage for all his subsequent buasted that he had called a new world into exis. efforts. tence. As yet its growth has been slow and Did, in that evening, thoughts of the single unsatisfactory, but to none more vexing than to room in the cottage beside the colliery, where the unfortunate capitalists, of whom many were he was born-of the life-long strife of his parents reduced to ruin by the failure of splendid schemes. with want-of his own first home, and her who It does not appear that Robert Stephenson was made it bright and happy, but passed soon awayvery successful there ; but, at his father's request, of all his struggles to cut his way untaught through he returned to assist him with the construction of the world, and make it cheaper for his order, the the Liverpool and Manchester line.

working people, to ride than to walk-pass over The Stockton and Darlington line was opened his mind on that night? It is most probable ; for in tie autumn of 1825. The engine dragged along | he was not the kind of man to forget the past in a vast traiu at occasionally the rate of twelve the present. A curions proof of that tendency ocmiles per hour; and thereby excited the amaze- curred long after. George Stephenson became a very ment of local journalists, who have lived, we prosperous and a very rich man. Edward Pease dare say, to pen angry paragraphs when trains was born rich, and became richer. The former were a quarter of an hour out of time upon long always felt that to the clear mind and strong will journeys, done at the rate of thirty miles an hour. of the latter he was indebted for the means of carThe average speed on the first trip was eight rying through his views, and Mr. Smiles, in his miles an hour, for the engineer was prudent, and biography, says :looked more for the success of his plans to eco

It is pleasing to relate, in connection with this great work nomy than to speed. The train was certainly —the Stockton and Darlington Railway-projected by Ed. heavy for one engine. It consisted of twelve ward Pease, and executed by George Stephenson, that after. waggons loaded with coals and flour, and before wards, when Mr. Stephenson became a prosperous and a its arrival at Stockton, nearly 600 persons were

celebrated man, he did not forget the friend who had taken

him by the hand, and helped him on in his early days. depending on that engine for progress.

He always remembered Mr. Pease with gratitude and affection; A happy evening for George Stephenson was and that gentleman is still proud to exhibit a handsome gold that of the 25th of September, 1825. The dreams watch, received as a gift from his celebrated protegé, bearing of thirty years were realites. The visions which the words, “ Esteem and Gratitude, -- from George Stephen he had seen while watching widow Ainslie's cows

son to Edward Pease." of future changes, so dim, and dull, and far away It may be mentioned, in connection with this in the mist of futurity, were now before bim, railway, that from it sprang the town of Middleclear and large, and very new. They cast no borough—-which now occupies land at that time shadow. They looked then only like the har- entirely employed for agricultural purposes; and bingers of the world's spring and summer time. the success of the line, very much for the benefit All the poets and philosophers, and very unpbiloso- of Mr. Pease and his friends, has turned a single phical personages, who had talked and written long farm house into a large town with 15,000 inhabi. and wearisomely on equality and progress, had tants. achieved nothing ; but the man who, thirty years During the progress of this line, and in conjuncbefore, could not read a word of their essays, had tion with Mr. Pease and Mr. Richardson, Mr. Stenever rested by day, nor often by night, until he pheuson commenced the manufacture of railway had advanced a justifiable equality by a longer engines in Newcastle, which afterwards became a step than it had ever taken since first the foolish very prosperous business. He trained there that pride of Nimrod, perhaps, had established a feudal class of mechanics who ultimately wrought his authority in the few over the many. The states. engines up to London and down to Edinburgh, and mau, when he has carried some complicated he gave to Newcastle one of its staple and most measure through all the mazes in discussion and valuable trades. disputation of a clever and vigorous opposition- The attempt to survey the country for a line of

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railway between Liverpool and Manchester was horse power upon railroads. Mr. Stephenson was daily befirst made by Mr. James, who encountered violent coming more positive as to the superiority of his locomotive ;

and on this, as on all subsequent occasions, he strongly hostility from the peasantry and the proprietary on

urged Mr. Pease to adopt it. “Come over to Killingworth,” the route. His party of engineers were even said he, "and see what my Blutcher can do ; seeing is becompelled to employ “ a leading pugilist" to carry lieving, sir." some of the instruments. Mr. James became in

Thus the Newcastle engineer discovered that volved in banking and mercantile liabilities, and the difficulties he had to meet were not nearly he was obliged to abandon his scheme for a time. over, when his engine brought the first train, A company had been formed, with a capital of with six hundred passengers, triumphantly into £400,000, to gonstruct a railway between these

Stockton. He was depressed by the disbelief of towns, in the autumn of 1824, and some of the others. The force of their confidence almost badirectors proceeded to Killingworth to examine lanced in his mind the force of his own truth. Mr. Stephenson's locomotive engines.

He stated, long afterwards, when he could afford At a second visit they brought Mr. Sylvester, to laugh over these difficulties, that he felt it almost a mechanic, from Liverpool, to report upon Mr. impossible to keep up his spirits at the time. Stephenson's engines. The report was favourable,

The idea of travelling at a rate of speed double that of and the reporter said that no ordinary limit existed

the fastest mail coach, appeared at the time so preposterous, to the probable speed that might be obtained, but that Mr. Stephenson was unable to find any engineer who any rate over ten or twelve miles per hour would would risk his reputation in supporting his “ absurd views." be unsafe ; and yet Mr. Sylvester was in advance Speaking of his isolation at this time, he subsequently ob

served, at a public meeting of railway men in Manchester : of the age, and perhaps did not greatly disappoint

“He remembered the time when he had very few supporters Mr. Stephenson, who, as we have already re

in bringing out the railway system—when he sought Engmarked, looked then more to economy than to speed. land over for an engineer to support him in his evidence

After some negotiation, Mr. Stephenson was before Parliament, and could find only one man, James requested to survey the line ; but physical violence

Walker, but was afraid to call that gentleman, because he

knew nothing about railways. He had then no one to tell was offered to the party by the keepers, and even

his tale to but Mr. Saunders of Liverpool, who did listen to by the tenantry of Earl Derby and Lord Sefton ; so

him, and kept his spirits up; and his schemes had at length that the survey had to be completed imperfectly, been carried out only by dint of sheer perseverance.” by force, by fraud, or by stealth. The parties The members of the committee were not much interested in the Bridgewater Canal were most

more learned on the force of steam than the engi. vehement against the proposal, for obvious reasons,

neers and lawyers of their time. They also realthough we cannot now frame a ground for the garded Mr. Stephenson either as an enthusiast or resistance offered by the landowners, who were

a fool, and some of them started opinions of the not shareholders in the canal, to the survey. most absurd kind. One member, who had been The promoters sought a bill from Parliament in

more intimate with grazing than with mechanical 1825; but a great difference existed among the pursuits, was concerned by anticipation for the friends of the scheme respecting, the probable sufferings that a stray cow might inflict upon an rate of speed that might be realised. Mr.

engine while in the lawful discharge of its duties ; Nicholas Wood, an old friend of Mr. Stephenson's, and the following conversation occurred in Mr. thought that “the idea of seeing engines travel Stephenson's cross-examination :ling at the rate of twelve, sixteen, or twenty

The committee seem to have entertained some alarm as miles an hour, was nonsense." The Quarterly to the high rate of speed which had been spoken of, and Review considered eight to nine miles hourly the proceeded to examine the witness further on the subject. highest safe rate of speed. Mr. McLaren, of the They supposed the case of the engine being upset when Scotsman, insisted on twenty miles as practicable. going at nine miles an hour, and asked what in such a case

would become of the cargo astern. To which the witness The counsel for the promoters of the bill assured

replied that it would not be upset. One of the members of Mr. Stephenson that he must moderate his proposed the committee pressed the witness a little further. He put rate of speed, or he would be regarded as the following case :-“ Suppose, now, one of these engines to maniac fit for Bedlam. It was only a short time be going along a railroad, at the rate of nine or ten miles previously that Mr. Pease, of the Stockton and an hour, and that a cow were to stray upon the line, and Darlington line, entertained similar views. He get in the way of the engine : would not that, think you,

be a very awkward circumstance P” “Yes," replied the described his first meeting with Mr. Stephenson in witness, with a twinkle in his eye, very awkward, inthe following language ;

deed for the coo !” The honourable member did not Mr. Pease liked the appearance of his visitor. “ There proceed further with his cross examination. was," as he afterwards remarked, in speaking of Stephenson, His task before the committee has been de“ such an honest, sensible look about him, and he seemed so modest and unpretending. He spoke in the strong scribed by his biographer, but it is difficult now to Northumbrian dialect of his district

, and described himself recall the state of feeling then existing. All the as “only the engine-wright at Killingworth ; that's what preconceived notions of the members had to be he was.

plucked up by the roots. Against a host of legal But Mr. Pease was scarcely prepared for the bold asser- and scientific gentlemen one man had to bear up, tion made by his visitor, that the locomotive engine with which he had been working the Killingworth railway for and carry his point, and he became occasionally many years past was worth filty horses, and that engines confused, under a pressure that might have been made after a similar plan would yet entirely supersede all I expected to embarrass him.

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Mr. Stephenson stood before the committee to prove presented greater obstacles, and was not comwhat the public opinion of that day held to be impossible. pleted until two years after the work of the comThe self-taught mechanic had to demonstrate the practicability of accomplishing that which the most distinguished pang had been commenced upon the moss. At a engineers of the time held to be impracticable. Clear comparatively early stage of these works, Mr. though the subject was to himself, and familiar as he was Stephenson invited his son to return from South with the powers of the locomotive, it was no easy task for America ; and he arrived in England in time to him to bring home his convictions, or even to carry his afford the most important assistance to his father. meaning to the less informed minds of his hearers. In his Three years had passed, and the line was apstroog Northumbrian dialect he straggled for an utterance, in the face of the sneers, interruptions, and ridicule of the proaching gradually to its completion, when the opponents of the measure, and even of the committee, some employment of tractive power was discussed by of whom shook their heads and whispered doubts as to his the directors, sanits, when he energetically avowed that lie could make mended the erection of twenty-one fixed engines,

Two eminent engineers recomthe locomotive go at the rate of twelve miles an hour! It was so grossly in the teeth of all the experience of honour at regular intervals on the line, to draw the wag. able members, that the man must certainly be labouring gons onwards. The engineer alone resisted this under a delusion !

scheme. He urged the directors to advertise for The mind reverts to Widow Ainslie's herd, locoinotive engines. A competition accordingly making engines of clay, and cutting reeds to turn occurred. Five hundred pounds was the prize for into engine pipes —now struggling with the the successful competitor, and the money was capitalists, the engineers, the lawyers, and the carried away by the engineer of the line. This legislators of his land, for permission to try his engine made an average of seveateen miles an principles upon a more extensive scale than he had hour, and its success decided the company to adopt yet obtained. The historical paintings of the locomotives. It was a critical moment, for the legislature are few. Our senatorial history affords locomotive system had been almost beaten, and only a small number of salient points on which an the company, saddled with twenty-one fixed enartist can hang a popular painting. During these gines, their chains, and all the other expenses conexaminations the judgment of the witness was

nected with the erection of engine houses. The doubted by many, and even his sanity by others. line was formally opened upon the 5th of SeptemA painter would not have dreamed of taking the ber, 1830. A circumstance occurred to cast' scene, but if he had been informed of the future, gloom over the day. Mr. Huskisson had long he bad before him the elements of a popular paint supported the construction of the railway ; and ing from lise. After a costly and a tedious con- being one of the representatives of Liverpool

, he test the preamble of the bill was negatived by a was present at the ceremony. He had crossed the majority of 37 to 36. The supporters of the mea line to couverse with the late Duke of Wellington sure were not disheartened by this majority of

as one of the railway engines approached. In one against its adoption, but they followed the endeavouring to re-cross, he was struck down on counsel of Mr. Huskisson, and determined to

the rails, and died on the same evening. The renew their application next session. They em

Northumbrian engine returned with Mr. Huskisson ployed Messrs. Rennie to survey the line, and then at a speed of thirty-seven miles an hour, the most the bill passed both Houses of Paliament in 1826. rapid flight ever attained by any engine to that The cost of the act is said to have reached date, and one which even Mr. Stephenson had not £27,000.

hoped to realise. The directors engaged Mr. Stephenson as their

This sad event was considered ominous of resident engineer at a salary of £1,000 annually ; future disasters by some of the many opponents and they commenced the construction of the earth to the system; but their number decreased rapidly, works over Chat Moss. The work was extremely and the triumph of the line and of its engineer dificult. Some engineers described it as impos: wrung from the scientific witnesses against its sible ; but in six months after its commencement possibility the unwilling admission that they had it was completed, and a railway and carriage been altogether mistaken. The Liverpool and crossed the Moss, with the directors and their Manchester line cost more money than the estimate. friends :

A company had becn formed for its construction, The idea which bore him np in the face of so many ad- with a capital of £400,000. That was for a tran versc opinions, in assuming that a safe road could be formed road with horse power. Then came the fired across the floating bog, was this :--That a ship floated in idea of stationary engines. Both passed away water, and that the moss was certainly more capable of sup before the locomotive system, but £1,200,000 bad porting such a weight than water was ; and he knew that if been expended at the opening of the line. he could once get the material to float he would succeed. That his idea was correct, is proved by the fact, that Chat

Many years before, when George Stephenson was Moss now forms the very best part of the line of railroad promoted to twelve shillings per week, he had probetween Liverpool and Manchester. Nor was the cost of nounced himself “a made man.” At last the asconstruction of this part of the line excessive. The surance appeared to be undeniable. He was now formation of the road across Chat Moss amounted to “a made man." His perseverance had conquered £28,000, Mr. Giles's estimate having been £270,000.

success, and he who had been charitably considered Chat Moss was not the only, nor even the most insane by members of the Commons in comunitter, serious, difficulty. The tunnel under Liverpool only five years beforc-who, only five years pre

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viously had been sneered at as incapable by “the upside down to suit the new-fangled whims of a profession" of engineers—bad triumphed over generation who began to think that game preserves opposition and prediction, while even the opponents should not prevent all improvements :of his scheme were glad to travel at a speed of

When Colonel Sibthorp openly declared his hatred of thirty miles an hour, only two years after they had “ those inferval railroads,” he only expressed in a strong considered eight to nire miles the highest speed manner, the feeling which then pervaded the country gentry, consistent with safety under any circumstances.

and many of the middle classes in the southern districts. The struggle was over now. True, the struggle

That respected nobleman, the late Earl of Harewood, when

it was urged by the gentleman who waited upon him on beof capital with landowners and lawyers was only half of the Liverpool and Manchester Company, that great commenced; but the scientific interest of this advantages to trade and commerce were to be anticipated, great man's life almost stops at this point. The from the facilities which would be afforded by railways, Liverpool and Manchester line comprised alike in would not admit the force of the argument, as he doubted if its engines, and its rails, all those details that are

any new impetus to manufactures would be advantageous to

the country. And Mr. H. Berkeley, the intelligent member now employed, with some minor, although not un

for Cheltenham, in like manner, strongly expressed the important, improvements introduced by other parties. views of his class, when at a public meeting held in that It was indeed an experimental line. The rate of town, he declared his “utter detestation of railways, and speed, and the weight of the rails were increased wished the concoctors of every such scheme, with their

solicitors and engineers, were at rest in paradise !”. soon; but the principle continued, and the engineer

Nothing,” said he,," is more distasteful to me than to saw nearer to him now than at Stockton the bright hear the echo of our hills reverberating with the noise of visions of his young years ; destined to revolu- hissing railroad engines running through the heart of our tionise, or to aid more than any modern invention hunting country, and destroying that noble sport to which the revolution of, society.

I have been accustomed from my childhood.” Colonel New railway schemes were devised with astonish-Sibthorp even went so far as to declare that he would

rather meet a highwayman, or see a burglar on his ing rapidity. The manufacturing districts of Lan- premises, than an engineer; he should be much more sase, cashire and Yorkshire adopted the system with and of the two classes he thought the former more relittle difference of opinion ; but country gentlemen, spectable.” then farmers, and even persons who might have With all his strong prejudices, Colonel Sibthorp .entertained more liberal notions, still trembled be- was an honest man, if a little too stubborn; and

fore the fire-horse. His appearance was forbidding, it was well that he could afford to keep a private and even terrible, as he rushed on his way. Those carriage ; for it has been said that he never entered persons whose life is comprised within the railway a railway carriage in his life-time ; and while era have grown into intimacy with engines and others succumbed to an inevitable fate, he rerails before they could notice anything very remark. sisted the inroad of iron to the end, and ended able in their appearance ; but we travelled to a town without being conquered by the allurements of between Liverpool and Manchester, and walked out rapid travelling. upon the bank above the line alone, to watch The proposal to construct the London and Birthis great invention ; and we are not quite sure now mingham line, met with an organised opposition whether there was not a little fear mixed with our from the landed proprietary, and the inhabitants wonder, as the wild train dashed forward and on- of many of the towns and villages on the contemward in its seemingly reckless race.

plated route. After a frightful opposition, a bill An idea was prevalent then, and it was a rea- was obtained, at a cost of £72,868; but, instead sonable idea, that George Stephenson had actually of a quarter of million, the estimated value of the repealed the Corn Laws; for it was supposed land required, it is said that the landowners on that the number of horses would be gradually re- the line received three quarters of a million, and duced, and that the land applied to grow hay and their anxiety to preserve the amenity or the solioats for them would be cultivated for the support tude of their inclosures and parks cost, in deviof mankind. This calculation, like many others, ations by tunnelling, one or two millions more. turned out to be an error, and it is probable that a All travellers between London and Liverpool greater number of horses are now employed in the pay to this day, and must always pay, some country than even during the years of the crack £150,000 annually, for the exceeding folly and coaches.

perversity of the landed interest. The inhabitants of considerable towns were op. The life of George Stephenson, at this period, posed to the introduction of railways within a short may be more suitably described in his own landistance of their boundaries. The energetic people guage than in that of any other person. It was of Northampton drove the London and Birming- an honourable but a laborious life, for he did ham line far from their suburbs, and compelled the accurately and carefully all the work that he was proprietary to cut the Kelsby tunnel, a most induced to undertake. The duty of pursuing that expensive operation. They have been disgusted course was impressed by him upon his son, who often at their great success since then, but they is said to have walked twenty times between achieved it, and have Kelsbg tunnel as a memorial Birmingham and London before he completed of their success. The following extract describes the survey of the line between these towns. the feelings of the keener opponents of progress, Describing his railway experience before a committee of as they were compelled to observe the world turned the House of Commons in 1841, he said :-I was for some

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