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land, and legislation. Europeans were not allowed India, not quite settled. Its population have to settle permanently in India. Missionaries were always been hostile to British rule, and troublesome not permitted to teach those who were willing to to the Government. These facts were known to learn. The Company were very good friends with the authorities at Calcutta, and they could scarcely Juggernaut, the car and idol, crushing and killing, be unknown to their superiors in London. We and all the other processes of heathenism, while they do not refer to the Leadenhall-street merchants, endowed mosques, and maintained intimate terms whose influence is nominal, and whose power has with Mohammedanism and Mohammedans. The fallen to a shadow, but to the Board of Control Company regarded the Hindoo population at that and the Ministry. They must have heard that time as a set of persons who required to be Delhi was a city of doubtful fidelity, an immense managed as they stood--whom it was not desira- magazine of military stores, defended by walls ble to improve, and who were scarcely improve- sufficient to resist anything less than a regular able.

siege of assailants, superior to its defenders The experience of indigo planting has shown artillery and in numbers; yet they left it in posthat Europeans may conduct agricultural opera- session of native regiments, without a serjeant's tions in the East, as they conduct them in the command of British soldiers, even to guard the treaWest Indies, or in the southern States of America, sury. This intolerable negligence should not be and the crooked, even perverse, policy of the East passed over as something that cannot be undone. India Company, founded on selfishness—and very That remark is applicable to all crimes—once done low selfishness, too-has prevented the formation they cannot be undone; and that fact aggravates of a European community in Upper India, who the criminality in many instances.

The impolicy of allowing dethroned and petty The fugitives from one Indian station in June princes to retain empty names and substantial last found shelter at the house of a Zemindar, a pensions, and to reside in the palaces of their anGerman by birth, who had cultivated an Indian cestors, might have been deemed obvious to the plantation for many years—some two or three meanest capacities, except for the miserable truth score years—and is a hale and hearty man of that it was not obvious to the capacities of our eighty years, we understand. Why are there not Indian rulers. They, indeed, may have calculated eight or ten thousaud Zemindars, of similar birth, upon the intellectual ruin of these dynastical with their families, especially in the hill regions families. They may bave even reckoned upon the and on the slopes of the mountains ? The East destructive power of dissolute lives. They would India Company could tell.

have been correct in these calculations if they had The enlistment of high caste Sepoys, the favour allowed for exceptions ; but they have never calshown to the Mussulman population, and ill-repaid culated that these were possible, although they are by many of them; the neglect of the low caste extremely probable. А man of intellectual inhabitants of Bengal—the mixed races, and the vigour, in the position of the King of Delhi, with native Christians, who might have formed a large the prestige of an ancient name, with the savings portion of our armies; like the delay in public works, of years, if he chose to make them, in his treasury, especially railways; and the reduction of the Euro- with numerous retainers, wild missionaries among pean armies serving in Bengal—are all mistakes of the teachers of his creed, the crown perhaps, the the past, which have brought us to the present, | palace and the throne of his ancestry, in his posses. and must be avoided for the future—that long sion, would eventually risk the shadow to seize the future, during which Bengal must be held by substance. The present King of Delhi may not seventy to eighty thousand British soldiers, and an be the man. He may or may not have a guilty equal number of men from Bombay and Madras. complicity in the plot to murder the European

Delhi, before the insurrection, was a reproach to residents. It is of little consequence whether he the Indian Government. It is a large city--the was an abettor both after and before all these mur. old metropolis of the Mogul empire, with the ders. He is known to have been guilty of permitting palace of the emperors; and their successor, re- many after the occurrence of others. His friends siding there, under the nominal title of king, with may allege that he could not have prevented them, a pension of some two to three thousand pounds but his friends will not be believed generally on the --we believe three thousand—weekly, and sur. subject. rounded by a population of over one hundred The retention of these nominal rulers, without thousand persons, chiefly enthusiastic or fanatical real power, but with traditions to support, and Mussulmen. This city was an important station wealth to uphold them, is not a doubtful policy. in the civil administration of the Anglo-Indian It is a bad policy, aggravated by the custom in Government. It is the centre of a large and in- Hindoo families of adopting sons. These rajahs fluential district. It possesses fortifications which can never die out, because they can pick up heirs have been extremely troublesome to our army. It anywhere, according to the ancient law and pracwas the storehouse of military munitions for the tice of their land. It is true that they have not North-western provinces. It had its banks and obtained the recognition of this inconvenient local treasury, with large quantities of metallic habit from the East India Company in recent money, a blunder in all provinces, liku Upper times; yet the directors know that many claims THE MINDOOS AND MOHAMMEDANS.

5,5

have been made upon them through the adoptive all social mischief. The different classes mingle principle, and some of these claims have even been never; and the progress of improvements and of brought before Parliament.

science necessarily involves the Brahmins in pervous Persons who admire the profound sagacity of dread for the safety of their aristocratic privileges the Company's Government endeavour to vindi. -founded, like many others, upon ignorance. cate the subtlety of the corporation at the cost of This upper class combine ecclesiastical and secular its virtue. They hesitate to affirm, yet they hesi- advantages in the “accident” of birth. They taté not to bint, that the Directors do not object have held their “ place of pride” for a longer peto a man with a large pension becoming a rebel.riod than even tradition assigns to the elder arisThey expect to save capital by that misconduct, tocracies of Europe. They are priests or soldiers, according to these clever admirers of new schemes, and they perform either or both functions indiscrialthough they allow that the operations of the minately. They are supposed to have a moral and present year have quite overdone the wickedness a physical superiority over races who, for an equally wanted by their friends in office. We don't be long period as that of their neighbours' power, lieve a word of this story. It is better to consider have hewn wood, and drawn water, and done the these respectable city men fools than rogues. menial work of the world in these parts.

The They very much resemble other people who have corporeal and mental pwers of the lower castes, lived long on the sunny side of life. They digestor of the no-castes, are supposed to have been good dinners, rather indifferently we suppose, and affected and diminished by their hereditary and they drink their wine with a merry heart and a superstitious degradation. The absence of all protwinkling eye, in or out of the London tavern. test against the assumptions of their neighbours They do not seem to be awfully vicious. The confirms this supposition. Their attachment to a brand of Cain may lurk in the folds of some religion that inculcates their intellectual and social double or treble chins; but, on the whole, we inferiority is still further proof, if that were requiwould rather call them stupid than wicked men. site; yet it is impossible to believe that many human We don't wish to describe them by either term, beings, however degraded, can have any particularly but of two evils people should choose the lesser, strong feeling for the instrument of their deand that, in this case, is stupidity; for it would be pression. horrible to suppose that men, even in their collec- The Anglo-Indian army of Bengal was formed tive capacity, would tempt others into the commis chiefly from the higher castes of Hindooism, sion of many murders to save a few hundred and of Mohammedans. The Hindoos of that army thousand pounds yearly.

are unable to mix completely. with their degraded Hereafter, when native Princes are dethroned, neighbours ; yet they have not any corresponding they should be effectually decrowned and de-kinged. aversion to the abettors of the crescent, or to the If they are entiiled to pensions, they could have disciples of the Cross. They have been smitten them made payable during their residence in Bri- by a religious panic, and they found a pretence for tain ; or if they preferred the tropics—in Britislı their purposes in the manuiacture of cartridges for Guiana or Jamaica, where, in connection with sulfi. the Enfield rifles with grease. They are obliged, cient warmth, they would mix in good society. in the use of these cartridges, to bite off the end.

Hindostan is divided among several races and Their lips and teeth come thus into contact with between two great forms of religion. The Mus. the unclean grease of the pig, or the consecrated sulmen of India have subordinate sects, but they marrow of the cow. Either alternative is dangerous act together well. They are only a small minority, to their position with their friends, neighbours, and but they possess more than the average share of relatives. They feared the loss of caste. They influence, property, and wealth. A majority of pretended to fear that the cartridges were sent by the landowners and native Princes belong to this the Queen of Britain for their conversion. The Mohammedan superstition, and the Queen of Bri- astute Mohammedans spread the story. They aptain is reputed to have a greater number of Mo- propriated the error to their own uses. They drew hammedan subjects than any other Sovereign on the Hindoos into the plot. They, like Ahitophel the earth; but at present their loyalty does not of old, contrived the murders, and worse thau comseem equivalent to their numbers.

mon murders, that have rendered reconciliation be. The disciples of Hindooism form by many the tween the Bengal high caste Sepoys and the Brimajority of the population, but they are subdivided tish in India entirely impossible. into castes, between each of which a gulf exists, The policy was cunning and deep. It broke wider only than that which separates all of them the bridge, and separated the rulers and the ruled from the Pariahs. These out-castes are probably for ever. The excesses in Delhi have rendered doomed to hopelessness here and for ever. They mercy there impossible, and the defence desperate. at least have no hope of advancement in the pre. The excesses elsewhere raised the gallows everysent world. The Brahmins love a cow much more where over North-western India, and to the Moham. than " a man and a brother,” who is an out-caste, medans it matters little whether the British or the not because of the cow's butter and milky riches, Brahmins are exterminated from India, but they but its moral superiority and superstitious wealth. would be better pleased if both parties were desThe barrier between the castes is amply high for 1 troyed in this struggle, which, however, now in

516

ERRORS OF THE EAST INDIA GOVERNMENT.

volves nearly all the dynastical followers of the Pro- The East India Company have established comphet. Defeat will fall heavily upon those of them petitive examinations for their civil service apwho are connected with the rebellion; as heavily pointments, in which ancient Greek confers more as they deserve; for we believe it impossible to marks than any of the spoken languages of devise a Government that would carry out Hindostan. A good Latin scholar will go higher more completely the principle of religious tolera- than a young gentleman capable of talking his way tion than that of the East India Company, with from the summit of the Himalayas to the sea. It all its faults.

is an absurdity almost unequalled in folly by any of The future Government of India cannot afford the other droll mistakes of our rulers. A mercan. to follow the example of the Company's recruiting tile house who wanted a person to represent them officers in the Bengal army, who have confined in Buenos Ayres would not care much whether the themselves to a class and a territory. The custom individual selected for the appointment possessed had gathered the strength of law, but originally all the classical, military, monetary, and poetical it was a bad custom. The Bengalese Sepoy be qualifications of Major Macgregor, but if he were longed to a race who, like the family of a Duke, cele- ignorant of goods, or could not speak and write the brated by one of our novelists, had not done any

work language of Buenos Ayres intelligibly, they would for eight hundred years. They despised the industrial never send him there to study at their expense. classes-never mixed with them, lived in a baughty The mercantile house in Leadenhall-street adopted seclusion; springing at one time, perhaps, from a a different system of examination, in which a different race, they are poor but proud. The crime of knowledge of the Oriental customs, history, and these men will fall upon them like a hammer. It language is barely recognised, while the metre of will crush their pretensions into deeper poverty. defunct poetry enjoys considerable and altogether The re-construction of the Bengalese army will gratuitous influence. proceed upon a basis not so much new as old. All these errors must be avoided hereafter. Those old armies of Bengal who achieved great vic. The Anglo-Indian army, or the portion forming tories under Anglo-Indian guidance were not com- the army of Bengal, must be recruited from differposed exclusively, or in a great proportion, of high ent classes—the number of British officers must caste men. The army of Bengal hereafter will be very greatly increased—they must be employed consist chiefly of low caste men, and of Ghoorkas solely on military duties; and they must not proor Sikhs.

ceed to India for the purpose of learning these The Bengal Government acted with extreme duties, and unacquainted with the languages of impolicy in permitting their military officers to the East. The existing necessity for amending form a provincial and sectarian army, from which these errors indicates the incapacity of the Calcutta the great body of the people were excluded care. Government, for no body of meu with average fully. They placed arms with subjects of all others intellect would have made anarchy so easy, or con. most likely to be hostile. They acted against re- trived an equal number of encouragements to the peated warnings, not from civilians only, or from disaffected. military officers of low rank, or from anonymous The wretched respect to caste-with which we persons, but from General officers, and particularly have no business and which any good government from the late Sir Charles Napier, whose administra. would endeavour to neutralise— continues to infect tive and military abilities were unquestionable. They the service. Even officers who have acquired disformed an army of comparatively little use, because tinction cling to this vestige of dark ages with the men were not more averse to greased car. the reverence of routine. Some sentimental persons tridges than to ocean ships. They indülged every in this country have bad their nerves shattered by crotchet of these men, with the view of keeping the reports of the guns to which Sepoys of high their consciences clean and clear. They petted caste have been attached and blown away. We them in a manner unknown to European soldiers, bave a notion that this mode of death is far too and they, by these and other means, produced the easy for the criminals; but it has been adopted rebellion.

without any consideration of that subject; and as One of these means was their reduction of the a concession to the aristocracy of caste exactly as European officers in number and in power. They Peers were beheaded in this country. Brigadier permitted appeals in the arrangement of discipline Chamberlaine adduces his determination to blow that destroy the influence of the officers over the guilty Sepoys from their cannon, as evidence their men.

They reduced the complement of that the British Government will not intersere British officers, and then they employed part of the with their religion. If the gallows be more disbalance on civil matters and the collection of graceful and more fearful, it should be adopted errevenue. The officers who had formed the most clusively, if only to destroy casteism ; and orders intimate acquaintance with the country and its have been sent out, we hear, to adopt that punishlanguage were selected for these civil engagements. ment. They were the men best qualified to manage the The East India Company have followed a bad soldiers, and their places were often supplied by financial policy; which has led to the murder of others who absolutely could not speak the language many Europeans at small stations. They have of the natives whom they were to command. never changed the currency of the country, which

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is chiefly formed from silver ; and they had stored mutiny in India will cost to our Government a sums of fifty to one hundred and fifty thousand large sum of money, but not in any ordinarily in. pounds at different stations in the Bengal pro. formed quarter; for the cost even of the regular vinces. This bullion stood fast under the eyes of regiments of the line is defrayed out of the Indian the Sepoys, and sharpened the temptations for revenues during their service in that country. revolt to which they were exposed. The argument Two divisions of British soldiers are located in of hostile agents gathered all the weight of the India; the first is a part of the regular regiments, silver in the treasury. They broke from their and the second consists of Europeans in the allegiance to become rapidly rich; and as they service of the Company. The British army may had incurred death on discovery, they burned and be strengthened, therefore, either by increasing murdered to make their identification difficult. the number of regiments of the line located in The substitution of a paper currency for that of India, or of the European soldiers enlisted for rupees would have removed this temptation, saved service in that land. The latter plan is not the Indian finances from a heavy loss, our domestic likely to be adopted permanently, because it is commerce from a serious drain, and secured the probable that the Company's government will be fidelity of all the monied classes of India—from the terminated, when hostilities are succeeded by peasant, with bis hundred rupees, to the bankers inquiry. and the merchants who cannot afford to speculate The finances of India will not materially suffer in rebellion, with a currency of paper.

by this change. An army of fifty thousand EuroThe most fatal error in our recent policy was pean soldiers would be more efficient than double the reduction of the army at the close of the the number of Sepoys, and they would not be Russian war, and at more recent dates, without more expensive. We must not, however, it is any provision being made for the state of India, argued, rule India as a conquered country. That which was then known to be dangerous by the may be unnecessary in many parts of India ; but Government. The late Sir Charles Napier said the north-western provinces need to be conquered, that the insurrection would arrive, when it came, and it is useless to make any other pretence on like a thunderbolt. Officers in India say that it the subject. They are nearer the healthier stations came upon them like a flash of lightning. The than the peaceable districts, and that will render papers already submitted to Parliament show that

their occupancy by Europeans more practicable. it could not have come upon the Government either The finances of India are larger than many like a flash of lightning, or a thunderbolt. Even individuals at home suppose, for Indian questions the public knew that several native regiments bave not a fair share of consideration from the were disaffected, and displayed a mutinous spirit. people at home. A periodical, almost officially Mysterious movements of lotus flowers and pan- connected with the Government, gives the followcakes occurred through all Upper India. The native ing figures from documents which are open to any police were employed in dispensing these signs, yet person :-their rulers were unacquainted with the nature of

According to the accounts made up for the year 1855-56, the novelties. A secret entrusted to several thou

the gross revenue collected in India, exclusive of repayments sand men is never kept if a Government want to know and drawbacks, amounted to £28,812,097, and was derived it; but the Anglo-Indian Government ruled upon

from the following sources :

£ home notions, which are scarcely practicable as yet

Land revenue

17,817,229 in India. They knew that a revolt was imminent,

Customs

1,934,906 or they should have known that fact. Ignorance

Salt

2,485,389 in the circumstances would deserve censure; but

Opiam

4,871,227 they were not ignorant, and yet they adopted no Post-office

219,045 precaution. They did not even change the position

Stamps

504,329 Other receipts

979,902 of the regiments--they did not borrow a force from Bombay or Madras ; and, although the Home

Total revenue

28,812,097 Government were acquainted with the apprehen

Upon this sum of £28,812,097, the cost of collection, in. sions on the subject, yet they did not increase cluding, however, allowances and assignments payable chiefly the European forces in India ; but left the lives out of the land revenues, in accordance with treaties and and property of the European residents under the other engagements, amounting to £1,244,498, was no less

than £6,664,750, under the following heads :care of armed gangs, whose mutinous spirit was

Cost of COLLECTION. £ known. This policy is supposed to consist with

Laod revenue

4,515,159 economy; but it is the most wretched waste of

Custonis

116,609 money imaginable; and the rulers of India in Cal

Salt

574,282 cutta and in London are to a great extent respon- Cost and charges-opium...

1,156,874 sible for the sufferings which have occurred in Post-office

241,115 Stamps

30,958 India to Europeans, and for the vengeance which

Other charges

29,753 has already fallen, and must yet follow with greater force, upon the deluded men who liave been

Total

6,664,750 guilty of horrible and indescribable excesses. The gross and pet income of the Indian Government for

An opinion prevails in some quarters that the I the year 1855-56 may therefore be thus stated :-

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CAPITAL DEBT. Gross income

28,812,097 1. The capital stock of the company £6,000,000, £ Cost of collection... 6,664,750 redeemable by the payment of

12,000,000 2. The home bond debt

3,894,400 Net income 22,147,347 3. The India debt

50,483,369 Against this net income of £22,147,347 we find the fol

Total debt lowing charges :

66,377,769 1.-CHARGES IN INDIA. Deduct guarantee fund

4,282,594

Net total debt Civil and political establishments 2,276,262

... 62,095,175 Judicial and police...

2,510,799

Upon these liabilities the annual charge is as follows, the Public works

1,881,606

entire amount of interest being payable on the capital stock Military charges

10,417,369

while that upon the guarantee fund is allowed to accumulate Naval charges

598,070
until it reaches £12,000,000:-

ANNUAL CHARGE.
Charges of Prince of Wales Island,
Singapore, &c.

64,612
1. Capital stock, 10 per cent....

632,000 Mint charge

62,573
2. Interest of bonds, 4 per cent.

152,000 Interest on debt

2,044,318
3. Indian debt

2,140,577 -19,855,509

Total annual charge 2.-CHARGES IN ENGLAND.

2,924,577 Dividends to proprietors

632,680

The finances of India are capable, however, of Interest on home bond debt

152,017

great extension. The land is not half cultivated, General charges, home establishments,

and half the value of the crops in the ports of shippensions, &c.

493,834

nent has been paid for carriage. The Company have Stores to India

526 663

not acted with adequate vigour on these subjects, Other sundry payments

1,459,435
3,264,629 partly because they have never employed a sufficient

number of British officials, and partly because they Total charges...

23,120,138 have even prevented the employment of British Thus, against a net income of £22,147,347, the total capital and skill in the country. charges of the year amounted to £23,120,138, showing a

Te cannot doubt that the natives of India bare deficiency of £972,721 added to the debt of the Indian Government in that year.

grave causes of complaint against their GoveraThe writer next refers to the large proportion from perfect. The Committee on the practice of

ment. Its practice and regulations have been far of revenue collected from the land, and congratu

torture in the Madras Presidency elicited black lates those who receive it, that the mutineers can

facts on that subject, which, however, only proved not run away with the land, and therefore that any arrears of rent or taxes will be made good ; but, the necessity for employing a far larger number of the land may remain, yet its produce may be de- British officials ; for torture was indicted by natire stroyed or removed, while in calamities of that officials in the absence, and without the knowledge

,

of their European su eriors. nature it is not customary to insist upon

the
pay.

The late Sir Charles Napier alleged that the ment of rent.

The subjoined table shows that the amount cattle and the services of the ryots were taken for derived from the north-western provinces to which the conveyance of stores and other purposes on the mutiny is chiefly now confined, forms little account of Government, and were often not paid for

.

That practice also, we presume, originated in the more than twenty per cent. of the gross re

employment of native officials, who draw, and at ceipts :

the same time, who forget to pay, the money. The Gross.

Net.

business of India cannot be managed without the Land revenue ...

5,005,188

4,074,402 natives ; but they should be under closer surveil. Customs

67,968

67,615 lance than has been exercised over them for mang 514,907

411,678

years. Post-office

81,339

39,604

The justification for the use of extreme meaStamps

152,132

142,933 Other sources ...

30,309

30,309 sures in the suppression of this revolt is found not

only in the brutal and sanguinary conduct of the Total 5,851,814

4,786,541 mutineers, but also in the fact that the persons A comparison is next drawn of the proportion who have revolted were not among the oppressed of the Indian debt to that of our own, and gene- classes. All parties agree that the discipling rally of European countries. The Indian debt is of the Sepoys has been destroyed by kindness and not equal to three years' revenue, and the charges petting, and the Asiatic character misapprehends inthereupon are not equivalent to one-seventh part dulgences which are supposed to spring from weal: of the annual income. The debt cannot be re- pess, and to be the fruit of fear. garded, therefore, as a heavy burden upon the The Hindoo and Mohammedan priesthood, who resources of that country; and yet Hindostan have actively engaged in these rerolts, bad no could not support that debt at its present quota- complaint that a Government professing complete tions without the knowledge, general to the credi- religious toleration could prevent or withdraw. tors, that it is in one sense guaranteed by the They were irritated with the progress of new prinBritish treasury. The particulars are :

ciples, with the adoption of morality as the basis

Salt ...

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