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of law, with the advance of education and science | Stuart could have lowered his prejudices and
— very slowly and almost imperceptibly among so pretensions to the position of a constitutional numerous a population ; but none of those steps sovereign-even after the civil war had existed for were taken by the Government, except in bringing some time. commou morals nearer to daily practice in the A great catastrophe may be necessary
to arouse criminal code. While the Government proposed the country-greater than any that has yet occoncessions to the native population from which curred, although we should have supposed before the European residents shrunk, and we think as the events, that the cruelty, the disgraceful inyet wisely, the men who were likely to acquire sults, and the violence suffered in life by British any benefit from these changes plotted a revolution. ladies, and even by children, in Meerut and Delhi,
The Mohammedan and other native priuces, and other places, would have, ere now, rendered who openly or tacitly have favoured this revolt, had the war a new crusade. When men cannot write no open cause of quarrel with the Government. the details of these crimes, they should strain They could not allege the truth, that they were every nerve to breaking until their
is no longer able to plunder and rob the ryots and hidden in a red and burning vengeance on the the zemindars. A law founded upon greater force perpetrators, that will live for centuries in the fears than they could individually wield prevented them. of their successors. That cause, however, cannot be stated in open The members of the Cabinet will say that they court, and the only reasons that can be advanced are responsible for the administration of the in their favour is that they were over-pensioned, country; but of what value is their responsibility ? had great riches, and expected on them to found A former Government plainly and simply murdered thrones.
some thousands of men whom the nation could The rebellion must be trampled out. The in- not safely want in the Crimea. That fact is just terests of all civilisation demand that step. No as indisputable as that somebody murdered the other interests are more involved in its suppression cashier of the Irish Midland Railway, although than those of the Indian peasantry and farmers; nobody has been hung for the one crime, or the those of the industrial classes. They acknowledge three thousand crimes. It is impossible in either that peculiarity in this civil war. The open rob- case to discover the guilty party or persons. bers and the soldiers apparently constitude the If Lord Panmure and Sir John Ramsden are to force in arms against our authority. The popula- be held criminally and personally responsible for the tion, with the probable exception of the Moham- death of any soldier who may perish in India from medans, are not arrayed against our power. The the want of a cover to his cap, or tropical uniform, fidelity hitherto of the Bombay and Madras armies, which might have been supplied ; or if the Duke of whose treatment has not been superior to that of Cambridge or his subordinates are to be dealt the Bengal army, proves that the fault rests with with in that manner, we have no objection to offer the men, on the system on which they have been against the theory of responsibility; but as Lord enlisted, and the administration of their affairs. Panmure and Sir John Ramsden are very rich
The crisis is sufficiently alarming: the events men, they would probably resign their offices if these more than sufficiently grave to have warranted the terms were attached to their trust. The country prolongation of the Parlimentary session--because can bave no objection to that course. Naval the Executive lives, ever since the Long Parliament, officers are tried for the loss of a ship when that in a dread of permanent bodies, which prevents the The coinmanders of passenger steamers appointment of a committee with power to act have been punished severely for the loss of li e in after the prorogation. The convenience of mem - the culpable loss of their vessels. The engineer, bers should never be suggested as an excuse for the pointsman, or the stoker in the service of a the separation of the Houses, under existing cir- railway company, would be criminally punished for cumstances; but one half of the members of the negligence that involved death or injury to Commons never intended to discharge their duty passengers, and the company would be monetarily as it should be performed. One half of the re- punished for employing them. Yet we have mainder are incapable of discharging it in a abundance of officers for the mercantile and naval sensible manner. The public are fully acquainted service, and men forthe railways, exactly as we would with these facts; but a miserable apathy to public have abundance of able and competent persons interests, the distribution of the elective francbise, willing to perform, instead of merely to undertake, and of the representation, render that knowledge more important duties, although governmental almost unavailable.
responsibilities were made something more than a Constitutional eşsays have been written on the question of majorities and of Parliamentary politics, erils of the Long Parliament, and the power Even if Delhi were captured and destroyed, assumed by Oliver Cromwell. We most sincerely and its king hung from the burning rafters of his wish for ten or twenty years of a second Oliver palace ; if the King of Oude were tried, and Cromwell now-such a man as Oliver Cromwell dealt with as the evidence might direct; if Nena would have been under existing circumstances-Sahib were carried in chains over the length and for he might have been Premier, but he would not breadth of India to perish at the last stage ; if all have sought to become Protector, if Charles I the surviving mutineers were banished to cultivate
cotton as selons, for the remainder of their lives, in active or apparent interference, the Russians might British Guiana, and internal peace were restored, get up an invasion of India by Mohammedan and India would be in danger.
other savage tribes at different points of the north It would be weaker by nearly all the Bengal and west. army, or one half of the force considered necessary For these reasons we deem that the causes ia in time of peace. It would be open, therefore, to which this great mutiny originated, the means attacks from without, which might have been necessary for its suppression, the punishment due deemed desperate formerly. Russian agents may to the crimes by which it has been accompanied, or may not have been engaged in planning the and the work to be done after all these things are present punishment for the war of 1854 ; but the over, have not received from the Parliament or the Russian Government will not conceal its pleasure Government, or the people, that intense care in de at any victory achieved by the rebels, and by the cision, and rapidity in execution, necessary to bring expenditure of a few millions of pounds, without us out of the crisis without ignoming and loss.
THE ROADS THROUGH THE WORLD.
(CONTINUED FROM THE JULY NUMBER.)
very forward and pert looking conduct to bave MR. GREEN'S PARISH.
taken the lead of new fangled practices in a quiet It never occurred to me, at a fitting opportunity, region like that over which this court of the Kirk to inquire of Mr. Green how he obtained the pre
held ecclesiastical sway. Certain ecclesiastical sentation to the parish of Barebraes. The patron and theological topics were named, on which the was a great Earl, who had curiously enough presentee was desired to discourse; but he seemed scarcely any possessions in the parish, and proba. rather careless than otherwise, and told me that bly never resorted thither in his life; which was he felt no interest in them, for it would all be pretty equally divided into winter at Paris, spring useless. To my astonishment also, the Presbytery, and summer in London, autumn in Scotland, to according to routine, desired him to read what I the grief of many poor grouse.
It is certain that should call an essay in Latin ; and it was written he was personally unacquainted with Mr. Green, out carefully, as I afterwards understood, upor who might have held by the Arian heresy, or, the principle that young girls overstitched samplers worse still, the Socinian heresy—botb prevalent in with the names of all their progenitors, or the pulpits of the Kirk in those days, not in active their initials, to the third generation backwards, demonstration but in an effective neutrality, a which they had framed and glazed, as a memorial powerful silence--for anything that the patron of the sewing school and their proficiency, and cared or knew. He issued the presentation how becanse their grandmothers had done similar em
, bably through some plan of Dr. More's
, or a sug: "I should have remarked that the parishioners gestion of Mr. Fletcher's, and certainly through had also an opportunity of hearing the presentee some influence or some reason, in which per- as usual; and as usual judging of his qualificasonally the presentee had no share. We all know tions, with which they were perfectly gratified, what is said by persons who get presentations because it was of no consequence then whether wbich they do not expect; but Mr. Green accepted, they were pleased or not; but as Mr. Green, held returned a well-composed letter, which I remember by the old opinions again in any early spring, and that be copied twice, to the noble patron, and pre- budding slightly, a little attention was given to pared sensibly to inhabit the manse of Barebracs, " the call” by some friendly hearers, and it and to perform the duties falling to the pastor of was signed by an extraordinary number of parish . that parish.
ioners, inany of whom did not perceive that it was The Presbytery examined the qualifications of of any consequence, although they were willing to the young man, although that was a very delicious please their future and young minister in a matter form indeed, seeing that, with the exception of that cost nothing. those members who knew them well, our Presby. At last the preliminaries were exhausted, the tery was not learned in any particular sense. One day of induction fixed, and Mr. Thom, of Glenar iwo brethren in the court might have behaved cairnie, preached and presided, as the newspapers as examiners in a not very brotherly manner ; but said, on the occasion. They also reported that it is more awkward sometimes to ask questions Mr. Thom preached a very eloquent discourse, and than to give replies, and a cautious man keeps that, probably, was true, though, to my ear, it out of difficulties. It must be said, for the justi- sounded dry as dust, or high and dry; for Mr. fication of our Presbytery, that such affairs were Thom, a well connected man-married to the only then beginning to be something more than a younger sister of the then present Laird of Glenform, in certain districts, and it would have been cairnie-respectable, and even rich, was very mode
rate in everything, and counselled his young friend vice for his wife--to a parting with the doctor, to avoid all novelties in his duties, especially in who is glad to escape from the health that abounds preaching, and spoke out manfully concerning the at Barebraes-to the close of a local exhibition of old paths—which the parishioners rattier misunder. pigs and poultry—to the spring cattle tryst, or stood, for the words called to their remembrance a to the Midsummer wool-market. It may
passcertain pleasant and short cut through the woods able when some young fellow attains his majority, of Glencairnie, which the laird had found it ueces- or tolerated when he does the most sensible thing sary to close-as it brought ungenteel persons that he has ever donc since his majority—when he too near bis mansion.
gets married. But these Presbyterial dinners The parishioners of Barebraes were rather be having a semblance of religion in them, give to the hind the world in intelligence of any kind. They guests a habit of speaking on that class of subjects farmed or grazed, grew oats and barley, or raised when they should rather, if anything, be ashamed fat cattle, and had little ambition for any know of themselves—as, peradventure, upon mature conledge unconnected with their callings in the world. sideration, they should be very often-and this Of course, they all had inherited a traditional dinner, in particular, was a thorn in the flesh to religion, and it was extremely comfortable to them poor Mr. Green for many days, who regarded it as at certain periods; because it could be put off or a bad beginning of his life in the parish; but all on, exactly as it was or was not wanted. Their these customs die game, gradually, slowly, yet they children were sent to school, for it was discredit- die, and Presbyterial dinners have become sober able to be unable to read the state of the markets, affairs in reality, which, for any use that they can or to sign a lease.
be to the Evil One, who is interested in all late All public matters were made an excuse among tarryings over the wine cup, might as well not the leading persons of Barebraes for a dinner, occur. which meant not so much a dinner, as its conse
When all these things were over, the young quences. They had attained that point of civili- minister found himself a lonely man in a large and sation ; and it indicated progress, but one of a empty house, for the heritors always built great kind common to the Saxon race within the historic staring houses for manses, capable of spending five period. The induction of a minister to a parish hundred pounds yearly, even if the stipend were was an excellent excuse for a dinner, or an enter- not more than half that amount. It stood on a tainment to the members of the Presbytery, which brae literally—a rather cold brae—and looked occurred in the large room of the Rowan Tree, over a wide space of country, stretching away to kept by John Dry, and the reporters said that the the south and the east, full of corn fields and evening was spent in a very pleasant manner, that meadows, and waving woods, here and there, in the speeches were eloquent, and the viands of a summer; and equally full of them in winter, but quality calculated to support the well earned repu- they did not wear theu quite the same appearance. tation of Mr. and Mrs. Dry. It was the stereo- A prospect of that rich agricultural character is the typed story in these days. It is stereotyped yet most uninteresting to be supposed from the close in many parts.
of November on to the end of February, by darkPublic dinners are horrible nuisances under any ness or daylight---perhaps the former is preferable. circumstances. One half of the guests get littic The moonlight of a clear and frosty evening gives or nothing to eat, and the other half, more active it a charm, but of course it is all borrowed from or selfish, gorge up what they and their neighbours that poor source of beauty that only borrows to bave paid for. It would be dearly earned fare at bestow upon the deserted earth. The ground the cost of hearing all the set speeches which, for behind the manse was thin and stoney soil
, what four hours after the removal of the cloth, and the farmers of Braeside called unimproved, and it " the Queen,” occupy people's time and try their would have been very difficult to make it anything patience. It is still more dreadful if you sit in elsc. The last incumbent had, after some expennervous twitchings nearly all the time, in fear of sive efforts in that way, given the land over as being called upon to return thanks for some class hopeless; yet, when the springs were turning into or profession to which it may be your misfortune summers, and its little birch trees grew green, and to belong; for the successful competitors; or the all the whins were brightly yellow, it was the unsuccessful competitors—you are sure to be chosen grove of many light-hearted birds, who among them--for the veterinary profession-the sang merrily among its barrenness, and showed medical—the legal—the ministerial, or the press. good taste in the selection. At one period a space It is frightful , for what can you say to these of ground before the house had been a garden, but people ? As the night wears on, balf of them it had long become that of the sluggard in one have drunk largely. It is not wonderful; they sense, for the fences were broken up, and all the have no other solace amid so much nonsense ; and I living creatures on the glebe had free admission to depend upon this, that you have no alternative but I its borders and walks. The new incumbent being to talk nonsense too.
a bad farmer and a good horticulturist, built the The system is bad enough when applied to the walls and laid out the garden, digging and planting ordinary business of life-to the bestowal of a tes- more there than in all the six-and-a-half acres that timonial on the factor, including a silver tea ser- made up the glebe, in addition to the furze land
already described. His labours on that one spot / granite, and are like a crown of joy to the bare earned for him a thriftless character among his rocks. A fringe of deeply green moss gathers substantial parishioners, who were not addicted to round them, not creeping and leaning on the rock, the cultivation of flowers, and gave a marked pre- but growing upwards for six or seven inches, or ference to cabbages. He cven went so far as to more, in fragile and slender stems, but very beauform an oval in the centre of this garden, raising tiful, the lovely children of the granite dust and it gradually over the neighbouring divisions and the pure water. Sit down on that cliff, peer down plots. It formed a rather pretty object from his and watch the spring forcing up its waters, for it window in after years, for he tended all its flowers, is done noiselessly; you do not hear, you only see dug their soil very carefully, and watered and --up, up from darkness to light they cbase each watched them through all the dry and parching other, and dance and sparkle in the sunny light; summers, They were quite common flowers, too, or the winter's storm, far above the common things for he never seemed to introduce the new floral of time and of the world—up first and then down specimens that he might have obtained at Kirk through the little grooves that they have cut for howe. It was a strange fancy, but all the bloom themselves in the rock; leaping gladsomely to be spread over this mound of carefully kept earth, for relieved from the prison—the gloomy prison, with always three-fourths of each year-came from the its crevices, through which they have crept; Kirk-yard of Kirkhowe-came from one grave-- | leaping down from ledge to shelve, by many a bend for that was true even of my thyme that had and crook, to lave the roots of the slender passed some years in Edinburgh, and had grown heather, to cool the parched tongue of the panting quite city.like and metropolitan. And it was lamb—with blessings many on their surface to all quite curious to notice the changes that gradually manner of life; down and down among the thick occurred on these flowers by anxious tending, and grass, till the beech springs up by its water how they seemed to grow larger, and the tints on courses; where they gather together, and grow the roses deepened, and the colours of smaller noisy in their glee-grow noisy and then strong, flowers brightened, and this idolatry of a withered and sweep around the base of the mountain-a heart waxed so very beautiful; but none, perhaps, crystal stream-into which the grass loves to except myself, knew the source from which the grow, and long slender branches stoop down to flowerets came, nor why they were so well beloved bathe. amid the labours incidental to the mental and "Profound learning." if it be useful learning, moral cultivation of a people who were not over will find its way, even if it were through the inclined to appreciate works of that description. chînks and crevices of granite obstruction, to the
In other respects, Barebraes was not an objec light and love of the world; were it only to water tionable place of abode. Once, perhaps, the name a wild plant's root, or give vigour to a wild bird's of the parish described its nature, but that must wing; but the old minister of Barebraes was a have been long ago, for except in its upper ridges specimen of a class who live on reputation, and the land was ordinarily productive; and with these who, in his position, made his hearers verg happy exceptions there was not a bare spot in the parish. in their way. To him and them it seemed that It was not more than eight to ten miles from the the life to come was the most agreeable matter mause of Barebraes to Kirkhowe; but the roads imaginable. Care, and labour, and much thought were far from being macadamised, and that made went to the upmaking of the present life, but as the way seem longer to those who drove or rode. for the next, that was the most singular developeThe parish did not even contain the semblance of ment that man ever dreamed. The parishioners a village, and it had no library; its school was old of Barebraes did not die early, but when or wherefashioned, and very contracted in all its efforts, for ever they died, or however and in whatever way the teacher was nearly of Mr. Petrie's age, but they had lived — like the entire Church of England had been left entirely to himself, and had intellec. in that vexatious snare-the burial service ; or tually rusted into a condition suitable to that of the Church of Rome, with its oils, and ointments, bis neighbours. The last incumbent was a good and words of a sinner, and sometimes a great one farmer- he was supposed to be profoundly learned —to them the pearly gates were open, and they —and when I hear of one of these profoundly entered the streets of the golden city, certainly learned personages now in country districts, I am not always through much suffering, but if all the satisfied, as a mere matter of circumstantial evi truth had been told, often through much strong dence, that the man is good for nothing, but that drink, and an awful load of worldly mindedness and he encourages the idea of profound learning by worldly wisdom. wary looks and wise shakes of an empty head ; or A twenty-two years' fight with these influences that at any rate, his learning is as useless as the and wants was the hard work of a strong man's desert streams a thousand fathoms down beneath life. Mr. Green was not a strong man, and it a load of sand, dry as dust of course. The pret- finished his course. tiest sight in all our northern land is seen by those who climb to the peaks of our great mountains, and drink from the clear springs that seem to break their way througů five thousand feet of solid
A GLIMPSE AT HOME.
scene---so changed now, that I could only recog. nise the place by those everlasting landmarks that
neither commoner nor peer can ever change. Once SOME years after the minister of Barebraes, whom I knew it the home of many families, but over all I had often visited, was gathered to the gloom of Braeside the silence of death seemed to reign-so its graves; but not in gloom, having done all the silent was it that the mere passing of the water work given him to do-it was suggested to me by over the little stones in its channel, and the waving one kind friend, who was once one of the female of the rushes by its side in the slight breeze, could children saved beneath the oak tree in the snow well be heard. A wealthy noble wanted a deer storm, and who was then, as now, Mrs. Fletcher, forest, or some such folly, and he wanted it at the of Burnside--for there is a great chronological gap cost of throwing out on the world families that between this episode and the placing of Mr. Green counted altogether over two thousand individuals. in the manse of Barebraes, made in order merely They were not people behind in rents; or disreto disencumber myself of two or more acquaint- putable in any respect -- but deer, if you please, ances, who have had a pleasant quiet walk on their cannot bear to be troubled even with men's roads through life-that I should pass some weeks shadows--and so in the interest of the stags the in one of our recent summers at Burnside, where I world is turned backwards. How many hearts have now a number of very young friends, anxious, went into our large towns burning with bitterness as I once was, to know if the streets of our great against that man. Known only in a dim way to cities be really paved with gold, and if their puny those who probe the secrets of the dark and trees grow pearls on their branches. Mr. Fletcher noisome caverns in the closes and laues of these is a great agriculturist, occupying a part of his towns, is the fate of many families in such circummany acres in the high farming style, and be pro- stances. Not bred to the atmosphere-not conmised to initiate me farther in all the mysteries of versant with the modes of living and working mangold-wurtzel, a new fangled plant in that -fever-burning maddening fever-that is light country; reaping machines and steam-ploughs ; in and merciful to many of the young-and better short-horns, hogs, and heisers; for all of which, far-better by ten thousand degrees on any moral though I could not courteously write that in a scale—the rade unplaned coffin-- and the grave letter, I did not care in any way, more, that is to shared by nineteen other coffius— before the heart say, than they might affect the general prosperity has tasted contamination-better by only a hair'sof the country. Mrs. Fletcher knew more of the breadth short of infinity than life in glaring world, or was less built up in cattle and corn than spirit shops-life in dirty miserable dens-life as her husband-one of the more intelligent men, we know it to be passed in rooms, where twenty nevertheless, among the many intelligent men now people sleep on pillows of straw, in rows, like the devoted to agriculture—and so the lady wrote of dead gathered from a battlefield, for burial in a the beauties of Blinkbonnie, and the road between trench-better than beauty crushed in misery, and that and Burnside, and the state of Kirkhowe, and daubed over by untold sorrows-better than the the fishing on the water; and yet all that was heart of woman trampled into the nature of stone, quite peedless. However, the summer bad passed, and manhood turned into adamantine hardness ; and the autumn was in its third month—the first yet it may be said—because it is true—that such week of October, our Indian summer in Scotland borrors and wickedness have been perpetrated for -before I reacbed Burnside. Few scenes more the sake of deer-and be, who in this case that I lovely than our woods, in a clear October morning, recall now, as I have thought it over often, is are ever met in the world, the woods of the responsible for the evil, nevertheless, looks apnorth. Although the days may still be warm, provingly on his ways, and thanks God that he is there is a slight frost in the early mornings. By not like other men; and especially not like one of and-bye the leaves of some trees change to brown, these revolutionary democrats. Well, we shall be others grow yellow, and deep is the ruddy red upon done with these things by-and-bye; but, in the a third. The breath of the frost has done more meantime, I can return the compliment with a in a night than all the painters that have ever clear conscience, and be very thankful at having lived could accomplish in a century. It is a fairy no such load of moral responsibility to meet. scene, living only for a few days, or, at best, for a A turn of the bank brought me in sight of two few weeks. The breath that brings such lovely persons sitting by the edge of the stream with the dyes o'er the fragile leaves now, and beautifies ground where Braeside and its shepherds' cottages them exceedingly, will grow bolder and stronger once stood behind them. They were probably, or in its caresses, until they are nipped, and fall and they wanted to be, “man and wife;" but the perish for ever in its rude bļasts. Still we live in gentleman wore a broad straw hat-rather an unthe present if for the future, and on the past ; and usual covering in this land -and otherwise he this present is superb. I had wandered a long way seemed to be attired a little differently from our from Burnside—and reached the junction of its people, even in the Highlands; and the lady had stream with the river, and pretending to be amused a fashionable bonnet, neat and costly, like everyafter the manner of Isaac Walton, went on, until thing else she wore, if she had known how to at high noon I found myself again upon an old I wear them; and both had as many gold chains