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rence, when fire caught the wood-work, and the Earopeans, or certainly Europeans of the West,
vessel became unmanageable. Two hundred per. admit and ask no apology and no excuse. It
sons were burned or drowned, the fire or the water closes for ever, or for all time, the door of
taking in some cases one of a family, in others, mercy. The reply to that is the extermination of
leaving only one ; while those who were saved from the parties engaged in the offence. This opinion
the burning wreck were left destitute at the very was plain and settled from the first intimation of
threshold of their future home. The three events these murders received by telegraph. Next day orders
form the principal accidents, as they are termed, of were out, and regiments engaged in preparations
a month. “Accidental” erroneously describes the for the circum-Africa voyage. Vessel after vessel
negligence by which in each case they occurred. departs with its many armed men. Years will
They were the consequences of carelessness-cul- come and pass before any of them can look on
pable and punishable carelessness—and a reckless home, and homely scenes again. Many of them
disregard of life is the origin of more than one-half will “ return no more.” An army of twenty-five
of the great accidents that from day to day occur thousand men are under orders for the East; and
in our own and in other lands. The steamer is armies of double or treble that number will follow,
said to have been on fire before leaving Quebec, if they be needed. The slaughters of the past
and its destruction is supposed to have been caused will be obliterated in those of the future; and the
by the erroneous use of timber work, altogether mutineers of Delhi will learn months hence, if
unprotected, near the furnace. Another and rival they have not learned ere now, that the western
steamer was slightly in advance ; and therefore the arm may be distant, but is strong; and western
furnace was heated rapidly for a race. This is the wrath often cool, but when cool, inost stern and
common supposition, and it is probably true. terrible in its dealings.
The fire in the harbour may have been extin. A comparison between the importance of these
guished before the vessel commenced the upward events is scarcely practicable. The first, second, and
voyage; but the warning was neglected. Severe tbird comprehend a known quantity of suffering, or
punishment was awarded in Scotland to the sur. one that might be ascertained; but the fourth
viving officers of a wrecked steamer, who were implies consequences that no man could estimate,
charged with negligence and recklessness in work and that already greatly transcend those of a cala-
ing their vessel ; and until the American and Co- mitous accident, even of the greatest magnitude.
lonial officers meet punishment instead of sympathy The interest felt in the accidental calamities, or
for affairs of this nature, hundreds of passengers even in the revolt, has been very limited indeed,
will continue occasionally to be burned or drowned when contrasted with that bestowed on crime and
in maintaining races on the rivers, that on an its history. If mystery be an inciting element
average, perhaps, do not save twenty minutes in in popular feeling, the Indian mutiny has mysteries
as many hours.

that might gorge the greatest appetite for horrible
The railway companies of this country have tales. Still the death of one person by poison,
recently been fined heavily in the form of damages and the consequent danger to the life of another,
on the occurrence of accidents, arising from the has occupied a larger portion of “British reading"
omission of duties by their servants, and in addi- during the month, than the thrilling bistories of the
tion to the loss by the destruction of their own catastrophe on the Jumna.
property; but it does not appear that these in. That case will form one among the celebrated
fictions have convinced them that the employ. causes of the century, and its termination has
ment of an adequate number of servants is the even enhanced its interest; yet the public sentiment
cheaper mode of conducting their business. They on these subjects requires amendment, for it seems
accept the risk for a doubtsul, and certainly a very most unreasonable that the crimes of two indivi-
small gain, in the meantime; and they will only duals, confined closely to their personal proceed-
abandon that course by the pecuniary pressure of ings, should occupy a greater part in the public
verdicts. Personal punishment has been proposed mind than events that involve almost necessarily
as the beiter security for safe travelling, but it only the lives of ten thousand men.
reaches subordinates, for the real authors of the The case of William Palmer, of Rugeley, was
mischief cannot be held personally responsible for not more notorious last year than the trial of
the acts of their servants ; although the latter Madeleine Smith in the present month ; but the
may have been selected from an inferior class, may result has been different, and the romance of the
be too few for the work, or wrought down into Glasgow trial involves a class of considerations
absolute stupidity at the time.

remote from the gambling and horse racing that The mail at the close of last month brought induced the Staffordshire crime. lamentable intelligence from India. At Delhi and The prisoner, whose trial in Edinburgh comMeerut the mutinies of native soldiers had been menced on the last day of June, and ended on the attended by cruelties of a very gross kind, and by 9th of July, was a young lady, not more than the death of European ladies and children. The twenty-one years of age, the daughter of a proslaughter of men in combat by mutineers might fessional gentleman in Glasgow, very highly and require a red retribution. The slaughter of ladies widely celebrated in his profession, and occupying and children is another kind of wrong for which ) an excellent position in society. The accused girl


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had been celebrated for personal attractions, even somebody being hanged without adequate canse or in a town which olaims to be the second in the clear evidence. The legal gentlemen proved the empire. At the end of January last she had en- purchase of arsenic by Madeleine Smith in two gaged to marry a partner in one of the oldest shops on three days, without concealment; for, in mercantile firms in that city-a man of great com- each case a receipt was signed, and in one of them mercial reputation--and matters proceeded in the the arsenic was charged to her father's account. usual way for nearly two months, when a horrible The purchases were alleged to be made for the disclosure occurred.

destruction of rats at their country house, but the The lady had a prior friend, occupying a different gardener there proved that they had no rats to be position, certainly, from her own, or from that of destroyed, and the arsenic was said to be used for her second suitor a subordinate clerk in a cosmetic purposes, by solution and washing with Glasgow house-who died suddenly on the 23rd arsenicated water. Some medical men alleged of March, and was found to have been poisoned that the custom was very dangerous, and they are by a gigantic dose of arsenic. The connexion of correct; because the face is the object of cosmetic Madeleine Smith with his death was established, attention, and arsenicated water can neither be so far as that he would not have died in Glasgow beneficial for the eyes, nor in close proximity with on that day, except for a note which she had written, the mouth ; but the assertion that it would pro. requesting him to meet her. She evidently wrote duce immediate and injurious consequences on the that note in ignorance of his absence from town, skin, although benevolently intended perhaps, was and appointed Saturday night, the 21st, for their erroneous. One medical gentleman on the oppo. meeting He was at Bridge of Allan, some thirty site side prepared a wash, and chivalrously operated miles out of Glasgow, and only received this note on his own hands and face to prove the error of on the morniug of the 22nd of March. This cir; his opponent. He was successful

, for no apparent cumstance was not explained when the tale found evil befel their texture ; yet the Lord Advocate its way into the newspapers, and was told with assured him that he might yet suffer for his exaggerations and mystifications in every house argumentum ad hominem in his person. hold; and so it was clear to the apprehension of The worthy doctor might have been spared this every gossip in the land, and the several millions danger by any one of five hundred witnesses who, of good people who decry and eschew the frailty of in the present state of science, require to use gossiping, that a young lady had very deliberately arsenicated mixtures, with no design whatever on murdered one lover in order that she might marry their complexions, but in the ordinary course of another, and a wealthier friend; for it was ascer. their labour. The artizans in more than one trade, tained that she had made three separate purchases or the shepherds in the pastoral districts, bring of arsenic some time previously to the death of her this poison not for a few moments, but for hours, earlier acquaintance, and in each instance, under into contact with their arms and hands in their a false pretence.

common duties. They do not immediately meet The evidence on the trial proved the facility of with any inconvenience from its use, but it must obtaining this poison in Glasgow. Storekeepers be opposed to their general health, and would be at chemical and print works admitted that they still more dangerous if the skin were broken. place large quantities of arsenic in open casks in The discovery of a substitute for its use in these cases their warehouses. The persons engaged in their would be an achievement worthy of science, but business, and even visitors, have access to these the differences among the scientific witnesses recasks, and those who have them more particularly specting the possibility of doing what is done under their charge admit that they could not dis daily, by hundreds of honest artizans and shepherds, cover the abstraction of considerable quantities. I in their calling, were not calculated to inspire conThe phrase, in their language, means quantities fidence in scientific opinions. that would destroy a battalion of men

The practice could only be followed by extremely squadron of horses. They keep and sell, or use, foolish persons for cosmetic purposes; especially this mineral poison, not by the ounce or the pound, as the object sought-a piece of unhealthy decepbut in tons. These circumstances must have been tion—cannot be obtained by that risk; for those generally known before this trial; yet the Legis- who are obliged to allow this mixture to get into lature in endeavouring to regulate the sale of connexion with their arms and hands are unable poisons, some time since, confined their measure to see any advantage, or anything whatever, imexclusively to apothecaries' shops; or obedience to mediately resulting from its use; but that fact its enactments has been confined to them alone; merely shows “the possibility” of having done yet the business done by druggists in this par. what some gentlemen professed to doubt could ticular poison must be very limited indeed, when have been effected; and what other gentlemen do contrasted with its delivery and use for manufac- not seem to know is performed, on a large scale turing purposes.

daily, at tbeir doors, not certainly upon the face, The comparative ignorance of the world evinced for that must be hazardous ; although not for the by the legal and scientific gentlemen engaged in cutaneous reasons suggested in these examinations, “forwarding the ends of justice,” in this case, The case was considered a complete and rewould be amusing, if it might not possibly lead to 1 markable example of circumstantial evidence.



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Public feeling was roused against the prisoner and upon the occurrence of his own marriage, and the crime. A host of crown lawyers and their on the score that something, which might not jar clerks were employed in the collection of more with bachelor habits, was unbecoming in married evidence, and the prepartion of papers. The trial life. He was frequently ill ; but he seemed able was removed to the High Court of Justiciary, and to gather up his spirits after each complaint, and, yet the prisoner was obliged in Scotch phraseology somehow, procured introductions to persons of good « to run her letters," which, being translated into standing in society, and to others of none. His our modern language means to avail herself of an prospects as a junior clerk at thirty years of age old Scotch law, whereby if the crown do not pro- were not peculiarly good ; and he appeared to have ceed to the trial of an accused person within the no better quality than vanity, which bore bim time allowed by law after the accused has given through his difficulties well. notice of the wish to be tried, the proceedings ter- Madeleine Hamilton Smith, when she returned minate. That law was the safeguard of Scotland, from school to her father's house, was a girl of against those imprisonments, before trial for inde- eighteen to nineteen years of age. She was casually finite periods that disgrace continental countries ; introduced to L’Angelier in the street by a young and was adopted for political purposes probably, friend. He improved the opening, and having although it has been applied to all cases.

corrupted this young girl's mind by a clandestine Emile L'Angelier, was a person of thirty years acquaintance, and a correspondence conducted of age, a native of Jersey, who was in Edinburgh against her father's will, she stood, at twenty one in 1851, in search of a situation as a seedsman. years of age, for nine days at the bar of her coun. His father was a market gardener in Jersey, and try's highest court, charged with the murder of the he had come to Scotland in the hope of obtaining man who, moving in a very different sphere in employment. He indulged in vague statements of society from that in which she had been for some former greatness among the persons in Edinburgh, years esteemed and respected, had been her seducer. whom he knew, and those whom he met in Dundee, This was the charge supported by an array of where he obtained the employment that he required. eighty to ninety witnesses, by all the talent of He had fought in the revolutionary collisions of the Crown lawyers : and by a complicated chain of France, and although a native of Jersey where circumstantial evidence, which was nevertbeless the vernacular is not very pure, he spoke French defective alike in fact and motive; as was instinesufficiently well to convince his friends in Dundee, tively felt by the audience as the proceedings weat that he might have gone through the adventures on to the close, ending in a verdict of not guilty on in France which he related. He seemed to be one point and not proven on the others-a verdict more fortunate in attracting the attention of ladies received in a singular manner for a Scotch Court than of employers. He had an affair of the heart by long and loud applause ; but a verdict which in France ; but that was perhaps apocryphal. An might have been reversed if Madeleine Smith had English lady of eminent wealth-not the least been absolutely friendless and poor.

— useful attraction-had next stolen bis heart, and Therefore the proceedings are extremely inthen trifled with his affections in a manner that portant, for they show the danger of trusting drove him mad, sent him running wild through the implicitly to circumstantial evidence. For that country for fourteen days, and induced him to reason, and for another, we prrpose to notice the contemplate suicide. A lady of Fife had next leading features of this trial, and we may follos reciprocated his tender regards, and after promising the track of the Lord Advocate's speech as the to make the refugee happy, had prudently gone best guide in the matter. We shall not reproduce and made herself bappy with some other person, the correspondence read in the court, or minister whom she married in a most commonplace manner. in any manner to the minds disessed, that find This additional misfortune was one of the more pleasure in tracing the mazes of moral pollution ; prominent in a life of disappointment connected or, to another class who live upon the details of with females.

borrible tragedies. But this strange trial, and L'Angelier, while in Dundee, boasted that he the strange events in which it originated, posused arsenic—that there was no danger in it—and sess characteristics of enduring and public intethat it improved the complexion. This circum- rest. stance was established upon unimpcachable evidence The second reason which induces us to notice during the trial. His character altogether was of the proceedings on the trial is its treatment by a kind that even the Lord-Advocate gave up as the public prosecutors. The letters and papers entirely indefensible, in his accusation of Miss found in the desk and the drawers of the poi. Smith.

soned man were not inventoried. They were L'Angelier, as he appeared in Glasgow some handed from one person to another. The clerks years since, occupied the position of a junior pack- might even have taken the letters home for ing clerk in the house of Huggins and Co. He their own amusement and the gratification of was a person of insinuating address, and assumed, their friends. The utmost looseness practicable in some quarters, religious professions and views. in a case of this nature was followed, and then His character appears to have been broadly mixed, the defence was refused a copy of the docufor one of his friends broke off the acquaintance, ments on which the prosecution was to found.

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The refusal may be consistent with the habit in knowledge. If he did take it at once, would he these cases, but it is a very bad babit, and one live for nine or ten hours ? If it were administhat should be abandoned.

tered to poison, low could it be conveyed ? Not The ends of justice are perpetually quoted as in liquids certainly, because the necessary quantity reasons for several evils, by those who forget would be more than any person could swallow. that they speak in the plural number: that there | Nothing is more difficult than to suppose that the really are ends of justice, and not one end only, prisoner could have given to L'Angelier so much as they seem to suppose. Justice has two ends : arsenic by any contrivance, yet to the public proseacquittal and condemnation, and is not more satis- cutor nothing was clearer than that she did give fied by the second than by the first.

him siopal men, we sear, forget that truth. They She purchased arsenic, however, three times.

. are employed, or they think that they are em- She misrepresented the purpose for which it was ployed merely to secure the conviction of the pri- required; but she bought it publicly, in shops soner. That may, or may not be the end of justice where she was well known, to use, she said, as a required, in the case before them. The death of cosmetic, and she gave a receipt in each case. If an innocent person could not consist, with the ends she only bought her arsenic for poisoning purposes, of justice ; yet we have had lamentable examples she needed not so many purchases. One would of this nature, originating perhaps in the dash of have been sufficient. The fact of three quantitie colour thrown over the evidence by the anxiety of being bought within a short time, so far as it the prosecuting official to cbtain a verdict. For demonstrates anything, proves that it was required that purpose he should not resort to misrepresen- for some purpose, not creditable and not criminal. tation. That is inconsistent even with the posi. The Lord Advocate took a different view untion of the prisoner's counsel, and far more incon. fairly. sistent with that of the public prosecutor.

The arsenic purchased by her was either coloured The Lord Advocate in this case commenced by with indigo, or mixed with soot. The sooty telling the jury that the evidence did not leave the arsenic could not have been swallowed to the possibility of escape for the prisoner ; although extent of 88 grains, without leaving traces of being an intelligent man he must have felt that soot in the stomach. The indigoed arsenic must the entire evidence had broken down. One fact have left colour. The Lord Advocate surmounted seemed undeniable, namely—that L'Angelier died these facts by telling the jury that the chemists on the 23rd March, from arsenic. The Lord Ad. who investigated the stomach of L'Angelier were vocate allowed that the quantity found in his body not desired to look for indigo or soot; but they was very great. It was so great that the medical would have found them without looking specially, witnesses for the prosecution thought that it could and must have seen them if they had been there. not bave been taken involuntarily. From two to The fact disconnects the purchases by Miss six grains of arsenic cause death. That body Smith from the poison of which this man died. contained 200 grains. L'Angelier had been ill on It is imprudent to hang people upon suspicion, the 22nd February, and, prisoner purchased arsenic and without evidence that an opportunity existed on the 19th of that month.

of committing crime. The Lord Advocate could The public prosecutor, without observing the not trace L'Angelier to Miss Smith's house on the declaration of the person with whom L'Angelier 22nd of March ; but her time was accounted for resided, that he did not leave her house on the as clearly as that of any person's can be, who 22nd, asserted broadly and distinctly that he had retires to rest at eleven to half past eleven, and is been by her poisoned. The latter bought arsenic found in bed at eight next morning. L'Angelier again at a subsequent date. She requested to see was strictly forbidden from making the slightest L'Angelier on the 21st March; he came to town noise at door, or window, or even on the pavement.

" waited had been on that night near the residence of the watched for at her window, without a light. He prisoner, he told no person that he was going dropped his note in at the window, and their there, no person that he had been there : but after interviews for some time had been confined to being out of his lodgings for five and a half hours that process. He had disregarded two appointhe returned ill — he became worse- he was seen ments, for the prisoner clearly did not know that by no medical man for four hours further, and he he was in the country, and it is improbable that died in seven hours. We revert to the 200 she would wait on a night for which no appointgrains which his body contained. Where did ment had been made. But, said the Lord Advo. they come from? If this girl had thrice cate, you cannot account for L'Angelier on that attempted to poison her seducer, because he night. If he was not with you, where was he? held that position, the first and second doses The idea was the most absurd ever put in a court must have contained between them under twelve of justice. For persons have difficulty in proving grains, for they were unsuccessful, and that

unsuccessful, and that their own proceedings, and far less can they exwould leave 188 grains for the third and final at- plain those of another person, while the onus protempt. The medical witnesses admit that no man bandi rests not on the accused, but with the would take that amount of arsenic without his , accuser.



Motives have to be examined in all accusations but died the victim of a horrible practice. Oar of this character, and unless the prisoner was the purpose, however, is not to trace the circummost stupid person in Glasgow, or thereby, no stances of this case, but to complain of the conduct human being in or out of that city was more in. of the prosecutor. It matters not that the pri. terested in preserving the life that was destroyed. soner had been deceived and was become a de. He held possession of her letters. His death ceiver-that her moral feelings were blunted to a under any circumstances would place them in the most lamentable extent; or that she was endeahands of strangers. His death under suspicious vouring to over-reach a person of greater practice circumstances would render them public. Her than herself in this kind of negotiations. These safety therefore consisted with bis safety, and his facts do not justify the public prosecutor in death was ruin in her circumstances. The motive saying and repeating, and again repeating, the to commit the crime was not only therefore defi- assurance that L'Angelier did go to that house ; cient, but all her interest lay in an opposite direc. that it is certain he was there ; that he did make tion, at least for a time, and until the letters were bis presence known; that he had an interview returned.

with the prisoner-matters that he was bound to She bought arsenic to use as a cosmetic. In a prove if he could, and not to allege unless he could letter dated long previously to L'Angelier's death, prove them. We refer to this matter on that acshe mentions to him that she is using the stuff. count; for, if Madeleine Smith had been a young Was he likely to teach her the use of this danger- person in the same position in life as L'Angelierous mineral ? Evidence was adduced that, five if she had been without friends, who could and years siuce, he had advised its use to another, and who did expend several thousand pounds in her stated that he took it himself. Thus, perhaps, the defence, it is probable, with similar diligence, simisecret of the cosmetic application is reached. But lar concealments of one class of inferences, similar one secret implies another. If L'Angelier had, temerity in asserting another. She might have five years previously, described himself truly as an been hung ere now exactly as Eliza Fenning was arsenic eater, he continued the practice, probably. hung in London, and certainly without being more If so, the frequent and violent bowel complaints to guilty or more innocent than she was upon ber which be was subjected would be explained. The acquittal. want of the drug in his case would be fatal; and, Circumstantial evidence is always dangerous, having been in the country for some time, his but is doubly hazardous if it be twined and twisted usual stimulant may have run out, and he may into unnatural positions by all the ingenuity the have neither been poisoned nor committed suicide ; Crown lawyers can employ.







appetites keen set, and such fare as must make

any old Indian's mouth water even at the bare One of the greatest attractions to the majority of recollection. I do not know of anything that our bachelor colony was undoubtedly the racket presents a more refreshing and enticing appearcourt, which was situated in a very central posi usually placed in the coolest and shadiest side of

ance than an Indian breakfast, spread on a table tion, and crowded of a week day from 5 to 8 a.m., the capacious and venetian-blinded verandahs. By and from 4 to 6 p.m. by players and spectators; nine o'clock, the usual breakfast-hour, the sun had the interval was far too hot to admit of such violent exercise, either with pleasure or safety. generally managed to emit rays suficiently hot to Gambling prevailed to a limited extent, but not par.bake any European. It was, therefore, no Gambling prevailed to a limited extent, but not small luxury to jump off the pony's back, and much was ever wagered on the results of a match, make all speed towards the bath-room; where and after all the game depended entirely upon the stood a truculent palkee bearer, in ready attendskill and activity of the performers. My greatest antagonist was the black markee himself, with ance, with some half dozen large chatties * of dewhom I have played, and lost, too, many a score

liciously cool water, which in his course he games. After the morning racket matches, we

soused over your head, taking away your breath, usually separated for the forenoon, each one re

and causing a momentary shock, which was only pairing to his respective home for breakfast, with

* Earthenware jars.

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